American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
Conscience of the Nation

Updated April 4, 2021

l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Rad-Riv


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                      Bab-Bee         Cab-Che         Dab-Dev                               Fai-Fle
                      Bel-Bon          Chi-Cle          Dib-Dye                                Flo-Fur
                      Boo-Bro         Cli-Cox
                      Bru-Byr          Cra-Cuy

G                    H                    I                     J                     K                    L

Gag-Gid         Hab-Har                                                                             Lad-Loc
Gih-Gra         Has-Hil                                                                               Log-Lyt
Gre-Gru         Hin-Hyd

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McA-McW                                                   Pac-Pie                                 Rad-Riv
Mad-Mid                                                      Pik-Put                                  Roa-Rya

S                     T                    U                    V                    W                    XYZ

Sac-Sha          Tab-Tho                                                       Wad-Way
She-Smi         Thr-Tyn                                                        Wea-Whe
Sno-Sti                                                                                Whi-Wil 
Sto-Sza                                                                                Wim-Wyt



Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Rad-Riv

RADFORD, William, naval officer, born in Fincastle, Botetourt County, Virginia, 1 March, 1808. He was appointed midshipman on 1 March, 1825, and became lieutenant on 9 February, 1837. During the war with Mexico he served on the western coast of that country, and commanded the party that cut out the “Malek Adel,” a Mexican vessel-of-war, at Mazatlan in 1847. He was made commander on 14 September, 1855, assigned to the “Cumberland” in 1861, and became captain on 16 July, 1862, and commodore on 24 April, 1863. He served on court-martial duty at Fort Monroe, and commanded the “New Ironsides” and the iron-clad division of Admiral Porter's Squadron at the two attacks on Fort Fisher in December, 1864, and January, 1865. Admiral Porter wrote: “Commodore Radford has shown ability of a very high order, not only in fighting and manoeuvring his vessel, but in taking care of his division. His vessel did more execution than any other in the fleet, and I had so much confidence in the accuracy of his fire that even when our troops were on the parapet he was directed to clear the traverses of the enemy in advance of them. This he did most effectually, and but for this the victory might not have been ours.” He was appointed rear-admiral on 25 July, 1866, commanded the European Squadron in 1869–70, and was retired on 1 March, 1870. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 158.

RAINEY, Joseph H., Congressman, born in Georgetown, South Carolina 21 June, 1832; died there. 1 August, 1887. He was born a slave, but acquired a good education, principally by observation and travel. His father was a barber, and the son followed that occupation until 1862, when, after being forced to work on Confederate fortifications, he escaped to the West Indies, remaining there until the close of the war. He then returned to South Carolina, was elected a delegate to the state constitutional convention of 1868, and was a member of the state senate in 1870. He was elected a representative from South Carolina to Congress, as a Republican, to fill the vacancy caused by the non-reception of Benjamin P. Whittemore, serving from 4 March, 1869, till 15 August, 1876. He took part in the debate on the civil-rights bill, and was a member of the Committee on Freedmen's and Indian affairs. He was a conservative, and his political life was remarkably pure.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 161-162.

RAINS, Gabriel James, soldier, born in Craven County, North Carolina, in June, 1803; died in Aiken, South Carolina 6 September, 1881. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1827, assigned to the infantry, and served in garrison and against hostile Indians till the Mexican War, being promoted captain on 25 December, 1837, and brevetted major, 28 April, 1840, for gallantry in the action with the Seminoles near Fort King, Florida, where he routed a superior force, and was twice severely wounded. One of his injuries was considered mortal, and several obituary notices of him were published. He was one of the first to be engaged in the Mexican War, being one of the defenders of Fort Brown in Mav, 1846. When the demand for the surrender of this post was made by General Ampudia, Captain Rains gave the deciding vote against compliance with it in a council of officers. After the battle of Resaca de la Palma he was ordered to the United States on recruiting duty, and organized a large part of the recruits for General Scott's campaign. He became major on 9 March. 1851, and from 1853 till the Civil War was on the Pacific Coast, where he made a reputation as a successful Indian fighter, and in 1855 was a brigadier-general of Washington Territory Volunteers. He was made lieutenant-colonel on 5 June, 1860, but resigned on 31 July, 1861, and joined the Confederate Army, in which he was commissioned brigadier-general. He led a division at Wilson's Creek, did good service at Shiloh and Perrysville, and after the battle of Seven Pines, where he was wounded, was highly commended by General Daniel H. Hill for a rapid and successful flank movement that turned the tide of battle in favor of the Confederates. He was then placed in charge of the conscript and torpedo bureaus at Richmond, organized the system of torpedoes that protected the harbors of Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, and other places, and invented a sub-terra shell, which was successfully used. At the close of the war General Rains resided for some time at Augusta, Georgia, but he afterward moved to Aiken, South Carolina. His death resulted from the wounds that he had received in Florida in 1840.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 161.

RAINES, George Washington, soldier, born in Craven County, North Carolina, in 1817, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1842, and assigned to the Corps of Engineers, but was transferred to the 4th U.S. Artillery in 1843, and in 1844-6 was assistant professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and geology at West Point. He served with credit during the war with Mexico on the staffs of General Winfield Scott, and General Pillow, and was brevetted captain and major for gallantry at Contreras, Churubusco, and Chapultepec. Afterward he served on garrison and recruiting duty and against the Seminole Indians in 1849-'50, and was promoted captain, 14 February, 1856. On 31 October of that year he resigned and became part proprietor and president of the Washington Iron-works and the Highland iron-works at Newburg, New York. He entered the Confederate Army in 1861, was commissioned colonel, and was at once given the task of building and equipping a powder-mill. This he did under great difficulties, and created at Augusta, Georgia, the Confederate Powder-Works, which were, at the close of the war, among the best in the world. He was promoted brigadier-general before 1865. Since 1867 he has been professor of chemistry and pharmacy in the medical department of the University of Georgia, and he was dean of the faculty till 1884. General Rains has obtained three patents for improvements in steam portable engines. He has published a treatise on "Steam Portable Engines" (Newburg, New York, 1860); "Rudimentary Course of Analytical and Applied Chemistry" (Augusta, Georgia,* 1872); "Chemical Qualitative Analysis" (New York, 1879); a pamphlet " History of the Confederate Powder-Works," which he read before the Confederate survivors' Association (Augusta, 1882), and numerous essays.— Gabriel James's son, Sevier McClelan, soldier, born in 1851, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1876, and killed in the action of Craig's Mountain, Idaho, with hostile Indians, 3 July, 1877.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 161.

RAINS, James Edward, soldier, born in Nashville, Tennessee, 10 April, 1833; died near Murfreesboro', Tennessee, 31 December, 1862. After graduation at Yale in 1854 he studied law, was city attorney of Nashville in 1858, and attorney-general for his judicial district in 1860. He was a Whig, and in 1857 edited the "Daily Republican Banner." In April, 1861, he entered the Confederate Army as a private, was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and made commandant of a garrison of two regiments at Cumberland Gap. In 1862 he was commissioned brigadier-general. While ordering a charge at the battle of Stone River, 31 December, 1862, he received a bullet through his heart.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 161.

RALSTON, William C., banker, born in Wellsville, Ohio, 12 January, 1826; died in San Francisco, California, 27 August, 1875. His father was a carpenter and builder, and for several years he assisted in his father's workshop, but in 1849 he went to the Pacific Coast. He became president of the Bank of California, and also took a deep interest in the building of railroads and the establishment of woollen-mills, sugar-refineries, silk-factories, and steamship-lines to Australia and China. He also largely invested in the construction of the Palace and Grand Hotels, which enterprises ultimately ruined him. In August, 1875, James G. Flood made a sudden demand on the Bank of California for nearly $6,000,000, and, although the institution had assets to cover all its indebtedness, it was not able to meet this unexpected call. Its doors were closed, and the immediate resignation of the president was asked. The latter surrendered all his available personal property to meet the deficiencies of the bank, but, stung by the affront that had been put upon him, he drowned himself.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 164.

RAMSAY, George Douglas, soldier, born in Dumfries, Virginia, 21 February, 1802; died in Washington, D. C, 23 Mav, 1882. His father, a merchant of Alexandria, Virginia, moved to Washington early in the 19th century. The son was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1820, assigned to the artillery, and served on garrison and topographical duty till 25 February, 1835, when he was made captain of ordnance. He then had charge of various arsenals till the Mexican War, when he was engaged at Monterey and brevetted major for gallantry there. He was chief of ordnance of General Taylor's army in 1847-'8, and again commanded arsenals till 1863, when he was a member of the ordnance board. He was made lieutenant-colonel, 3 August, 1861, and was in charge of Washington Arsenal from that time till 1863. On 15 September of that year he was made Chief of Ordnance of the U. S. Army with the rank of brigadier-general, and he was at the head of the Ordnance Bureau in Washington till 12 September, 1864, when he was retired from active service, being over sixty-two years of age. He continued to serve as inspector of arsenals till 1866, then in command of the arsenal at Washington till 1870, and afterward as member of an examining board. He was brevetted major-general. U. S. Army. 13 March, 1865, "for long and faithful services." General Ramsay was an active member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and for many years served as senior warden of St. John's Church, Washington.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 167.

RAMSAY, Francis Munroe, naval officer, born in the District of Columbia, 5 April, 1835, entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman in 1850. He became lieutenant in 1858, lieutenant-commander in 1862, participated in the engagements at Haines's Bluff, Yazoo River, 30 April and 1 May, 1863, in the expedition up the Yazoo River, destroying the Confederate navy-yard and vessels, and in the fight at Liverpool’s' Landing. He commanded a battery of three heavy guns in front of Vicksburg from 19 June till 4 July, 1863, and the 3d Division of the Mississippi Squadron from the latter date till September, 1864. He was in charge of the expedition up Black and Ouachita Rivers in March, 1864, and of that into Atchafalaya River in June of that year, and engaged the enemy at Simmsport. Louisiana. He commanded the gunboat " Unadilla," of the North Atlantic Squadron, in 1864-'5, participated in the attacks on Fort Fisher, for which he was commended in the official report for " skill, conduct, judgment, and bravery," and in the several engagements with Fort Anderson and other forts on Cape Fear River. He became commander in 1866, fleet-captain and chief of staff of the South Atlantic Squadron in 1867-'9, captain in 1877, and was in command of the torpedo station in 1878-'80. He was superintendent of the U. S. Naval Academy from 1881 till 1886. and since 1887 has been in command of the " Boston." He was a member of the Naval examining board in 1886-'7. [Son of George Douglas Ramsay]
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 167.

RAMSEUR, Stephen Dodson, soldier, born in Lincolnton, N. C., 31 May, 1837; died in Winchester, Virginia, 20 October, 1864. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1860, assigned to the 4th U.S. Artillery, and placed on garrison duty at Fortress Monroe. In 1861 he was transferred to Washington, but he resigned on 6 April and entered the Confederate service as captain of the light artillery. Late in 1861 he proceeded to Virginia and was stationed on the south side of the James, and in the spring of 1862 he was ordered to report with his battery to General John B. Magruder. During General McClellan's advance up the Peninsula he had command of the artillery of the right wing with the rank of major. Soon afterward he was promoted colonel, assigned to the 49th North Carolina Infantry, and with this regiment participated in the latter part of the Peninsular Campaign. He received the appointment of brigadier-general on 1 November, 1862, succeeded to the brigade, composed of North Carolina regiments, that was formerly commanded by General George B. Anderson, and was attached to General Thomas J. Jackson's corps, serving with credit at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. Subsequently he served in the Wilderness, and on 1 June, 1864, was given the temporary rank of major-general and assigned a division that had been commanded by General Jubal A. Early. General Ramseur followed the latter commander in the brief campaign in the Shenandoah valley, participated in the battle of Winchester, and was mortally wounded at Cedar Creek while rallying his troops.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 167-168.

RAMSEY, Alexander, 1815-1903.  Republican U.S. Senator from Minnesota.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery.  U.S. Congressman (Whig Party) elected 1842, serving until 1847, from Pennsylvania.  First Territorial Governor of Minnesota, 1849-1853.  Governor of state 1860-1863.  Elected U.S. Senator 1863, serving until 1875.  Appointed Secretary of War in 1879.  (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. V., p. 168; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 341; Congressional Globe)

RAMSEY, Alexander,
Secretary of War, born near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 8 September, 1815. He was educated at Lafayette College, and in 1828 became clerk in the register's office of his native county. He was secretary of the Electoral College of Pennsylvania in 1840, the next year was clerk of the state house of representatives, was elected to Congress as a Whig in 1842, and served till 1847. He was chairman of the state central committee of Pennsylvania in 1848, and was appointed first territorial governor of Minnesota in 1849, holding office till 1853. During this service he negotiated a treaty at Mendota for the extinction of the title of the Sioux half breeds to the lands on Lake Pepin, and two with the Sioux nation by which the U. S. government acquired all the lands in Minnesota west of Mississippi River, thus opening that state to colonization. He also made treaties with the Chippewa Indians on Red River in 1851 and 1853. He became mayor of St. Paul, Minnesota, in 1855, was governor of the state in 1860-'3, and in the latter year was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Republican, holding his seat in 1863-'75, and serving as chairman of the committees on Revolutionary claims and pensions, on post-roads and on territories. He became Secretary of War in 1879, succeeding George W. McCrary, and held office till the close of Hayes's administration. He was appointed by President Arthur, in 1882, a member of the Utah commission, under the act of Congress known as the Edmunds bill (see EDMUNDS, GEORGE F.), continuing in that service till 1886. In 1887 he was a delegate to the centennial celebration of the adoption of the constitution of the United States. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 168. 

RAMSEY, James Gattys McGregor, author, born in Knox County, Tennessee, in 1796; died in Knoxville, Tennessee, in 1884. His father, Francis A. Ramsey, (1760–1819), emigrated to the west early in life, and became secretary of the state of “Franklin.” which was subsequently admitted to the Union under the name of Tennessee. The son was liberally educated, and studied medicine, receiving the degree of M. D., but never practised his profession. In early manhood he engaged in banking, and in later days he was elected president of the Bank of Tennessee, at Knoxville. While yet a young man he began the collection of material for a history of Tennessee. The papers of Governor Sevier and Governor Shelby were placed in his hands, and from them and other valuable documents he published the “Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century” (Charleston, South Carolina, 1853). He also founded the first historical Society in the state, and at his death was president of the one at Nashville, which he left in a flourishing condition. When Tennessee seceded from the Union he was appointed financial agent for the southern wing of the Confederacy. He joined the Confederate Army on its retreat from Knoxville, and remained with it till its final dissolution. During the occupation of that city by National troops the house in which his father had lived and he had been born was burned, and all the valuable historical papers it contained were destroyed. In consequence of the war he lost most of his property. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 168.

RAND, Asa, 1783-1871, Lowell, Massachusetts, abolitionist, clergyman, editor.  Vice president, 1833-1835, and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), December 1833.  (Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 168)

RAND, Asa, clergyman, born in Rindge, New Hampshire, 6 August, 1783; died in Ashburnham, Massachusetts, 24 August, 1871. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1806, and ordained as a minister of the Congregational Church in January, 1809. After a pastorate of thirteen years' duration at Gorham, Maine, he edited the “Christian Mirror” at Portland, Maine, in 1822-'5, afterward conducted the “Recorder” and the “Youth's Companion” at Boston, and in 1833 established a book-store and printing-office at Lowell. He published the “Observer” at this place, lectured against slavery, and was then pastor of churches at Pompey and Peterborough, New York. He published “Teacher's Manual for Teaching in English Grammar” (Boston, 1832), and “The Slave-Catcher caught in the Meshes of the Eternal Law” (Cleveland 1852). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 168.

RANDALL, Alexander, 1819-1872, Ames, New York, jurist, lawyer, abolitionist.  Sixth Governor of Wisconsin, 1858-1861.  Advocate for Black voting rights.  Raised troops for Union Army.  Postmaster General, 1866-1869.  (Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 344)

RANDALL, Daniel B., Hallowell, Maine, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1839-1840.

RANDOLPH, Peter, c. 1825-1897, African American, former slave, clergyman, author, anti-slavery activist. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 9, p. 331)

RANDALL, Alexander Williams, statesman, born in Ames, Montgomery County, New York, 31 October, 1819; died in Elmira, New York, 25 July, 1872. His father, Phineas, a native of Massachusetts, resided in Montgomery County, New York, from 1818 till 1851, was judge of the court of common pleas there in 1837-41, and removing to Waukesha, Wisconsin, died there in 1853. Alexander received a thorough academic education, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began to practise in Waukesha in 1840. He became soon afterward postmaster of that place, and in 1847 was chosen a member of the convention that framed the state constitution. He then devoted himself to his profession till 1855, when he was elected to the state assembly. The same year he was an unsuccessful candidate for the attorney-generalship, and was appointed judge of the Milwaukee Circuit Court to fill an unexpired term. In 1857, and again in 1859, he was elected governor of Wisconsin, and at the beginning of the Civil War, and pending the convening of the legislature, in extra session, he called the 2d Regiment into existence, and used the public funds in advance of lawful appropriation; but he was fully sustained by the legislature when it assembled. At the close of his gubernatorial term, 1 January, 1861, he was dissuaded from his purpose of entering the army by President Lincoln, and appointed U. S. minister to Italy. On his resignation and return in 1862, he was made first assistant postmaster-general, and in July, 1866, postmaster-general, and served in that capacity till March, 1869. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 170.

RANDALL, James Ryder, song-writer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 1 January, 1839. He was educated at Georgetown College, D. C., but was not graduated, and afterward travelled in South America. When he was a young man he went to Louisiana and edited a newspaper at Point Coupee, and afterward was engaged on the New Orleans " Sunday Delta." His delicate constitution prevented him from entering the Confederate Army, but he wrote much in support of the southern cause. His "Maryland, My Maryland," which was published in Baltimore in April. 1861, was set to music, and became widely popular. It has been called "the Marseillaise of the Confederate cause." Other poems from his pen were " The Sole Sentry," " Arlington," "The Cameo Bracelet," "There's Life in the Old Land Yet," and "The Battle-Cry of the South." After the war he went to Augusta, Georgia, where he became associate editor of " The Constitutionalist," and in 1866 its editor-in-chief.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 170.

RANDALL, Samuel Jackson, statesman, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 10 October, 1828. He is the son of a well-known lawyer and Democratic politician of Philadelphia, was educated as a merchant, and, after being four times elected to the city council and once to the state senate, was sent to Congress, taking his seat on 7 December, 1863. He has since represented without intermission the only Democratic district in Philadelphia. He served on the committees on banking, rules, and elections, distinguishing himself by his speeches against the force ill in 1875, was a candidate for speaker in the next year, and was appointed chairman of the committee on appropriations. He gained credit by his success in curtailing expenditures by enforcing a system of proportional reduction in the appropriations, and, on the death of Michael C. Kerr, was elected speaker, 4 December, 1876. He was re-elected speaker in the two following Congresses, serving in that capacity till 3 March, 1881. Mr. Randall has borne a conspicuous part in the debates on the tariff as the leader of the protectionist wing of the Democratic Party. His wife is a daughter of Aaron Ward, of New York.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 171.

RANDALL, Samuel S., author, born in Norwich, New York, 27 May, 1809; died in New York City, 3 June, 1881. He was educated at Oxford Academy and at Hamilton College, and in 1830–6 practised law in Chenango County. In 1836–’7 he was deputy clerk of the state assembly, in May, 1837, he was appointed clerk in the department of common schools, and in 1838 he became general deputy superintendent of common schools, which office he held till 1854. After serving for a short time as superintendent of Brooklyn Public Schools, he was appointed to a similar post in New York City, and served till June, 1870, when he resigned. From 1845 till 1852 he edited the “District School Journal,” and he was the associate editor of the “American Journal of Education and College Review,” and of the “Northern Light.” '' at Albany. Among other works he published “Digest of the Common-School System of the State of New York” (Troy, 1844); “Incentives to the Cultivation of Geology” (New York, 1846); “Mental and Moral Culture and Popular Education ” (1850); “First Principles of Popular Education” (1868); and “History of the State of New York” (1870).—His cousin, Henry Stephens, author, born in Madison County, New York, in 1811; died in Cortland, New York, 14 August, 1876, was graduated at Union College in 1830, studied law, and was admitted to the bar, but never practised. He became Secretary of State and superintendent of public instruction of New York state in 1851, and was the author of the bill that created the separate department of public instruction and the office of superintendent. In 1871 Mr. Randall was elected to the assembly, and appointed chairman of the committee on public education. He was one of the editors of “Moore's Rural New Yorker,” contributed to agricultural, scientific, and literary periodicals, and published “Sheep Husbandry” (Philadelphia, 1849); “The Life of Thomas Jefferson” (New York, 1858); “Fine Wool ' Husbandry” (1863); “Practical Shepherd” (Rochester, 1864); and “First Principles of Popular Education and Public Instruction” (1868).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 171.

RANDOLPH, Alfred Magill, P. E. bishop, born in Winchester, Virginia, 31 August, 1836. He is the fourth child of Robert Lee Randolph, who, after studying law, devoted himself to farming on his inherited estate, Eastern View, Fauquier County, Virginia. After graduation at William and Mary in 1855, the son studied at Virginia Theological Seminary, Alexandria, where he was graduated in 1858. In the autumn of the same year he was appointed rector of St. George's Church, Fredericksburg, Virginia. After the bombardment of the town, in December, 1862, by which the church edifice was much in the congregation dispersed, Dr. Randolph left, and from 1863 until the close of the Civil War served as a chaplain in the Confederate Army, in hospitals, and in the field. He was appointed rector of Christ Church, (Alexandria erected in 1772), in 1865, and in 1867 became  pastor of Emmanuel  Church, Baltimore, where  he remained until he was elected, in 1883, assistant bishop of Virginia. He received the degree of D.D. from William and Mary College in 1875, and that of LL. D. from Washington and Lee University in 1884.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp, 171-172.

RANDOLPH, Theodore Frelinghuysen, senator, born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, 24 June, 1816; died in Morristown, New Jersey, 7 November, 1883, was educated at Rutgers grammar-school, and entered mercantile life at sixteen years of age. He settled in Vicksburg, Mississippi, about 1840, where he married a granddaughter of Chief-Justice Marshall, and on his return to New Jersey in 1850 resided first in Hudson County and subsequently in Morristown, New Jersey. He was a member of the legislature in 1859-'60, declined the speakership of that body, was chairman of the special committee on the Peace Congress in 1861, and was the author of the measure for relief of the families of soldiers that should engage in the Civil War. He became state senator the same year, served by re-election till 1865, and was appointed commissioner of draft for Hudson County in 1862. He was president of the Morris and Essex Railroad in 1867, doubled its gross tonnage in eighteen months, and negotiated the existing lease of that road to the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad by which the bondholders were guaranteed seven per cent, in perpetuity. He became governor of New Jersey in 1868, during his tenure of office caused a repeal of the Camden and Amboy monopoly tax, established a general railway law, made the state-prison system self-supporting, and suggested the plan of the present State Lunatic Asylum at Morris Plains, which is the largest in the world. On 11 July, 1871, the day preceding the Orange riot in New York City, he issued a proclamation insuring the right of parade to the Orangemen of New Jersey. To secure the speedy transmission of this proclamation throughout the state and in New York City, where it was alleged rioters were arranging to invade New Jersey, he went in person to the telegraph-offices and took "constructive" possession of several of them. He also ordered out the militia, and by these measures prevented disturbance. He was elected U. S. Senator in 1874, served one term, was chairman of the committee on military affairs, and a member of the special committee to investigate election frauds in South Carolina. He procured patents for several inventions, including a "ditcher," and an application of steam to type-writing machines.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 173.

RANDOLPH, George Wythe, born at Monticello, 10 March, 1818; died at Edge Hill, near Charlottesville, Virginia, 10 April, 1878, at the death of his grandfather. laced under the rare of Thomas Jefferson, was his brother-in-law, Joseph Coolidge, of Boston, by whom he was sent to school at Cambridge, Massachusetts. At the age of thirteen he received from President Jackson a midshipman's warrant, and he was at sea almost continuously until his nineteenth year, when he entered the University of Virginia. After two years of study he resigned his naval commission, studied law, and gained high rank at the Richmond bar. At the time of the John Brown raid at Harper's Ferry he raised a company of artillery, which continued its organization, and was the main Confederate force against General Butler at the battle of Bethel. He was then given a large command, with the commission of brigadier-general, which he held until he was appointed Secretary of War of the Confederate states. He afterward resigned and reported for service in the field. He was one of the commissioners sent by Virginia to consult President Lincoln, after his election, concerning his intended policy, with the hope of maintaining peace. A pulmonary affection having developed during the war, he ran the blockade to seek health in a warmer region, and remained abroad for several years after the fall of the Confederacy.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 174.

RANKIN, David Nevin, physician, born in Shippensburg, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, 27 October, 1834. After graduation at Jefferson Medical College in 1854, he practised with his father in his native town until beginning of the Civil War, in which he served as acting assistant surgeon, and aided in opening many of the largest U.S. Army Hospitals during the war, among which were the Mansion House Hospital in Alexandria, Virginia, and the Douglas Hospital in Washington, D.C. Afterward he was appointed one of the thirty surgeons in the volunteer aid corps of surgeons of Pennsylvania, which rendered efficient service. In 1864–6 he was medical examiner of the U. S. Pension Bureau, and since 1865 he has been chief physician of the Penitentiary of Western Pennsylvania. Dr. Rankin was a member of the British Medical Association in 1884, a delegate to the 8th and 9th International Medical Congresses, and is a member of various medical societies. He has contributed numerous articles to medical journals.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 180.

RANKIN, John, 1793-1886, New York, clergyman, author, abolitionist leader.  Executive Committee, vice president, 1833-1835, and Treasurer, 1836-1840, of the American Anti-Slavery Society.  Anti-slavery agent.  Kentucky Abolition Society.  Wrote Letters on American Slavery in 1833.  Son-in-law of abolitionist Samuel Doak (1749-1830).  Pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Ripley, Ohio. Had and protected fugitive slaves in his home.  Rankin wrote:  “I consider involuntary slavery a never-failing fountain of the grossest immorality, and one of the deepest sources of human misery; it hangs like the mantle of night over our republic, and shrouds its rising glories.  I sincerely pity the man who tinges his hand in the unhallowed thing that is fraught with the tears, and sweat, and groans, and blood of hapless millions of innocent, unoffending people…  It is considered a crime for him [the slave] to aspire above the rank of the groveling beast.  He must content himself with being bought and sold, and driven in chains from State to State, as a capricious avarice may dictate.” 

(Dumond, 1961, pp. 90, 91, 95, 134-136, 178, 186, 348; Filler, 1960, pp. 17-18, 74, 261; Pease, 1965, pp. 73n, 102; Hegedorn, 2002; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 42; Sorin, 1971, pp. 87-88, 118-123; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 180; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892, p. 320; Hinks, Peter P., & John R. McKivigan, Eds., Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition.  Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood, 2007, Vol. 2, pp. 563-564)

RANKIN, John, clergyman, born near Dandridge, Jefferson County, Tennessee, 4 February, 1793; died in Ironton, Ohio, 18 March, 1886. From 1817 till 1821 he was pastor of two Presbyterian Churches in Carlisle, Kentucky, and about 1818 founded an anti-slavery society. Removing to Ripley, Ohio, he was pastor of the 1st and 2d Presbyterian Churches for forty-four years. He joined the Garrison anti-slavery movement, and was mobbed for his views more than twenty times. About 1824 he addressed letters to his brother in Middlebrook, Virginia, dissuading him from slave-holding, which were published in Ripley, in the “Liberator,” in 1832, and afterward in book-form in Boston and Newburyport, and ran through many editions. He assisted Eliza and her child, the originals of those characters in “Uncle Tom's Cabin,” to escape. He founded the American Reform Book and Tract Society of Cincinnati, and was the author of several books, including “The Covenant of Grace” (Pittsburg, 1869). See his life entitled “The Soldier, the Battle, and the Victory,” by Reverend Andrew Ritchie (Cincinnati, 1876). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 180.

RANSIER, Alonzo Jacob, politician, born in Charleston, South Carolina 3 January, 1836; died there, 17 August, 1882. He was the son of free colored people, and, having obtained by himself some education, was employed, when sixteen years of age, as a shipping-clerk by a merchant of Charleston. In October, 1865, he took part in a convention of the friends of equal rights in Charleston, and was deputed to present to Congress the memorial that was adopted. He was elected a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1868, was an elector on the Grant and Colfax presidential ticket, and was sent to the legislature in the following year. He was also chosen chairman of the Republican State Central Committee, filling that office till 1872, and in 1870 was elected lieutenant-governor of South Carolina by a large majority. He was president of the convention from the southern states that was held at Columbia. South Carolina in 1871, and was a vice-president of the Republican National Convention at Philadelphia in 1872. In that year he was elected a representative in Congress, and served from 1 December, 1873, till 3 March, 1875. When the Democratic Party reached power in South Carolina in 1877, he lost his official posts, and afterward suffered great poverty, being employed from that time till his death as a street-laborer. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 181.

RANSOM, George Marcellus, naval officer, born in Springfield, Otsego County, New York, 18 January, 1820. He was educated in the common schools of New York and Ohio, entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman on 25 July, 1839. studied at the naval school in Philadelphia, became a passed midshipman on 2 July, 1845, a master on 28 June, 1853, and a lieutenant on 21 February, 1854. He served on the coast of Africa in 1856-'7, was commissioned lieutenant commander on 16 July, 1862, and, in command of the steam gun-boat "Kineo" of the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron, had several engagements with the enemy in March and April, 1862. He passed the Forts Jackson and St. Philip in Farragut's fleet, engaged the ram " Manassas." and in May, 1862, a field-battery at Grand Gulf. He performed effective service in shelling General John C. Breckinridge's army at Baton Rouge, 5 August, 1862, and engaged a battery and a force of guerillas on 4 October He was promoted commander on 2 January, 1863, and served with the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron in command of the steamer "Grand Gulf" in 1864, and captured three steamers off Wilmington. He was commissioned captain on 2 March, 1870, and commodore on 28 March, 1877, and was retired, 18 June, 1882.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 181.

RANSOM, Matt Whitaker, senator, born in Warren County, North Carolina, 8 October, 1826. He was graduated at the University of North Carolina in 1847, and admitted to the bar the same year, and was presidential elector on the Whig ticket in 1852. For the subsequent three years he was state attorney-general, and then, joining the Democratic Party, was a member of the legislature in 1858, and in 1861 one of the three North Carolina commissioners to the Confederate Congress in Montgomery, Alabama. He did his utmost to avert the war, but, on the secession of his state, volunteered as a private in the Confederate service, and was at once appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 1st North Carolina Infantry, with which he marched to the seat of war in Virginia. He was chosen colonel of the 35th North Carolina Infantry in 1862, participated with his regiment in all the important battles of the Army of Northern Virginia, was severely wounded in the seven days' fight around Richmond, and was promoted brigadier general in 1863 and major-general in 1865, out the fall of the Confederacy prevented the receipt of the latter commission. He resumed his profession in 1866, exerted a pacific influence in the politics of his state, was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Democrat in 1872, and has served since by re-election. His present term will end in 1889.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 181.

RANSOM, Robert, soldier, born in North Carolina about 1830. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy, and assigned to the 1st dragoons. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Cavalry, 3 March, 1855, and captain, 31 January, 1861, but resigned, 24 May, 1861, and was appointed captain of cavalry in the Confederate Army in June. He was made colonel of the 9th North Carolina Cavalry soon afterward, became brigadier-general, 6 March, 1862, and major-general, 26 May, 1863. He commanded a brigade and the defences near Kinston, North Carolina, in 1862, and the Department of Richmond from 25 April till 13 June, 1864. He also commanded the sub-District, No. 2. of the department that included South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida in November, 1864.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 181.

RANSOM, Thomas Edward Greenfield, soldier, born in Norwich, Vermont, 29 November, 1834; died near Rome, 29 October, 1864, was educated at Norwich University, learned civil engineering, and in 1851 moved to Illinois, where he engaged in business. He was elected major and then lieutenant-colonel of the 11th Illinois, and was wounded while leading a charge at Charlestown, Missouri, 20 August, 1861. He participated in the capture of Fort Henry, and led his regiment in the assault upon Fort Donelson, where he was again severely wounded, yet would not leave the field till the battle was ended. He was promoted colonel for his bravery and skill. At Shiloh he was in the hottest part of the battle, and, though wounded in the head early in the action, remained with his command through the day. He served as chief of staff to General John A. McClernand and inspector-general of the Army of the Tennessee, and subsequently on the staff of General Grant, and in January, 1863, was made a brigadier-general, his commission dating from 29 November, 1862. He distinguished himself at Vicksburg, and was at the head of a division in the Red River Campaign, taking command of the corps when General McClernand became ill. In the battle of Sabine Cross-Roads he received a wound in the knee, from which he never recovered. He commanded a division, and later the 17th Corps, in the operations about Atlanta, and, though attacked with sickness, directed the movements of his troops in the pursuit of General John B. Hood's army until he sank under the disease. General Ransom was buried in Rose Hill cemetery, Chicago. He was brevetted major-general on 1 September, 1864. Both Grant and Sherman pronounced Ransom to be among the ablest volunteer generals in their commands. A Grand Army of the Republic Post in St. Louis was named in his honor, and a tribute to his memory was delivered at Chicago on Decoration-day, 1886, by General William T. Sherman. See “Sketches of Illinois Officers,” by James Grant Wilson (Chicago, 1862).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 181-182.

RANTOUL, Robert, Jr., 1805-1852, statesman, reformer, lawyer, writer, publisher, industrialist, U.S. Congressman.  Democratic and Free Soil Member of the U.S. House of Representatives.  Served one term, December 1851-1852.  Strong opponent of slavery and the Fugitive Slave laws.  Opposed extension of slavery into the new territories.  Served as defense counsel for escaped slave Thomas Simms in Massachusetts State Court.  (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 182-183; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 381)

Rantoul, Robert,
statesman, born in Beverly, Massachusetts, 13 August, 1805; died in Washington, D. C., 7 August, 1852, was graduated at Harvard in 1826, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1829, and began practice in Salem, but transferred his practice in 1830 to South Reading, Massachusetts. In 1832 he moved to Gloucester. He was elected to the legislature in 1834, serving four years, and assuming at once a position as a leader of the Jacksonian Democracy, in which interest he established at Gloucester a weekly journal. In the legislature he formed a friendship with John G. Whittier, who wrote a poem in his memory. He sat upon the first commission to revise the laws of Massachusetts, and was an active member of the judiciary committee. He interested himself in the establishment of lyceums. In 1836-'8 he represented the state in the first board of directors of the Western Railroad, and in 1837 became a member of the Massachusetts board of education. In 1839 he established himself in Boston, and in 1840 he appeared in defence of the Journeymen bootmakers' organization, indicted for a conspiracy to raise wages, and procured their discharge on the ground that a combination of individuals to effect, by means not unlawful, that which each might legally do, was not a criminal conspiracy. He defended in Rhode Island two persons indicted for complicity in the Dorr Rebellion of 1842, Daniel Webster being the opposing counsel. He was appointed U. S. District attorney for Massachusetts in 1845, and held that office till 1849, when he resigned. He delivered in April, 1850, at Concord the address in commemoration of the outbreak of the Revolution. In 1850 he was the organizer and a corporator of the Illinois Central Railroad. Daniel Webster having withdrawn from the senate in 1850, on being appointed Secretary of State, and having been succeeded by Robert C. Winthrop, Mr. Rantoul was elected, serving nine days. He was chosen as an opponent of the extension of slavery by a coalition of Democrats and Free-Soilers to the National House of Representatives, and served from 1 December, 1851, till his death. In 1852 he was refused a seat in the National Democratic Convention on the ground that he and his constituents were disfranchised by their attitude toward slavery. He was an advocate of various reforms, and delivered lectures and speeches on the subject of educational advancement, several of which were published, and while a member of the Massachusetts legislature prepared a report in favor of the abolition of the death-penalty that was long quoted by the opponents of capital punishment. He took a prominent part in the agitation against the Fugitive-Slave Law. As counsel in 1851 for Thomas Simms, the first escaped slave delivered up by Massachusetts, he took the ground that slavery was a state institution, and that the general government had no power to return fugitives from justice, or runaway apprentices or slaves, but that such extradition was a matter for arrangement between the states. He lent his voice and pen to the movement against the use of stimulants, but protested against prohibitory legislation as an invasion of private rights. After leaving the legislature, where the variety of his learning, the power of his eloquence, and his ardent convictions against the protection of native industry and other enlargements of the sphere of government, and in favor of educational and moral reforms had attracted attention, he became a favorite lecturer and political speaker throughout New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. He edited a “Workingmen's Library,” that was issued by the lyceums and two series of a “Common School Library” that was published under the sanction of the Massachusetts board of education. See his “Memoirs, Speeches, and Writings,” edited by Luther Hamilton (Boston, 1854). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 182-183.  

RAPP, Wilhelm, 1828-1907, Germany, newspaper editor, anti-slavery activist.  (Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 383)

RATHBONE, John Finley, manufacturer, born in Albany, New York, 18 October, 1821. He was educated at Albany Academy and the Collegiate Institute at Brockport, New York. In 1845 he built a foundry in Albany that is now one of the largest establishments of the kind in the world. In 1861 he was appointed brigadier-general of the 9th Brigade of the National Guard of New York, and at the beginning of the Civil War he was made commandant of the Albany depot of volunteers. From this depot he sent to the front thirty-five regiments. In 1867 he resigned his office as commander of the 9th Brigade. Under the administration of Governor John A. Dix he was appointed adjutant-general of the state, with the rank of major-general. As a private citizen General Rathbone has been conspicuous for his zeal in promoting works of philanthropy. He is one of the founders of the Albany Orphan Asylum, and for many years has been president of its board of trustees. He is a trustee of the University of Rochester, in connection with which he established, by his contribution of $40,000, the Rathbone library.—His cousin, Henry Reed, soldier, born in Albany, New York, 1 July, 1837, was appointed major of U. S. volunteers on 29 November, 1862, and resigned on 8 July, 1867. He received a wound from the assassin's dirk in the theatre-box with President Lincoln on the evening of his murder.— Henry Reed's brother, Jared Lawrence, soldier, born in Albany, New York, 29 September, 1844, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1865, was assigned to the 12th Infantry, in 1866-'70 was aide to General John M. Schofield, and was transferred to the artillery in 1869. Resigning in 1872, he engaged in stock raising and mining in California. He was appointed U. S. consul-general in Paris on 18 Mav, 1887. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 185.

RAUCH, John Henry, physician, born in Lebanon, Pennsylvania, 4 September, 1828. He was graduated in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in 1849. In the following year he settled in Burlington, Iowa. In 1850, on the organization of the State Medical Society, he was appointed to report on the “Medical and Economic Botany of Iowa,” and this report was afterward published (1851). He was an active member of the Iowa Historical and Geological Institute, and made a collection of material – especially ichthyologic—from the upper Mississippi and Missouri Rivers for Professor Agassiz, a description of which was published in “Silliman's Journal” (1855). In 1857 he was appointed professor of materia medica and medical botany in Rush Medical College, Chicago, which chair he filled for the next three years. In 1859 he was one of the organizers of the Chicago College of Pharmacy and filled its chair of materia medica and medical botany.  During the Civil War he served as assistant medical director of the Army of Virginia, and then in Louisiana till 1864. At the close of the war he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel. On his return to Chicago, Dr. Rauch published a paper on “Intramural Interments and their Influence on Health and Epidemics” (Chicago, 1866). He aided in reorganizing the health service of the city, and in 1867 was appointed member of the newly created board of health and sanitary superintendent, which office he filled until 1873. During his incumbency the great fire of 1871 occurred, and the task of organizing and enforcing the sanitary measures for the welfare of 112,000 houseless men, women, and children was suddenly thrown upon his department. In 1876 he was elected president of the American Public Health Association, and delivered the annual address on the “Sanitary Problems of Chicago” at the 1877 meeting of the association. In 1877, when the Illinois State Board of Health was created, Dr. Rauch was appointed one of its members, and elected its first president. He was elected secretary, to which office he has been re-elected annually ever since. In 1878–9 the yellow-fever epidemics in the southwest engaged his attention, resulting in the formation of the Sanitary Council of the Mississippi Valley and the establishment of the river-inspection service of the National Board of Health, inaugurated by Dr. Rauch in 1879. His investigations on the relation of small-pox to foreign immigration are embodied in an address before the National Conference of State Boards of Health at St. Louis, 13 October, 1884, entitled “Practical Recommendations for the Exclusion and Prevention of Asiatic Cholera in North America” (Springfield, 1884). In 1887 he published the preliminary results of his investigations into the character of the water-supplies of Illinois. Dr. Rauch is a member of many scientific bodies and the author of monographs, chiefly in the domain of sanitary science and preventive medicine. His chief work as a writer is embodied in the reports of the Illinois State Board of Health in eight volumes.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 186.

RAUM, Green Berry, commissioner of internal revenue, born in Golconda, Pope County, Illinois, 3 December, 1829. He received a common-school education, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1853. In 1856 he moved with his family to Kansas, and at once affiliated with the Free-state Party. Becoming obnoxious to the pro-slavery faction, he returned the following year to Illinois and settled at Harris£ At the opening of the Civil War he made his first speech as a “war.” Democrat while he was attending court at Metropolis, Illinois. Subsequently he entered the army as major of the 56 Illinois Regiment, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel, colonel, and brevet brigadier-general. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 15 February, 1865, which commission he resigned on 6 May. He served under General William S. Rosecrans in the Mississippi Campaign of 1862. At the battle of Corinth he ordered and led the charge that broke the Confederate left and captured a battery. He was with General Grant at Vicksburg, and was wounded at the battle of Missionary Ridge in November, 1863. During the Atlanta Campaign he held the line of communication from Dalton to Acworth and from Kingston to Rome, Georgia. In October, 1864, he re-enforced Resaca, Georgia, and held it against General John B. Hood. In 1866 he obtained a charter for the Cairo and Vincennes Railroad Company, aided in securing its construction, and became its first president. He was then elected to Congress, and served from 4 March, 1867, till 3 March, 1869. In 1876 he was president of the Illinois Republican Convention, and in the same year he was a delegate to the National Convention of that party in Cincinnati. He was appointed commissioner of internal revenue, 2 August, 1876, and retained the office till 31 May, 1883. During this period he collected $850,000,000 and disburse $30,000,000 without loss. He wrote “Reports” of his bureau for seven successive years. He is also the author of “The Existing Conflict between Republican Government and Southern Oligarchy.” (Washington, 1884). He is at present (1888) practising law in Washington, D.C.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 186.

RAVENEL, St. Julien, chemist, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 15 December, 1819; died there, 16 March, 1882. He was educated in Charleston and graduated at the Medical College of the state of South Carolina in 1840. Subsequently he completed his studies in Philadelphia and in Paris, and on his return settled in practice in Charleston, and became demonstrator of anatomy. Dr. Ravenel spent the years 1849-'50 in studying natural history and physiology under Louis Agassiz, also acquiring considerable skill as a microscopist. In 1852 he retired from practice and devoted his attention chiefly to chemistry as applied to agriculture. He visited the marl-bluffs on Cooper River in 1856, and ascertained that this rock could be converted into lime. In consequence, he established with Clement H. Stevens the lime-works at Stoney Landing, which furnished most of the lime that was used in the Confederate states. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted as surgeon in the Confederate Army. While in Charleston he designed the torpedo cigar-boat, the "Little David," which was built on Cooper River and did effective service during the investment of Charleston in 1863 by Admiral Du Pont. He was surgeon-in-chief of the Confederate Hospital in Columbia, and was director of the Confederate Laboratory in that city for the preparation of medical supplies. At the close of the war he returned to Charleston, and in 1866 he discovered the value of the phosphate deposits in the vicinity of that city for agricultural purposes. Dr. Ravenel then founded the Wando Phosphate Company for the manufacture of fertilizers, and established lime-works in Woodstock. The last work of his life was the study of means of utilizing the rich lands that are employed for rice-culture along the sea-coast, which would be thrown out of cultivation and rendered useless when the import duty on that article should be removed.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 187.

RAWLE, William Henry, lawyer, born in Philadelphia, 31 August, 1823, was graduated in 1841 at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he received in 1882 the degree of LL. D. He studied law with his father, was admitted to practice in 1844, and has won reputation in his profession. In 1862, upon the "emergency " call, Mr. Rawle enlisted as a private of artillery, and in 1863, under a similar call, he served as quartermaster. He was a vice-provost of the Law Academy from 1865 to 1873, has been vice-chancellor of the Law Association since 1880, and for several years has been the secretary, and afterward a director, of the Library Company. He has published a treatise on the "Law of Covenants for Title" (Philadelphia, 1852): the 3d American edition of John W. Smith's " Law of Contracts," with notes (1853; with additional notes by George Sharswood, 1856); the 2d American edition of Joshua Williams's " Law of Real Property " (1857); "Equity in Pennsylvania," a lecture, to which was appended "The Registrar's Book of Governor William Keith's Court in Chancery" (1868): "Some Contrasts in the Growth of Pennsylvania in English Law" (1881); "Oration at Unveiling of the Monument erected by the Bar of the U. S. to Chief-Justice Marshall " (Washington, 1884); and "The Case of the Educated Unemployed," an address (1885).  
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p.189.

RAWLE, William Brooke-Rawle, lawyer, born in Philadelphia, 29 August, 1843, is the son of Charles Wallace Brooke by his wife, Elizabeth Tilghman, daughter of the second William Rawle. and has taken for his surname Brooke-Rawle. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1863, and immediately afterward entered the army as lieutenant in the 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. He was promoted captain and brevetted major and lieutenant-colonel, at the close of the war, studied law, and in 1867 was admitted to the Philadelphia Bar. He is secretary of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, treasurer of the Law Association of Philadelphia, and agent for the Penn Estates in Pennsylvania. Colonel Brooke-Rawle has published "The Right Flank at Gettysburg" (Philadelphia, 1878); "With Gregg in the "Gettysburg Campaign" (1884); and "Gregg's Cavalry Fight at Gettysburg," an address delivered at the unveiling of the monument on the site of the cavalry engagement (1884).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 189-190.

RAWLINS, John Aaron, soldier, born in East Galena, Illinois, 13 February, 1831; died in Washington, D. C. 9 September, 1869. He was of Scotch-Irish extraction. His father, James D. Rawlins, moved from Kentucky to Missouri and then to Illinois. John passed his early years on the family farm, and attended the district school in winter. He also assisted at burning charcoal and hauling it to market; but this work became disagreeable to him as he approached manhood, and after reading all the books within his reach, he attended the Mount Morris seminary in Ogle County, Illinois, in 1852-'3. His money having given out, he resumed his occupation of charcoal-burner that he might earn more: but, instead of returning to the seminary, as he had intended, he studied law with Isaac P. Stevens at Galena, and in October, 1854, was admitted to the bar and taken into partnership by his preceptor. In 1855 Mr. Stevens retired, leaving the business to be conducted by Rawlins. In 1857 he was elected attorney for the city of Galena, and in 1860 he was nominated for the electoral college on the Douglas ticket. During the contest that followed he held a series of joint discussions with Allen C. Fuller, the Republican candidate, and added greatly to his reputation as a public speaker. He held closely to the doctrines of Judge Douglas, but was, of course, defeated with his party. His own opinions were strongly opposed to human slavery, and yet he looked upon it as an evil protected within certain limits by the constitution of the United States. His love for the Union was, however, the master sentiment of his soul, and while he had followed his party in all peaceful advocacy of its claims, when the South Carolinians fired upon Fort Sumter, April 12. 1861, he did not hesitate for a moment to declare for coercion by force of arms. He was outspoken for the Union and for the war to maintain it, and at a mass-meeting at Galena on 16 April, 1861, Rawlins was called on to speak; but, instead of deprecating the war. as had been expected, he made a speech of an hour, in which he upheld it with signal ability and eloquence. Among those of the audience that had acted with the Democrats was Captain Ulysses S. Grant. He was deeply impressed by the speech, and thereupon offered his services to the country, and from that time forth was the warm friend of Rawlins. The first act of Grant after he had been assigned to the command of a brigade. 7 August, 1861, was to offer Rawlins the post of aide-de-camp on his staff, and almost immediately afterward, when Grant was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, he offered Rawlins the position of captain and assistant adjutant-general, to date from 30 August. 1861. He joined Grant at Cairo, Illinois, 15 September, 1861. and from that time was constantly with the latter till the end of the war. except from 1 August to 1 October, 1864, when he was absent on sick-leave, he was promoted major, 14 April, 1862, lieutenant-colonel, 1 November, 1862, brigadier-general of volunteers, 11 August, 1863, brevet major-general of volunteers, 24 February, 1865, chief-of-staff to Lieut-General Grant, with the rank of brigadier-general, U. S. Army, 3 March, 1865, and brevet major-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865. Finally he was appointed Secretary of War, 9 March, 1869, which office he held till his death. Before entering the army Rawlins had never seen a company of uniformed soldiers nor read a book on tactics or military organization, but he soon developed rare executive abilities. During Grant's earlier career he was assistant adjutant-general, but as Grant was promoted and his staff became larger, Rawlins became chief of staff. Early after joining Grant, Rawlins acquired great influence with him. He was bold, resolute, and outspoken in counsel, and never hesitated to give his opinion upon matters of importance, whether it was asked or not. His relations with Grant were closer than those of any other man, and so highly did the latter value his sterling qualities and his great abilities that, in a letter to Henry Wilson, chairman of the senate military committee, urging his confirmation as brigadier general, he declared that Rawlins was more nearly indispensable to him than any officer in the army. He was a man of austere habits, severe morals, aggressive temper, and of inflexible will, resolution, and courage. He verified, re-arranged, and re-wrote, when necessary, all the statements of Grant's official reports, adhering as closely as possible to Grant's original drafts, but making them conform to the facts as they were understood at headquarters. While he did not originate the idea of running the batteries at Vicksburg with the gun-boats and transports and marching the army by land below, he was its first and most persistent advocate. His views upon such questions were sound and vigorous, and were always an important factor in General Grant's decisions concerning them. At Chattanooga he became an ardent advocate of the plan of operations devised by General William P. Smith, and adopted by Generals Thomas and Grant, and for the relief of the army at Chattanooga, and for the battle of Missionary Ridge, where his persistence finally secured positive orders from Grant to Thomas directing the advance of the Army of the Cumberland that resulted in carrying the heights. He accompanied Grant to the Army of the Potomac, and, after careful study, threw his influence in favor of the overland Campaign, but throughout the operations that followed he deprecated the repeated and costly assaults on the enemy's intrenched positions, and favored the flanking movements by which Lee was finally driven to the south side of the Potomac. It has been said that he opposed the march to the sea, and appealed to the government, over the head of his chief, to prevent it; but there is no evidence in his papers, nor in those of Lincoln or Stanton, to support this statement. It is doubtless true that he thought the time chosen for the march somewhat premature, and it is well known that he opposed the transfer of Sherman's army by steamer from Savannah to the James River for fear that it would leave the country open for the march of all the southern forces to a junction with Lee in Virginia before Sherman could reach that field of action, and it is suggested that the recollection of these facts has been confused with such as would justify the statement above referred to, but which was not made till several years after his death. He was a devoted and loyal friend to General Grant, and by far too good a disciplinarian to appeal secretly over his head to his superiors. His whole life is a refutation of this story, and when it is remembered that General Grant does not tell it as of his own knowledge, it may well be dismissed from history. Rawlins, as Secretary of War, was the youngest member of the cabinet, as he was the youngest member of Grant's staff when he joined it at Cairo in 1861. He found the administration of the army as fixed by the law somewhat interfered with by an order issued by his predecessor, and this order he at once induced the president to countermand. Prom that time till his death he was a great sufferer from pulmonary consumption, which he had contracted by exposure during the war; but he performed all the duties of his office and exerted a commanding influence in the counsels of the president to the last. A bronze statue has been erected to his memory at Washington. He was married twice. After his death provision was made by a public subscription of $50,000 for his family.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 190-191.

RAY, Charles Bennett, 1807-1886, New York, New York, African American, journalist, educator, clergyman, abolitionist leader.  American Missionary Association (AMA).  Newspaper owner and editor, The Colored American.  African American.  Member of the anti-slavery Liberty Party.  Executive Committee, American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (AFAAS), 1847-1851, 1853-1855, Recording Secretary, 1849-1855.  One of the first African Americans to participate in abolitionist party on a national level.  Member and activist with the Underground Railroad.  Co-founder and director, New York Vigilance Committee, which aided and protected fugitive slaves.  Member of the American Anti-Slavery Society. (Blue, 2005, p. 98; Dumond, 1961, pp. 268, 330, 333; Mabee, 1970, pp. 58, 59, 62, 95-97, 111, 134, 146, 181, 338, 339, 415n14; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 48, 166; Sernett, 2002, pp. 64, 116, 132, 199, 201; Sorin, 1971, pp. 93-94; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 403; Annals of Congress; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 18, p. 201; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 9, p. 353)

RAYMOND, Asa, New York, abolitionist leader (Sorin, 1971)

RAYNER, Mrs., Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society (BFASS), Boston, Massachusetts (Yellin, 1994, p. 61)

REALF, Richard, 1834-1878, abolitionist.  (Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 434)

REASON, Patrick Henry, 1816-1898, New York City, African American, printmaker, abolitionist.  Member, American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 9, p. 367)

RAY, John, lawyer, born in Washington County, Missouri, 14 October, 1810: died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 4 March, 1888. His grandfather, John Ray, emigrated to Missouri, and was associated with Daniel Boone. He was a member of the 1st Constitutional Convention there, and Ray County was named for him. The grandson was educated at Augusta College and Transylvania University, where he was graduated in 1835. He moved to Monroe, Louisiana, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1839, and took high rank in his profession. He was elected in 1844 to the state house of representatives, and in 1850 to the state senate. In 1854 and again in 1859 he was nominated by the Whigs for lieutenant-governor, but was defeated. In 1860 he was an elector on the Bell-and-Everett presidential ticket, and canvassed northern Louisiana for those candidates, against the growing feeling in favor of secession. Throughout the Civil War Mr. Ray was a consistent Unionist, and at its close he favored the plan of reconstruction that was advocated by the Republican Party. In 1865 he was elected to Congress, but, with all other representatives from the seceded states, he was refused a seat in that body. In 1868-'72 he was again state senator. During the former year he was appointed to revise the civil code, the code of procedure, and the statutes of the state of Louisiana, and his revisions were adopted by the legislature of 1870. In 1872 he moved to New Orleans, where he resided until his death, and where he served as registrar of the state land-office from 1873 till 1877. In 1873 he was elected to the U. S. Senate by the " Kellogg" legislature; but his election was contested by William L. McMillen, who had been chosen by the " McEnery " legislature. Neither contestant was given the seat. In 1878 Mr. Ray was appointed by John Sherman, then Secretary of the Treasury, special attorney for the United States to prosecute the "whiskey cases." He was also one of the attorneys of Mrs. Myra Gaines (q. v.), and at the time of his death was engaged in the prosecution of an important suit by which Louisiana is endeavoring to establish her title to certain swamp lands given to her by the general government. His services had also been secured by the great majority of the French citizens of New Orleans to prosecute their claims under the International Commission of 1880 to adjust the claims of French subjects against this government growing out of the operations of the National forces in Louisiana during the Civil War. He published "Ray's Digest of the Laws of Louisiana (2 vols., New Orleans, 1870). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 192

RAYMOND, Henry Jarvis, journalist, born in Lima, Livingston County, New York, 24 January, 1820: died in New York City, 18 June, 1869. His father owned and cultivated a small farm on which the son was employed in his youth. He was graduated at the University of Vermont in 1840, studied law in New York, and maintained himself by teaching in a young ladies' seminary and writing for the " New Yorker," a literary weekly edited by Horace Greeley. On the establishment of the "Tribune " in April, 1841, Mr. Raymond became assistant editor and was well known as a reporter. He made a specialty of lectures, sermons, and speeches, and, among other remarkable feats, reported Dr. Dionysius Lardner's lectures so perfectly that the lecturer consented to their publication in two large volumes, by Greeley and McElrath, with his certificate of their accuracy. In 1843 he left the "Tribune" for the "Courier and Enquirer," and he remained connected with this journal till 1851, when he resigned and went to Europe to benefit his health. While on the staff of the "Courier and Enquirer" he formed a connection with the publishing-house of Harper Brothers, which lasted ten years. During this period a spirited discussion of Fourier's principles of socialism was carried on between Mr. Raymond and Mr. Greeley, and the articles of the former on this subject were afterward published in pamphlet-form. In 1849 he was elected to the state assembly by the Whigs. He was re-elected in 1850, and chosen speaker, and manifested special interest in the school system and canal policy of the state. The New York " Times " was established by him, and the first number was issued on 18 September, 1851. In 1852 he went to Baltimore to report the proceedings of the Whig National Convention, but was given a seat as a delegate, and made an eloquent speech in exposition of northern sentiment. In 1854 he was elected lieutenant-governor of the state. He was active in organizing the Republican Party, composed the " Address to the People" that was promulgated at the National Convention at Pittsburg in February, 1856, and spoke frequently for Fremont in the following presidential campaign. In 1857 he refused to be a candidate for governor of New York, and in 1858 he favored Stephen A. Douglas, but he finally resumed his relations with the Republican Party. In 1860 he was in favor of the nomination of William H. Seward for the presidency, and it was through his influence that Mr. Seward was placed in the cabinet. He was a warm supporter and personal friend of Mr. Lincoln in all his active measures, though at times deploring what he considered a hesitating policy. After the disaster at Bull Run he proposed the establishment of a provisional government. In 1861 he was again elected to the state assembly, where he was chosen speaker, and in 1863 he was defeated by Governor Edwin D. Morgan for the nomination for U. S. Senator. In 1864 he was elected to Congress, and in a speech on 22 December, 1865, maintained that the southern states had never been out of the Union. He sustained the reconstruction policy of President Johnson. On the expiration of his term he declined renomination, and he refused the mission to Austria in 1867. He assisted in the organization of the " National Union Convention" which met at Philadelphia in August,1866, and was the author of the" Philadelphia Address " to the people of the United States. In the summer of 1868 he visited Europe with his family, and after his return resumed the active labors of his profession, with which he was occupied till his death. As an orator Mr. Raymond possessed great power. As a journalist he did good service in elevating the tone of newspaper discussion, showing by his own example that it was possible to be earnest and brilliant without transgressing the laws of decorum. He wrote " Political Lessons of the Revolution" (New York, 1854); "Letters to Mr. Yancey" (1860); "History of the Administration of President Lincoln "(1864); and "Life and Services of Abraham Lincoln; with his State Papers, Speeches, Letters, etc." (1865). See Augustus Maverick's 'H. J. Raymond and the New York Press for Thirty Years " (Hartford, 1870).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 192-193.

RAYNOLDS, William Franklin, soldier, born in Canton, Ohio, 17 March, 1820. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843, and entered the army in July, as brevet 2d lieutenant in the 5th Infantry. He served in the war with Mexico in 1847–8, and was in charge of the exploration of Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers in 1859–61. He was chief topographical engineer of the Department of Virginia in 1861, and was appointed colonel and additional aide-de-camp, 31 arch, 1862. Besides serving as chief engineer of the middle department and the 8th, Army Corps from January, 1863, till April, 1864, he was in charge of the defences of Harper's Ferry during the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania in June, 1863, and was chief engineer of the defences of Baltimore, Maryland, 28 June, 1863. He was superintending engineer of north and northwest lakes, and engineer of light-houses on northern lakes, and in charge of harbor improvements in the entire lake region from 14 April, 1864, till April, 1870. At the end of the Civil War he was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general in the regular army. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 7 March, 1867, and colonel, 2 January, 1881.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 195.

REA, John Patterson, soldier, born in Lower Oxford, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 13 October, 1840. He was educated in the public schools, and, after working for some time in a factory, he moved in the autumn of 1860 to Miami County, Ohio. In the spring of 1861 he enlisted as a private in the 11th Ohio Infantry, and in August he joined the 1st Ohio Cavalry. He was commissioned 2d lieutenant soon afterward, promoted 1st lieutenant, 12 March, 1862, captain, 1 April, 1863, and brevet major, 23 November, 1863. He participated in all the campaigns and battles of his regiment, which formed part of Loring's cavalry brigade, Army of the Cumberland, and during his service was never absent from duty except while he was a prisoner for eight days. After leaving the army he entered the Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio, where he was graduated in 1867. He afterward returned to Pennsylvania, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1868. In 1869-'73 he was assessor of internal revenue. Moving to Minnesota, he then became editor of the Minneapolis " Tribune," but in May, 1877, he resumed the practice of law, and in November was elected a judge of probate for Hennepin County. He was next elected judge of the 4th Minnesota District, and in November, 1886, was re-elected for the term of six years. He was quartermaster-general of Minnesota from 1883 till 1886. holding the rank of brigadier-general, and in 1887 was chosen commander-in-chief of the Grand Army of the Republic at the National Encampment at St. Louis.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 195-196.

READ, Abner, naval officer, born in Urbana, Ohio, 5 April, 1821; died in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 12 July, 1863, was educated at the Ohio University, but left in his senior year, having received an appointment as midshipman in the U. S. Navy. After a voyage to South America, he studied for a year at the Naval School in Philadelphia, and was appointed acting sailing-master, in which capacity he gained a reputation as a navigator. He took part in the later naval operations of the Mexican War, and in 1855 was placed on the retired list with the rank of lieutenant, but was afterward reinstated by the examining board. In the early part of the Civil War he performed important services as commander of the " Wyandotte” in saving Fort Pickens from falling into the hands of the Confederates. He was assigned to the command of the "New London" in 1862, and cruised in Mississippi Sound, taking more than thirty prizes, and breaking up the trade between New Orleans and Mobile. He captured a battery at Biloxi, and had several engagements with Confederate steamers. He was commissioned lieutenant-commander on 16 July, and commander on 13 September, 1862. In June, 1863, he was placed in charge of the steam sloop "Monongahela," and, while engaging the batteries above Donaldsonville, received a fatal wound. —Daniel's son, Theodore, soldier, born in Athens, Ohio, 11 April, 1836; died near Farmville, Virginia, 5 April, 1865, was graduated at the Indiana State University in 1854, studied law, was appointed district attorney, afterward held a clerkship in the interior department at Washington, and in 1860 began practising law at Paris, Illinois. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted, and served his term of three months in the ranks. He was then given a staff appointment with the rank of captain, 24 October, 1861, received a wound at Chancellorsville, at Gettysburg, and for the third time at Cold Harbor. He was promoted major on 25 July, 1864, and was chief of staff to General Edward O. C. Ord from the time when the latter took command of a corps in the Army of the James. He served in various battles in General Grant's campaign, and on 29 September, 1864, was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for services in the field. He lost his life in the last encounter between the armies of Generals Grant and Lee. General Ord had directed General Read to burn the bridge at Farmville, in the line of Lee's retreat. The small party was overtaken by the advance of the entire Confederate Army, and surrendered after every officer had been killed, having, however, accomplished its purpose of checking Lee's movement. (See Dearing, James.)
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 196-197.

READ, George Campbell, naval officer, born in Ireland about 1787; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 22 August, 1862. He came to the United States at an early age, was appointed a midshipman in the U.S. Navy on 22 April, 1804, and advanced to the rank of lieutenant on 25 April, 1810. He was 3d lieutenant on the "Constitution" when the British frigate "Guerriere " was captured, and Captain Isaac Hull assigned to him the honor of receiving the surrender of Captain James R. Dacres, the British commander. He took an active part in other engagements of the war of 1812, and near its close commanded the brig "Chippewa," of the flying squadron commanded by Commodore Oliver H. Perry that was sent out to destroy the enemy's commerce. He was promoted commander on 27 April, 1816, and captain on 3 March, 1825, took charge of the East India Squadron in 1840, and of the squadron on the coast of Africa in 1846, and, after commanding the Mediterranean Squadron for some time, was placed on the reserve list on 13 September, 1855. In 1861 he was appointed governor of the Naval Asylum in Philadelphia, and on 31 July, 1862, by virtue of an act of Congress that had been recently passed, was made a rear-admiral on the retired list.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 197.

READ, John Meredith, jurist, born in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania, 21 July, 1797; died in Philadelphia, 29 November, 1874. was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1812, and admitted to the bar in 1818. He was a member of the Pennsylvania legislature in 1822-3, city solicitor and member of the select, council, in which capacity he drew up the first clear exposition of the finances of Philadelphia, U. S. attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania in 1837-'44, solicitor-general of the United States, attorney general of Pennsylvania, and chief justice of that state from 1860 until his death. He early became a Democrat, and was one of the founders of the Free-soil wing of that party. This induced opposition to his confirmation by the U. S. Senate when he was nominated in 1845 as judge of the U. S. Supreme Court, and caused him to withdraw his name. He was one of the earliest and staunchest advocates of the annexation of Texas and the building of railroads to the Pacific, and was also a powerful supporter of President Jackson in his war against the U. S. bank. He was leading counsel with Thaddeus Stevens and Judge Joseph J. Lewis in the defence of Castner Hanway for constructive treason, his speech on this occasion giving him a wide reputation. He entered the Republican Party on its formation, and at the beginning of the presidential canvass of 1856 delivered a speech on the " Power of Congress over Slavery in the Territories." which was used throughout that canvass (Philadelphia, 1856). The Republican Party gained its first victory in Pennsylvania in 1858, electing him judge of the supreme court by 30,000 majority. This brought him forward as a candidate for the presidency of the United States in 1860: and Abraham Lincoln's friends were prepared to nominate him for that office, with the former for the vice-presidency, which arrangement was defeated by Simon Cameron in the Pennsylvania Republican Convention in February of that year. He nevertheless received several votes in the Chicago Convention, notwithstanding that all his personal influence was used in favor of Mr. Lincoln. The opinions of Judge Read run through forty-one volumes of reports. His " Views on the Suspension of the Habeas Corpus" (Philadelphia, 1863) were adopted as the basis of the act of 3 March, 1863. which authorized the president of the United States to suspend the habeas corpus act. He refused an injunction to prevent the running of horse-cars on Sunday, since he could not consent to stop "poor men's carriages." Many thousand copies of this opinion (Philadelphia, 1867) were printed. His amendments form an essential part of the constitutions of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and his ideas were formulated in many of the statutes of the United States. Brown gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1860. Judge Read was the author of a great number of published addresses and legal opinions. Among them are " Plan for the Administration of the Girard Trust "(Philadelphia, 1833); 'The Law of Evidence" (1864); and "Jefferson Davis and his Complicity in the Assassination of Abraham Lincoln" (1866).—John Meredith's son, John Meredith, diplomatist, born in Philadelphia, 21 February, 1837, received his education at a military school and at Brown, where he received the degree of A. M. in 1866, was graduated at Albany law school in 1859, studied international law in Europe, was admitted to the bar in Philadelphia, and afterward moved to Albany, New York. He was adjutant-general of New York in 1860-'6, was one of the originators of the "Wide-Awake" political clubs in 1860. He was chairman in April of the same year of the committee of three to draft a bill in behalf of New York state, appropriating $300,000 for the purchase of arms and equipments, and he subsequently received the thanks of the War Department for his ability and zeal in organizing, equipping, and forwarding troops. He was first. U. S. consul-general for France and Algeria in 1869-'73 and 1870-'2, acting consul-general for Germany during the Franco-German war. After the war he was appointed by General de Cissey, minister of war, to form and preside over a commission to examine into the desirability of teaching the English language to the French troops. In November, 1873. he was appointed U. S. minister resident in Greece. One of his first acts was to secure the release of the American ship " Armenia " and to obtain from the Greek government a revocation of the order that prohibited the sale of the Bible in Greece. During the Russo-Turkish war he discovered that only one port in Russia was still open, and he pointed out to Secretary Evarts the advantages that would accrue to the commerce of the United States were a grain-fleet despatched from New York to that port. The event justified his judgment, since the exports of cereals from the United States showed an increase within a year of $73,000,000. While minister to Greece he received the thanks of his government for his effectual protection of American persons and interests in the dangerous crisis of 1878. Soon afterward Congress, from motives of economy, refused the appropriation for the legation at Athens, and General Read, believing that the time was too critical to withdraw the mission, carried it on at his individual expense until his resignation, 23 September, 1879. In 1881, when, owing in part to his efforts, after his resignation, the territory that had been adjudged to Greece had been finally transferred, King George created him a Knight grand cross of the order of the Redeemer, the highest dignity in the gift of the Greek government. General Read was president of the Social Science Congress at Albany, New York, in 1868, and vice-president of the one at Plymouth, England, in 1872. He is the author of an " Historical Enquiry concerning Henry Hudson," which first threw light upon his origin, and the sources of the ideas that guided that navigator (Albany, 1866). and contributions to current literature.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 199.

READ, Thomas Buchanan, poet, born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 12 March, 1822; died in New York City, 11 May, 1872. His mother, a widow, apprenticed him to a tailor, but he ran away, learned in Philadelphia the trade of cigar-making, and in 1837 made his way to Cincinnati, where he found a home with the sculptor, Shobal V. Clevenger. He learned the trade of a sign-painter, and attended school at intervals. Not succeeding in Cincinnati, he went to Dayton, and obtained an engagement in the theatre. Returning to Cincinnati in about a year, he was enabled by the liberality of Nicholas Longworth to open a studio as a portrait-painter. He did not remain long in Cincinnati, but wandered from town to town, painting signs when he could find no sitters, sometimes giving public entertainments, and reverting to cigar-making when other resources failed. In 1841 he moved to New York City, and within a year to Boston. While there he made his first essays as a poet, publishing in the "Courier" several lyric poems in 1843-'4. He settled in Philadelphia in 1840, and visited Europe in 1850. In 1853 he went again to Europe, and devoted himself to the study and practice of art in Florence and Rome till 1858. He afterward spent much time in Philadelphia and Cincinnati, but in the last years of his life made Rome his principal residence. While in the United States during the Civil War he gave public readings for the benefit of the soldiers, and recited his war-songs in the camps of the National Army. He died while making a visit to the United States. His paintings, most of which deal with allegorical and mythological subjects, arc full of poetic and graceful fancies, but the technical treatment is careless and unskilful, betraying his lack of early training. The best known are "The Spirit of the Waterfall," " The Lost Pleiad," "The Star of Bethlehem," "Undine," "Longfellow's Children," " Cleopatra and her Barge," and "Sheridan's Ride." He painted portraits of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, the ex-queen of Naples, George M. Dallas, Henry W. Longfellow, and others. His group of Longfellow's daughters was popular in photographs. He turned his hand occasionally to sculpture, producing one work, a bust of Sheridan, that attracted much attention. He possessed a much more thorough mastery of the means of expression in the art of poetry than in painting. His poems are marked by a fervent spirit of patriotism and by artistic power and fidelity in the description of American scenery and rural life. His first volume of "Poems" (Philadelphia, 1847) was followed by " Lays and Ballads" (1848). He next made a collection of extracts and specimens from the. " Female Poets of America" (1848), containing also biographical notices and portraits drawn by himself. An edition of his lyrics, with illustrations by Kenny Meadows, appeared in London in 1852, and in 1853 a new and enlarged edition was published in Philadelphia. A prose romance entitled "The Pilgrims of the Great St. Bernard" was published as a serial. "The New Pastoral," his most ambitious poem, describes in blank verse the pioneer life of a family of emigrants (Philadelphia, 1854). The more dramatic and imaginative poem that followed, entitled "The House by the Sea" (1856), gained for it more readers than had been attracted by its own superior merits. Next appeared "Sylvia, or the Lost Shepherd, and other Poems" (1857), and " A Voyage to Iceland" (1857), and the same year a collection of his "Rural Poems" was issued in London. His "Complete Poetical Works " (Boston, 1860) contained the longer and shorter poems that had been already published. His next narrative poem was " The Wagoner of the Alleghanies," a tale of Revolutionary times (Philadelphia, 1862). During the Civil War he wrote many patriotic lyrics, including the stirring poem of " Sheridan's Ride," which was printed in a volume with " A Summer Story" and other pieces, chiefly of the war (Philadelphia, 1865). His last long poem was "The Good Samaritans" (Cincinnati, 1867). The fullest editions of his " Poetical Works " were printed in Philadelphia (3 vols. 1865 and 1867).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 200-201.

REAGAN, John Henninger, senator, born in Sevier County, Tennessee, 8 October, 1818. From an early age he was engaged in various occupations, which included ploughing, chopping wood, keeping books, running a flat-boat on Tennessee River and managing a mill, and through his diligent labor earned sufficient money to procure a good education. Before he was twenty years old he went to Natchez, and in 1839 moved to Texas. He soon enlisted in the force to expel the Cherokees from Texas, and was selected General Albert Sidney Johnston as one of a picked escort for dangerous service, but declined the offer of a lieutenancy, and became a surveyor. He penetrated into the Indian country about the Throe Forks of Trinity, and was engaged in surveying that region about three years. His was the first party that escaped massacre by the Indians. In 1844 he began the study of law, and in 1848 he received his license to practise. In 1846 he was elected colonel of militia and probate judge of Henderson County, and in 1847 he was chosen to the legislature, where he was chairman of the committee on public lands. In 1849 he was a defeated candidate for the state senate, but in 1852 he was elected district judge. In the enforcement of the laws he was brought into personal collision with the gamblers and  that then held the frontier towns in awe, but his physical courage and moral force won him a triumph for law and order. Judge Reagan was first elected to Congress in 1856 as a Democrat, after a severe contest. He remained in Congress until 1861, when he returned home, and was elected to the state convention, in which he voted for secession. He was chosen by the convention to the provisional Confederate Congress. On 6 March, 1861, he was appointed postmaster-general under the provisional government, and the next year he was reappointed to the same office under the permanent government. He was also acting Secretary of the Treasury for a short time near the close of the war. He was the only one of the cabinet that was captured with Jefferson Davis, and was confined for many months in Fort Warren. He had conferences with President Johnson, William H. Seward, Henry Wilson, James Speed, and others on reconstruction, and wrote an open letter to the people of Texas, advocating laws for the protection of Negroes, which should grant them civil rights and limited political rights with an educational qualification. His letter subjected him to misconstruction, and he was retired from politics for nine years. But he was elected to Congress by 4,000 majority in 1874, in 1876 by 8,000, and after 1878 with little or no opposition. For nearly ten years he held continuously the post of chairman of the committee on commerce, with the exception of one term, and has been noted for his decided views and efforts to regulate inter-state commerce. He was one of the authors of the Cullom-Reagan interstate commerce bill, which became a law in 1887. In 1887 he took his seat in the U.S. Senate, having been chosen for the term that ends in 1893.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 201-202.

REALF, Richard (relf), poet, born in Framfield, Sussex, England, 14 June, 1834; died in Oakland,  California, 28 October, 1878. At the age of fifteen he began to write verses, and two years later he became amanuensis to a lady in Brighton. A travelling lecturer on phrenology recited some of the boy's poems, as illustrations of ideality, and thereupon several literary people in Brighton sought him out and £ him. Under their patronage a collection of his poems was published, entitled “Guesses at the Beautiful” (London, 1852). Realf spent a year in Leicestershire, studying scientific agriculture, and in 1854 came to the United States. He explored the slums of New York, became a Five-Points missionary, and assisted in establishing there a course of cheap lectures and a self-improvement association. In 1856 he accompanied a party of free-state emigrants to Kansas, where he became a journalist and correspondent of several eastern newspapers. He made the acquaintance of John Brown, accompanied him to Canada, and was to be Secretary of State in the provisional government that Brown projected. The movement being deferred for two years, Realf made a visit to England and a tour in the southern states. When Brown made his attempt at Harper's Ferry in October, 1859, he was in Texas, where he was arrested and sent to Washington, being in imminent danger of lynching on the way. Early in 1862 he enlisted in the 88th Illinois Regiment, with which he served through the war. Some of his best lyrics were written in the field, and were widely circulated. After the war he was commissioned in a colored regiment, and in 1866 was mustered out with the rank of captain and brevet lieutenant-colonel. In 1868 he established a school for freedmen in South Carolina, and a year later was made assessor of internal revenue for Edgefield District. He resigned this office in 1870, returned to the north, and became a journalist and lecturer, residing in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. In 1873 he delivered a £ before the Society of the Army of the Cumberland, and in 1874 wrote one for the Society of the Army of the Potomac. He was a brilliant talker and a fine orator. Among his lectures were “Battle-Flashes” and “The Unwritten Story of the Martyr of Harper's Ferry.” His most admired poems are “My Slain,” “An Old Man's Idyl,” “Indirection,” and the verses that he wrote just before he took the poison that ended his life. He committed suicide in consequence of an unfortunate marriage and an imperfect divorce. He appointed as his literary executor Colonel Richard J. Hinton, who now (1888) has his complete poems ready for publication, together with a biographical sketch.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 202.

REDPATH, James, 1833-1891, author, journalist, editor, abolitionist leader.  At the age of 19, he became an editor of the New York Tribune.  Redpath interviewed enslaved individuals in the South and reported on conditions of slavery in the region.  During his travels, he met with both the slaves and the slaveholders.  He carefully observed slave life.  He even slept in slave cabins.  Redpath published his interviews and observations in his book, The Roving Editor: or, Talks with Slaves.  Redpath was hired to be a correspondent of the St. Louis Democrat, writing about the events in the Kansas controversy.  Redpath became a friend of militant abolitionist John Brown.  He later wrote, The Public Life of John Brown (1859).  Redpath visited Haiti in 1859 with the purpose of exploring the possibilities of African American emigration to that country.  As a result, numerous African Americans emigrated to Haiti.  During this time, Redpath was appointed a Haitian Consul to the United States in Philadelphia. 

(Horner, 1926; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 358; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 206; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 443; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 681-682; Annals of Congress; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 18, p. 257; Hinks, Peter P., & John R. McKivigan, Eds., Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition.  Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood, 2007, Vol. 2, pp. 567-568)

REDPATH, James, author, born in Berwick-on-Tweed, Scotland, 24 August, 1833. He emigrated with his parents to Michigan. At the age of eighteen years he came to New York, and since then he has mainly devoted himself to journalism. At the age of nineteen he became an editor of the New York “Tribune,” and soon afterward he formed a resolution to visit the southern states in order to witness for himself the conditions and effects of slavery. He not only visited the plantations of slave-owners as a guest, but went on foot through the southern seaboard states. In the course of his long journey he slept frequently in
slave-cabins, and visited the religious gatherings and merry-makings where the Negroes consorted. Although at that period it was social outlawry to speak the truth about slavery, he did not hesitate to do so, and he consequently became noted as a fiery Abolitionist. In 1855 he became the Kansas correspondent of the St. Louis “Democrat.” He took an active part in the events of that time, and in 1859 made two visits to Hayti. During the second one he was appointed by President Garfield commissioner of emigration in the United States. Immediately upon his return home, Mr. Redpath founded the Haytian bureau of emigration in Boston and New York, and several thousand Negroes availed themselves of it. In connection with the Haytian bureau Mr. Redpath established a weekly newspaper called “Pine and Palm,” in which were advocated the emigration movement and the general interests of the African race in this country. He was also appointed Haytian consul in Philadelphia and then joint commissioner to the United States, and was largely instrumental in procuring recognition of Haytian independence. He was with the armies of General William T. Sherman and General George H. Thomas during the Civil War, and subsequently with General Quincy A. Gillmore in Charleston. At the latter place he was appointed superintendent of education, organized the school system of South Carolina, and founded the Colored Orphan Asylum at Charleston. In 1868 he established the Boston Lyceum Bureau, and subsequently Redpath's Lecture Bureau. In 1881 he went to Ireland, partly to recruit his health and partly to describe the famine district for the New York “Tribune.” On his return in the following year he made a tour of the United States and Canada, lecturing on Irish subjects, and in the same year founded a newspaper called “Redpath's Weekly,” devoted to the Irish cause. In 1886 he became an editor of the “North American Review.” Besides contributions to the newspapers, magazines, and reviews, he has published “Hand-Book to Kansas” (New York, 1859); “The Roving Editor” (1859); “Echoes of Harper's Ferry” (Boston, 1860); “Southern Notes” (1860); “Guide to Hayti” (1860); “The John Brown Invasion” (1860); “Life of John Brown” (1860); “John Brown, the Hero” (London, 1862); and “Talks about Ireland” (New York, 1881). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 206.

REED, Samuel, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Church Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1861-64

REED, William, Taunton, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Abolition Society, Vice-President, 1839-40

REED, Horatio Blake, soldier, born in Rockaway, Long Island, 22 January. 1837; died in Togus, Kennebec County. Maine, 7 March, 1888. He was educated at Troy Polytechnic Institute, and on 14 May, 1861, was commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 5th U. S. Artillery. He took part in the battles of Bull Run (for which he was brevetted 1st lieutenant), Hanover Court-House, Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mills, Malvern Hill, and Manassas. He was also present at Antietam, where he was severely wounded. He was brevetted captain, 1 July, 1862, for the Peninsular Campaign, and commissioned lieutenant, 19 September, 1863. The following October he was brevetted major for the skilful handling of his guns at Bristol Station, Virginia. The latter appointment was made at the special request of General Gouverneur K. Warren, who declared in his report that Captain Reed had saved the day. From November, 1863, till April, 1864, he was acting assistant adjutant-general of the 1st Brigade of Horse Artillery. In October, 1864, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 22d New York Cavalry, having already commanded the regiment at the crossing of the Opequan, and in the action at Lacey's Springs. He was promoted colonel in January, 1860, and commanded a cavalry brigade in the valley of Virginia from May till August of that year under General George A. Custer. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel in the regular army for meritorious services during the war. On 8 May, 1870, he resigned from the army to become a civil engineer in the employ of a railroad through the Adirondacks, New York, and he subsequently served in the Egyptian Army. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 207.

REEDER, Andrew Horatio, 1807-1864, territorial governor of Kansas Territory, anti-slavery political leader, moved from office by President Franklin Pierce for not enforcing pro-slavery laws; elected territorial representative October 9, 1855  (Dumond, 1961, p. 331; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 32, 45, 436-437; Wilson, pp. 467, 469, 470, 476, 493; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 211-212; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 462; Annals of Congress; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 18, p. 284)

REEDER, Andrew Horatio,
governor of Kansas, born in Easton, Pennsylvania, 6 August, 1807; died there, 5 July, 1864. He spent the greater part of his life in Easton, Pennsylvania, where he practised law, and was a Democratic politician, but declined office till 1854, when he was appointed the first governor of Kansas. Governor Reeder had come to the territory a firm Democrat, but the conduct of the “border ruffians” shook his partisanship. He prescribed distinct and rigid rules for the conduct of the next legislature, which, it was then believed, would determine whether Kansas would become a free or a slave state. But all his precautions came to naught. On 30 March, 1855, 5,000 Missourians took possession of nearly every election-district in the territory. Of the total number of votes cast 1,410 were found to be legal and 4,908 illegal, 5,427 were given to the pro-slavery and 791 to the free-state candidates. But on 6 April, 1855, Governor Reeder issued certificates of election to all but one third of the claimants, and the returns in these cases he rejected on account of palpable defects in the papers. As a lawyer he recognized that he had the power to question the legality of the election of the several claimants only in those cases where there were protests lodged, or where there were palpable defects in the returns. Notices were sent throughout the territory that protests would be received and considered, and the time for filing protests was extended so that facilities might be given for a full hearing of both sides. In nearly two thirds of the returns there were no protests or official notice of frauds, and the papers were on their face regular. In the opinion of Governor Reeder, this precluded him from withholding certificates, and he accordingly issued them, notwithstanding his personal belief that the claimants had nearly all been fraudulently elected. His contention always was that any other course would have been revolutionary. This action endowed the notoriously illegal legislature with technical authority, and a few weeks later, when Governor Reeder went to Washington, D. C., to invoke the help of the administration, the Attorney-General refused to prosecute, as Reeder's own certificate pronounced the elections true. One of the first official acts of this legislature was to draw up a memorial to the president requesting Governor Reeder’s removal, but before its bearer reached Washington the governor was dismissed by President Pierce. He then became a resident of Lawrence, Kansas, where the free-state movement began. Its citizens held a convention at Big Springs, a few miles west of that town, on 5 September, 1855. Governor Reeder wrote the resolutions, addressed the convention, and received their nomination, by acclamation, for the post of territorial delegate to Congress. These resolutions declared that “we will endure no longer the tyrannical enactments of the bogus legislature, will resist them to a bloody issue,” and recommended the “formation of volunteer companies and the procurement of arms.” On 9 October, at a separate election, Mr. Reeder was again chosen delegate to Congress. Under the newly framed territorial constitution, which was known as the Topeka constitution, a legislature formed of the free-state party, 15 July, 1856, elected him, with James H. Lane, to the U. S. Senate, which choice Congress refused to recognize, and neither senator took his seat. At the beginning of the Civil War he and General Nathaniel Lyon were the first brigadier-generals that were appointed by President Lincoln. But Mr. Reeder declined, on the plea that he was too far advanced in life to accept high office in a new profession. He returned to Easton, Pennsylvania, where he resided until his death. See “Life of Abraham Lincoln,” by John G. Nicolay and John Hay. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 211-212.

REID, William W., Rochester, New York, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1834-1837.

REMINGTON, B. F., New York, American Abolition Society (Radical Abolitionist, Vol. 1, No. 1, New York, August 1855)

REEDER, Charles, manufacturer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 31 October, 1817. [Died December 1, 1900]. He was educated in public schools in Baltimore, and has since devoted his attention to the construction of marine steam-engines, which have held a high rank for efficiency and durability. Mr. Reeder in this way became interested in steamships, and in 1855 was an owner of the “Tennessee,” the first that cleared from Baltimore to a European port. He has been called to directorships in banking and other establishments, and has published “Caloric: A Review of the Dynamic Theory of Heat” (Baltimore, 1887). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 212.

REESE, Chauncey B., soldier, born in Canastota, New York, 28 December, 1837; died in Mobile, Alabama, 22 September, 1870. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1859, and at the beginning of the Civil War sent to Fort Pickens, Florida, as assistant engineer in defence of that work. He was then transferred to similar duty at Washington, D.C., and became 1st lieutenant of engineers, 6 August, 1861. He rendered valuable service in the Virginia Peninsular Campaign from March till August, 1862, in constructing bridges, roads, and field-works, particularly the bridge, 2,000 feet in length, over the Chickahominy. He became captain of engineers in March, 1863, and was engaged in the Rappahannock Campaign in similar service, constructing a bridge before Fredericksburg, defensive works and bridges at Chancellorsville, and at Franklin's crossing of the Rappahannock, in the face of the enemy. He participated in the battle of Gettysburg, in the siege of Fort Wagner, South Carolina, and was retained in that organization. chief engineer of the Army of the Tennessee during the Atlanta Campaign, the subsequent march to the sea, and that through the Carolinas. In December, 1864, he was brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel, “for gallant and distinguished services during the campaign through Georgia and ending in the capture of Savannah.” and in March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general in the U.S. Army for faithful and meritorious service during the same campaign. He became lieutenant-colonel in June, 1865, was superintending engineer of the construction of Fort Montgomery, New York, and recorder of the Board of Engineers to conduct experiments on the use of iron in permanent defences in 1865-'7. In March of the latter year he became major in the Corps of Engineers. He was then secretary of the Board of Engineers for fortifications and harbor and river obstructions for the defence of the United States.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 212.

REESE, David Meredith, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1800; died in New York City, 12 August, 1861. He was graduated at the medical department of the University of Maryland in 1820, and subsequently settled in New York City, where he established an extensive practice. For several years he was physician-in-chief to Bellevue Hospital, and he subsequently was city and county superintendent of public schools. He published “Observations on the Epidemic of Yellow Fever” (Baltimore, 1819); “Strictures on Health ” (1828): “The Epidemic Cholera” (New York, 1833); “ Humbugs of New York” (Boston, 1833); “Review of the First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society,” of which 25,000 copies were sold at once (1834); " Quakerism vs. Calvinism ” (New York, 1834); “Phrenology known by its Fruits” (1838); and “Medical Lexicon of Modern Terminology” (1855); and contributed constantly to medical literature. He also edited the scientific section of “Chamber’s Educational Course” (Edinburgh, 1844), and American editions of Sir Astley P. Cooper's “Surgical Diet,” Dr. John M. Good's “Book of Nature,” J. Moore Neligan's work on “Medicines,” with notes (1856), and the “American Medical Gazette” (New York, 1850–5).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 212.

REESE, John James, physician, born in Philadelphia Pennsylvania, 16 June, 1818. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1837, and at the medical department in 1839, and began practice in his native city. He entered the U.S. Army as surgeon of volunteers in 1861, and was in charge of a hospital in Philadelphia. Dr. Reese has continued to reside in that city, is professor of jurisprudence and toxicology in the University of Pennsylvania, and is a member of foreign and domestic professional societies. He was president of the Philadelphia Medical Jurisprudence Society in 1886–77, and is physician to several city hospitals. He has contributed largely to professional literature, edited the 7th American Edition of Taylor’s “Medical Jurisprudence." and published “American Medical Formulary” (Philadelphia, 1850): “Analysis of Physiology” (1853); “Manual of Toxicology” (1874); and a “Text-Book of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology” (1884).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 212.

REEVE, Isaac Van Duzen, soldier, born in Butternuts, Otsego County, New York, 29 July, 1813. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1835, became 1st lieutenant in 1838, was engaged in the Florida War in 1836-'7 and in 1840-'2, and served throughout the war with Mexico. He became captain in 1846, and received the brevet of major and lieutenant-colonel for gallant and meritorious service at Contreras, Churubusco, and Molino del Rey. He commanded the expedition against the Pinal Apache Indians in 1858-'9, became major in May, 1861, was made prisoner of war by General David E. Twiggs on 9 May of that year, and was not exchanged till 20 August, 1862. He was chief mustering and disbursing officer in 1862-'3, became lieutenant-colonel in September, 1862. and was in command of the draft rendezvous at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1864-'5. He became colonel of the 13th Infantry in October, 1864, and was brevetted brigadier-general in the U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, for faithful and meritorious service during the Civil War." In January, 1871, he was retired at his own request.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 213

REID, David Settle, governor of North Carolina, born in Rockingham County, North Carolina 19 April, 1813. He studied law. was admitted to the bar, and began to practise in 1834. In 1835 he was elected to the legislature, serving continuously until 1842, when he was elected a representative to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 4 December, 1843. till 3 March, 1847. In 1848 he was the defeated Democratic candidate for governor of North Carolina, but he was afterward successful, and held the office in 1851-'5. He was then elected to the U. S. Senate as a Democrat, in place of Willie P. Mangum, serving from 4 December, 1854, till 3 March, 1859. He was chairman of the committees on Patents, on the Patent-Office, and on Commerce. He was a delegate to the Peace Convention that met in Washington in February, 1861. Governor Reid served in the Confederate Congress, and after the Civil War resided on his farm in Rockingham County.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 214-215.

REID, Hugh Thompson, soldier, born in Union County, Indiana, 18 October, 1811; died in Keokuk, Iowa, 21 August, 1874. He was of Scotch-Irish descent, and, after graduation at Bloomington College, Indiana, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and moved in 1839 to Fort Madison, Iowa, practising there until 1849, when he moved to Keokuk and practised occasionally. In 1840-'2 he was prosecuting attorney for Lee, Des Moines, Henry, Jefferson, and Van Buren Counties, holding high rank as a land lawyer. He was president for four years of the Des Moines Valley Railroad. He entered the volunteer service as colonel of the 15th Iowa Infantry in 1861, and commanded it at Shiloh, where he was shot through the neck and fell from his horse, but remounted and rode down the lines, encouraging his men. He was in other actions, was appointed brigadier-general on 13 March, 1863, and commanded the posts of Lake Providence, Louisiana, and Cairo, Illinois, until he resigned on 4 April, 1864.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 215.

REID, Sam Chester, lawyer, born in New York City, 21 October, 1818, shipped before the mast at the age of sixteen, in 1838 was attached to the U. S. Survey of Ohio River, and in 1830 settled in Natchez, Mississippi, where he studied law under General John A. Quitman, and was appointed U. S. Deputy Marshal. He was admitted to the bar of Mississippi in 1841, to that of Louisiana in 1844, to the U. S. Supreme Court in 1846. Reid served in the Mexican War in Captain Ben McCulloch's Company of Texas Rangers, being mentioned for " meritorious services and distinguished gallantry," at Monterey. In 1849 he was attached to the "New Orleans Picayune," and in 1851 he was a delegate to the National Railroad Convention in Memphis, Tennessee, to decide upon a line to the Pacific. In 1857 he declined the appointment of U. S. minister to Rome. He reported the proceedings of the Louisiana Secession Convention in 1861, and during the Civil War was the Confederate war correspondent for a large number of southern newspapers. In 1865 he resumed his law-practice, and in 1867 he delivered an " Address on the Restoration of Southern Trade and Commerce " in the principal cities of the south, he established and incorporated in 1874 the Mississippi Valley and Brazil Steamship Company in St. Louis, Missouri he presented the battle-sword of his father to the United States in 1887. Mr. Reid is the author of " The U. S. Bankrupt Law of 1841, with a Synopsis and Notes, and the Leading American and English Decisions " (Natchez, 1842); "The Scouting Expeditions of McCulloch's Texas Rangers " (Philadelphia, 1847); "The Battle of Chickamauga, a Concise History of Events from the Evacuation of Chattanooga" (Mobile, 1863); and “The Daring Raid of General John H. Morgan, in Ohio, his Capture and Wonderful Escape with Captain T. Henry Hines" (Atlanta, 1864): and reported and edited " The Case of the Private-armed Brig-of-War "General Armstrong,' with the Brief of Pacts and Authorities on International Law, and the Arguments of Charles O'Conor, Sam C. Reid, and P. Phillips, before the U. S. Court of Claims at Washington, D. C. with the Decision of the Court" (New York, 1857). He also prepared "The Life and Times of Colonel Aaron Burr in vindication of Burr's character, but the manuscript was destroyed by fire in 1850.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 216-217.

REID, Whitelaw, journalist, born near Xenia, Ohio, 27 October, 1837. He was graduated at Miami University in 1856, took an active interest in journalism and polities before attaining his majority, made speeches in the Fremont Campaign on the Republican side, and soon became editor of the Xenia "News." At the opening of the Civil War he was sent into the field as correspondent of the Cincinnati "Gazette," making his headquarters at Washington, whence his letters on current politics (under the signature of "Agate") attracted much attention by their thorough information and pungent style. From that point he made excursions to the army wherever there was a prospect of active operations. He served as aide-de-camp to General William S. Rosecrans in the western Virginia Campaign of 1861, and was present at the battle of Shiloh and the battle of Gettysburg. He was elected librarian of the House of Representatives in 1863, serving in that capacity three years. He engaged in cotton-planting in Louisiana after the close of the war, and embodied the results of his observations in the south in a book entitled "After the War" (Cincinnati, 1866); then returning to Ohio, he gave two years to writing " Ohio in the War" (2 vols., Cincinnati. 1868). This work is by far the most important of all the state histories of the Civil War. It contains elaborate biographies of most of the chief generals of the army, and a complete history of the state from 1861 till 1865. On the conclusion of this labor he came to New York at the invitation of Horace Greeley, and became an editorial writer upon the " Tribune." On the death of Mr. Greeley in 1872, Mr. Reid succeeded him as editor and principal owner of the paper. In 1878 he was chosen by the legislature of New York to be a regent for life of the university. With this exception, he has declined all public employment. He was offered by President Hayes the post of minister to Germany, and a similar appointment, by President Garfield. He is a director of numerous financial and charitable corporations, and has been for many years president of the Lotos Club. Mr. Reid has travelled extensively in this country and in Europe. Besides the works mentioned above and his contributions to periodical literature, he has published " Schools of Journalism " (New York, 1871); "The Scholar in Politics" (1873): "Some Newspaper Tendencies" (1879); and " Town-Hall Suggestions" (1881).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 217.

REILLY, James W., soldier, born about 1842. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1863, appointed 1st lieutenant of ordnance, and served as assistant ordnance officer at Watertown Arsenal, Massachusetts. from 24 July, 1863, till 24 February, 1864, as inspector of ordnance at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, from March till July, 1864, and as assistant ordnance officer of the Department of the Tennessee from 11 July till 11 November, 1864, being engaged in the battles of Atlanta, 22 and 29 July, 1864. He was chief of ordnance of the Department of the Ohio from 11 November, 1864, till April, 1865, participating in the battles of Franklin, 30 November, 1864, and Nashville, 15-16 December, 1864, after which he was on sick leave of absence. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 30 July. 1864, resigning on 20 April, 1865. In May, 1866, he was assistant ordnance officer in the arsenal in Washington, D. C., and he was afterward assistant officer at Watervliet Arsenal, New York.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 218.

REMINGTON, Philo, inventor, born in Litchfield, New York, 31 October, 1816. His father, Eliphalet Remington (1793-1861), as a boy obtained from a country blacksmith the privilege of using his forge on rainy days and winter evenings, and with such tools and appliances as his own ingenuity suggested produced a gun. It proved so satisfactory that he was encouraged to continue, and soon established his own forge, with trip-hammer and lathe, from which has developed the great factory now known as the Remington Armory. Philo was educated at common schools and at Cazenovia Seminary, after which he entered the factory. Inheriting his father's mechanical genius, he was most carefully trained in the use of every tool that is employed in the manufacture of fire-arms, and in time became mechanical superintendent of the factory. With his brothers, Samuel and Eliphalet, the firm of E. Remington and Sons was established, and for upward of twenty-five years he continued in charge of the mechanical department. In the course of this experience his firm probably manufactured a greater variety of fire-arms than any other like establishment, and their arms have a high reputation. The breech loading rifle that bears the name of Remington, of which millions have been made and sold, is the best known of the guns that are made under their supervision. One of the early inventors of the type-writer placed his crude model in the hands of this firm, and under their care the machine became the most successful instrument in use. In 1886 the Remingtons disposed of their type-writing-machine manufacturing business, and soon afterward the firm of E. Remington and Sons went into liquidation. Since then Mr. Remington has lived in retirement. Philo Remington was for nearly twenty years resident of the village of Ilion, and with his brother has given Syracuse University sums aggregating $250,000.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 219-220.

REMOND, Charles Lenox, 1810-1873, free African American, Boston, Massachusetts, orator, abolitionist leader.  Member, 1849-1860, Vice President, and delegate of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS).  Member of the Executive Committee, 1843-1848, and a Manager, 1848-1853, AASS.  He attended the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840.  Agent for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society.  First Black abolitionist employed as spokesman in anti-slavery cause (in 1838).  Recruited African American soldiers for the Union Army.  (Dumond, 1961, p. 331; Leeman, pp. 302-310; Mabee, 1970, pp. 61, 64, 103, 104, 106, 122, 124, 131, 157, 161, 173, 177, 180, 252, 254, 258, 261, 264, 294, 320, 322-324, 335, 373; Pease, 1965, pp. 314, 335-342; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 32, 45, 436-437; Wheaton, 1996; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 499; Annals of Congress; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 18, p. 335; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 9, p. 404)

REMOND, Sarah Parker, 1826-1894, African American, abolitionist, orator, women’s rights activist, physician,  friend of abolitionist Abby Kelley.  Sister to Charles Lenox Remond.  (Wheaton, 1996; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 499; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 686-687; Annals of Congress; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 18, p. 337; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 9, p. 406)

RENTOUL, William S., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Church Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1861-64.

RHOADES, Zenas, N. Marlboro, Massachusetts, abolitionist.  Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1844-1850.

RENO, Jesse Lee (re-no ), soldier, born in Wheeling, W. Virginia, 20 June, 1823; died on South Mountain, Maryland, 14 September, 1862. He was appointed a cadet in the U.S. Military Academy from Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 1846, and at once promoted brevet 2d lieutenant of ordnance. He served in the war with Mexico, taking part in the battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, and Chapultepec, and in the siege of Vera Cruz. He was commissioned 2d lieutenant. 3 March. 1847, brevetted 1st lieutenant, 18 April, for gallant conduct in the first-named engagement, and captain, 13 September. for bravery at Chapultepec, where he commanded a howitzer battery, and was severely wounded. He was assistant professor of mathematics at the Military Academy ' January till July, 1849, secretary of a board to prepare a “system of instruction for heavy Artillery” in 1849–50, assistant to the ordnance board at Washington, Arsenal, D.C, in 1851–3, and on topographical duty in Minnesota in 1853–4. He was chief of ordnance in the Utah Expedition in 1857–'9, and in command of Mount Vernon Arsenal, Alabama, from 1859 until its seizure by the Confederates in January, 1861. On 1 July, 1860, he was promoted captain for fourteen years' continuous service. From 2 February till 6 December, 1861, he was in charge of the arsenal at Leavenworth, Kansas. After being made brigadier-general of volunteers, 12 November, 1861, he was in command of the 2d Brigade during General Ambrose E. Burnside's expedition into North Carolina, being engaged in the capture of Roanoke Island, where he led an attack against Fort Bartow, and the battles of New Berne and Camden. From April till August, 1862, he was in command of a division in the Department of North Carolina, and on 18 July he was commissioned major-general of volunteers. In the campaign in northern Virginia, in the following month, he was at the head of the 9th Army Corps, and took part under General John Pope in the battles of Manassas and Chantilly. Still at the head of the 9th Corps, General Reno was in the advance at the battle of South Mountain, where he was conspicuous for his gallantry and activity during the entire day. Early in the evening he was killed while leading an assault. REN0, Marcus A., soldier, born in Illinois about 1835. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1857, and assigned to the dragoons. After serving on the western frontier and being made 2d and 1st lieutenant, he was commissioned captain in the 1st U.S. Cavalry, 12 November 1861. Subsequently he took part, among other engagements, in the battles of Williamsburg, Gaines's Mills, Malvern Hill, Antietam, and the action at Kelly's Ford, Virginia, 17 March, 1863, where he was wounded, and was brevetted major for gallant and meritorious conduct. He was also present at Cold Harbor and Trevillian Station, and at Cedar Creek on 19 October 1864, when he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel. From January till July, 1865, as colonel of the 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry, he was in command of a brigade and encountered Mosby's guerillas at Harmony, Virginia. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted colonel in the regular army and brigadier-general of volunteers for meritorious services during the Civil War. After serving as assistant instructor of infantry tactics in the U.S. Military Academy, and in the Freedmen's Bureau at New Orleans, he was assigned to duty in the west. On 26 December, 1868, he was promoted major of the 7th U.S. Cavalry, and in 1876 he was engaged with the lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, General George A. Custer (q.v.), in the expedition against the hostile Sioux Indians. Owing to official censure of his conduct in that campaign, he was dismissed the service, 1 April, 1880. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 221-222

RENSHAW, William Bainbridge, naval officer, born in Brooklyn, New York, 11 October, 1816; died near Galveston, Texas, 1 January, 1863. He was appointed a midshipman on 22 December, 1831, passed the examination for advancement in 1837, and was promoted lieutenant on 8 September, 1841, and commander on 26 April, 1861. He was assigned the steamer “Westfield,” of Admiral David G. Farragut's squadron, and was by him placed in command of the gunboats blockading Galveston, which place he captured on 10 October, 1862. The city and island were held as a landing-place for future operations by the gun-boats alone, until in the latter part of December, 1862, a detachment of troops arrived. Before others could follow, the Confederate General John B. Magruder attacked and captured the town. As the action began, the “Westfield,” in taking position, ran aground on a sand-bank. After the defeat, Commander Renshaw determined to transfer his crew to another of the gun-boats and blow up his own vessel, on which there was a large supply of powder. After his men had been placed in boats, he remained behind to light the fuse, but a drunken man is supposed to have ignited the match prematurely, and in the explosion the commander was killed together with the boat's crew that was waiting for him alongside.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 222.

RENWICK, James, physicist, born in Liverpool. England, 30 May, 1790; died in New York City, 12 January, 1863. He was born during his parents return from a visit to Scotland, where his mother, formerly a Miss Jeffrey, the daughter of a Scottish clergyman, had been a famous beauty. Burns celebrated her in three of his songs. James was graduated at Columbia in 1807, standing first in his class, and in 1813 became instructor in natural and experimental philosophy and chemistry in that college. In 1820 he was called to the chair of these sciences, which he then held until 1853, when he was made professor emeritus. He entered the U.S. service in 1814 as topographical engineer with the rank of major, and spent his summers in this work. In 1838 he was appointed by the U.S. government one of the commissioners for the exploration of the northeast boundary-line between the United States and New Brunswick. From 1817 till 1820 he was a trustee of Columbia, and in 1829 he received the degree of LL.D. from that college. Professor  Renwick was a vigorous writer and a frequent contributor to the first “New York Review,” and on the establishment of the “Whig Review” he became one of its most valued writers, also contributing to the “American Quarterly Review.” He translated from the French Lallemand's “Treatise on Artillery” (2 vols., New York, 1820), and edited, with notes, American editions of Parkes's “Rudiments of Chemistry” (1824); Lardner's “Popular Lectures on the Steam-Engine” (1828): Daniell's “Chemical Philosophy” (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1832); and Moseley’s “Illustrations of Practical Mechanics” (New York, 1839). His own works include, besides official reports, lives of “David Rittenhouse” (1839); “Robert Fulton” (1845); and “Count Rumford” (1848), in Sparks's “Library of American Biography”; also “Outlines of Natural Philosophy,” the earliest extended treatise on this subject published in the United States (2 vols., New York, 1822–3): “Treatise on the Steam-Engine" (1830), which was translated into several languages; “Elements of Mechanics” (Philadelphia, 1832); “Applications of the Science of Mechanics to Practical Purposes” (New York, 1840); “Life of DeWitt Clinton, with Selections of his Letters” (1840); “Life of John Jay [with Henry B. Renwick] and Alexander Hamilton ” (1841); “First Principles of Chemistry” (1841); and “First Principles of Natural Philosophy.” (1842). Professor Renwick printed £ for the use of his classes “First Principles in Chemistry” (1838), and “Outlines of Geology” (1838), and a synopsis of his lectures on “Chemistry Applied to the Arts,” taken down by one of his class, was printed.—His son, Henry Brevoort, engineer, born in New York City, 4 September, 1817, was graduated at Columbia in 1836, and became assistant engineer in the U.S. service. He served as first assistant astronomer of the U.S. Boundary Commission in 1840–2, and in 1848 was appointed examiner in the U.S. Patent-Office. In 1853 he became U. S. inspector of steamboat engines for the District of New York, and since his retirement from that office he has devoted himself to consultation practice in the specialty of mechanical engineering, in which branch he is accepted as one of the best authorities in the United States. Mr. Renwick was associated with his father in the preparation of “Life of John Jay” (New York, 1841). —Another son, James, architect, born in Bloomingdale (now part of New York City), 3 November, 1818, was graduated at Columbia in 1836. He inherited a fondness for architecture from his father. At first he served as an engineer in the Erie Railway, and then he became an assistant engineer on the Croton Aqueduct, in which capacity he superintended the construction of the distributing reservoir on Fifth Avenue between Fortieth and Forty-Second Streets. Soon afterward he volunteered to furnish a plan for a fountain in Union Square, which was accepted by the property-owners, who had decided to erect one at their expense. When the vestry of Grace Church purchased the property on Broadway at 11th Street Mr. Renwick submitted designs for the new edifice, which were accepted. The building, which is purely Gothic, was completed in 1845. All of the designs and working drawings were made by him. Subsequently he was chosen architect of Calvary Church on Fourth Avenue, and also of the Church of the Puritans, formerly on Union Square, was selected by the regents of the Smithsonian Institution to prepare plans for their building, and also built the Corcoran Gallery in Washington. In 1853 he was requested to make designs for a Roman Catholic cathedral to be built on Fifth Avenue between Fiftieth and Fifty-first Streets. His plans were accepted, and on 15 August, 1858, the cornerstone of St. Patrick's Cathedral, seen in the accompanying illustration, was laid. Its architecture is of the decorated or geometric style that prevailed in Europe in the 13th century, of which the cathedrals of Rheims, Cologne, and Amiens are typical, and it is built of white marble with a base course of granite. On 25 May, 1879, the cathedral was dedicated by Cardinal McCloskey, and in 1887 the completion of the two towers was undertaken. Meanwhile residences for the archbishop and the vicar-general have been built. It is estimated that upward of $2,500,000 will be expended before the group of buildings, as originally designed, will be completed. Later he planned the building for Vassar College, St. Bartholomew's Church, and the Church of the Covenant, New York, the last two in the Byzantine style. Besides churches in various cities, including St. Ann's in Brooklyn, he planned the building of the Young men's Christian Association in 1869, and Booth's theatre in the same year, and other public edifices in New York City. –Another son, Edward Sabine, expert, born in New York City, 3 January, 1823, was graduated at Columbia in 1839, and then, turning his attention to civil and mechanical engineering, became the superintendent of large iron-works in Wilkesbarre, Pa., but since 1849, has been engaged mainly as an expert in the trials of patent cases in the U. S. Courts. In 1862, in connection with his brother, Henry B. Renwick, he devised methods for the repair of the steamer “Great Eastern" while afloat, and successfully accomplished it, replating a fracture in the bilge 82 feet long and about 10 feet broad at the widest place, a feat which had been pronounced inpossible by other experts. He has invented a wrought-iron railway-chair for connecting the ends of rails (1850), a steam cut-off for beam engines (1856), a system of side propulsion for steamers (1862), and numerous improvements in incubators and brooders (1877-'86), and was one of the original inventors of the self-binding reaping-machine (1851). He has published a work on artificial incubation entitled “The Thermostatic Incubator” (New York, 1883).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 222-223

REVERE, Joseph Warren, soldier, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 17 May, 1812; died in Hoboken, New Jersey, 20 April, 1880. He was made a midshipman in the U. S. Navy, 1 April, 1828, became a passed midshipman on 4 June, 1834, and lieutenant on 25 February, 1841. Revere took part in the Mexican War, and resigned from the navy on 20 September, 1850. He then entered the Mexican service. For saving the lives of several Spaniards he was knighted by Queen Isabella of Spain. He was made colonel of the 7th Regiment of New Jersey Volunteers on 31 August, 1861, and promoted brigadier-general of U. S. volunteers on 2 October. 1862. He led a brigade at Fredericksburg, was then transferred to the command of the Excelsior Brigade in the 2d Division, fought with it at Chancellorsville, and after the engagement fell under the censure of his superior officer. In May, 1863, he was tried by court-martial, and dismissed from the military service of the United States. He defended his conduct with great earnestness, and on 10 September, 1864. his dismissal from the army was revoked by President Lincoln, and his resignation was accepted. His "Keel and Saddle" (Boston, 1872) relates many of his personal adventures.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 225.

REVERE, Edward Hutchinson Robbins, physician, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 23 July, 1827; died near Sharpsburg, Maryland, 17 September, 1862, entered Harvard, but left in 1846, pursued the course in the medical school, and received his diploma in 1849. He practised in Boston, and on 14 September, 1861, was appointed assistant surgeon of the 20th Massachusetts Volunteers. At Ball's Bluff, he was captured by the enemy's cavalry, and was kept as a prisoner at Leesburg, and afterward at Richmond, Virginia, until 22 February, 1862, when he was released on parole. He was exchanged in April, 1862, and served with his regiment through the Peninsular Campaign and General John Pope's Campaign on the Rappahannock, was present at Chantilly, and was killed at the battle of Antietam.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 225.

REVERE, Paul Joseph, soldier, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 10 September, 1832; died in Westminster, Maryland, 4 July, 1863, was graduated at Harvard in 1852, and at the beginning of the Civil War entered the National Army as major of the 20th Massachusetts Volunteers. At Ball's Bluff he was wounded in the leg and taken prisoner, and he was confined in Libby Prison until he and six other officers were selected as hostages to answer with their lives for the safety of Confederate privateersmen who had been convicted of piracy in the U. S. Court. They were transferred to the Henrico County prison, and confined for three months in a felon's cell. Major Revere was paroled on 22 February, 1862, and in the beginning of the following May was exchanged. He was engaged in the Peninsular Campaign until he was taken sick in July. On 4 September, 1862, he was made a lieutenant-colonel, and served as assistant inspector-general on the staff of General Edwin V. Sumner. At Antietam, where he displayed great gallantry, he received a wound that compelled him to retire to his home. On his recovery he was appointed colonel of his old regiment, 14 April, 1863, and returned to the field in May. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for bravery at Gettysburg, where he received a fatal wound in the second day's battle.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 225.

REYNOLDS, Alexander W., soldier, born in Clarke County, Virginia, in August, 1817; died in Alexandria, Egypt. 20 May, 1870. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1838. Reynolds served in the Florida War, became 1st lieutenant in 1839, became captain in 1848, and was dismissed in 1855. He was reappointed, with his former rank, in 1857, but joined the Confederate Army in 1861, and was made captain of infantry. He became colonel of the 50th Regiment of Virginia Infantry in July of the same year, and brigadier-general, 14 September, 1863, his brigade being composed of North Carolina and Virginia troops. He went to Egypt after the Civil War, received the appointment of brigadier-general in the Khedives Army in 1866, and served in the Abyssinian War, but subsequently resigned, and resided in Cairo, Egypt.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 226.

REYNOLDS, Daniel H., soldier, born near Centreburg, Knox County, Ohio, 24 December, 1862. He was educated at Ohio Wesleyan University, settled in Someryille, Fayette County, Tennessee, in 1857, studied law, and was admitted to practice in 1858. He moved to Arkansas in May, 1858, settling at Lake Village, Chicot County. On 25 May, 1861, he was elected captain of a company for service in the Confederate Army, and he served in the campaigns in Arkansas and Missouri until April, 1862, when his regiment was ordered to the eastern side of Mississippi River, and fell back to Tupelo, Mississippi. He was promoted brigadier-general, 5 March. 1864. General Reynolds participated in many of the battles of the western Confederate Armies from Oak Hills, Missouri, to Nashville, Tennessee. He was several times wounded, and lost a leg. He was state senator in Arkansas in 1866-'7.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 226.

REYNOLDS, Elmer Robert, ethnologist, born in Dansville, Livingston County, New York, 30 July, 1846. He emigrated with his parents to Wisconsin in 1848, and was educated in the public schools and at the medical school of Columbian University, Washington, D. C. He served in the 10th Wisconsin Battery in 1861-'5, participated in the battles of Corinth, Stone River, Knoxville, Resaca, Jonesboro, Atlanta, Bentonville, and numerous minor engagements, and at the end of the Civil War entered the U. S. Navy as school-teacher, serving in the Mediterranean Fleet in 1867, and in the West Indies and Yucatan in 1868. Since 1877 he has been in the U. S. civil service. His last twenty years have been devoted to the exploration of aboriginal remains in the valleys of the Potomac, Piscataway, Wicomico, Patuxent, Choptank, and Shenandoah Rivers, his researches embracing their mortuary mounds, shell banks, copper and soapstone mines, cemeteries, burial-caves, and ancient camps and earthworks. He was a founder of the Anthropological Society of Washington, D. C, and its secretary in 1879-81, received a silver medal from Don Carlos, crown prince of Portugal, in 1886, in recognition of his scientific researches, was knighted by King Humbert of Italy, in 1887, " for distinguished scientific attainments," and is a member of numerous scientific societies. His publications include "Aboriginal Soapstone Quarries in the District of Columbia" (Cambridge, 1878); "The Cemeteries of the Piscataway Indians at Kittamaquindi, Maryland" (Washington, D. C, 1880); "A Scientific Visit to the Caverns of Luray, and the Endless Caverns in the Massanutton Mountains" (1881); "Memoir on the Pre-Columbian Shell-Mounds at Newburg, Maryland,. and the Aboriginal Shell-Fields of the Potomac and Wicomico Rivers" (Copenhagen, General Denmark, 1884); "The Shell-Mounds, Antiquities, and Domestic Arts of the Choptank Indians of Maryland" (1880); and " Memoir on the Pre-Columbian Ossuaries at Cambridge and Hambrook Bay, Maryland" (Lisbon, Portugal, 1887). He has also a large amount of similar material in manuscript.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 226.

REYNOLDS, Joseph Jones, soldier, born in Flemingsburg, Kentucky, 4 January, 1822. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843, served in the military occupation of Texas in 1845-'6, became 1st lieutenant in 1847, and was principal assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy in the U. S. Military Academy from 1849 until his resignation from the army in 1856. He was then professor of mechanics and engineering in Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, till 1860, returned to the army as colonel of the 10th Indiana Volunteers in April, 1861, became brigadier-general of volunteers the next month, and was engaged in various skirmishes and in the action at Green Brier River, 3 October, 1861. He resigned in January, 1862, served without a commission in organizing Indiana Volunteers, became colonel of the 75th Indiana Regiment, 27 August. 1862, and brigadier-general, 17 September of that year. He was in the campaign of the Army of the Cumberland in 1862-'3, became major-general of volunteers in November, 1862, and was engaged at Hoover's Gap, 24 June, 1863, and Chickamauga, 19-20 September, 1863. He was chief of staff of the Army of the Cumberland from 10 October to 5 December of that year, and participated in the battle of Chattanooga. He commanded the defences of New Orleans, Louisiana, from January till June, 1864, commanded the 19th Army Corps, and organized forces for the capture of Mobile. Fort Gaines, and Fort Morgan in June and August. He was in charge of the Department of Arkansas from November, 1864, till April, 1866, mustered out of volunteer service, 1 September, 1866, and reappointed in the U. S. Army as colonel of the 26th U.S. Infantry, 28 July, 1866. He received the brevet of brigadier-general, U. S. Army, 2 March, 1867, for gallant and meritorious service at the battle of Chickamauga, and that of major-general, U. S. Army, at the same date for Mission Ridge. During the reconstruction period, in 1867-'72, he was in command of the 5th Military District, comprising Louisiana and Texas, was elected U. S. Senator from the latter state in 1871, but declined, commanded the Department of the Platte in 1872-6, and in June, 1877, he was retired.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 227.

REYNOLDS, Joseph Smith, soldier, born in New Lenox, Illinois, 3 December 1839. He went to Chicago in 1856, was graduated at its high-school in July, 1861. and in August of that year enlisted in the 64th Illinois Regiment. He was commissioned 2d lieutenant on 31 December, and was in active service three years and ten months. He took part in seventeen battles, was wounded three times, and for "gallant and meritorious service " was promoted to a captaincy, subsequently to colonel. On 11 July, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. He then began the study of law, was graduated at the law department of Chicago University in 1865, admitted to the bar, and has since practised his profession in Chicago. General Reynolds has been elected as representative and senator to the Illinois Legislature, was a commissioner from Illinois to the Universal Exposition at Vienna in 1873, and has held other offices.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 227.

REYNOLDS. William, naval officer, born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 18 December, 1815; died in Washington, D. C, 5 November, 1879. He was appointed midshipman in the U. S. Navy in 1831, served on Captain Charles Wilkes's Exploring Expedition in 1838-'42, was commissioned lieutenant in 1841, and was placed on the retired list in consequence of failing health in 1851. He was then assigned to duty in the Sandwich Islands, where he was instrumental in effecting the Hawaiian Treaty of Reciprocity. He returned to active service in 1861, was made commander in 1862, with the charge of the naval forces at Port Royal, became captain in 1866, senior officer of the ordnance board in 1869-'70, and commodore in the latter year. He served as Chief of Bureau and acting Secretary of the Navy in 1873 and again in 1874, became rear-admiral in December, 1873, and in December, 1877, was retired on account of continued illness. His last service was in command of the U. S. naval forces on the Asiatic Station. Of Admiral Reynolds's services the Secretary of the Navy, Richard W. Thompson, in the order that announced his death, said: "In the administration of the duties committed to him, he did much to improve the personnel and efficiency of the enlisted men of the navy, and in the discharge of all the duties devolving on him, during a long career in the service, he exhibited zeal, intelligence, and ability, for all of which he was conspicuous." See " Reynolds Memorial Address," by Joseph G. Rosengarten (Philadelphia. 1880). brother,
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 227-228.

REYNOLDS, John Fulton, soldier, born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 20 September, 1820; died near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 1 July, 1863, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1841, became 1st lieutenant in 1846, received the brevet of captain in June of that year for his service at Monterey, and was given that of major for Buena Vista in January, 1847. He became captain in 1855, was mentioned in general orders for his services in the expedition against the Rogue River Indians in Oregon, took part in the Utah Expedition under General Albert Sidney Johnston in 1858, and in 1859 became Commandant of Cadets at the U. S. Military Academy. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 14th Infantry in May, 1861, and on 20 August brigadier-general of U. S. volunteers, and was assigned to the command of the 1st Brigade of Pennsylvania Reserves. He was appointed military governor of Fredericksburg, Virginia, in May, 1862, and was engaged at the battles of Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mills, and Glendale, where he was taken prisoner. So great was his popularity in Fredericksburg that the municipal authorities went to Richmond and solicited his exchange. During his captivity he prepared a careful report of the operations of his command under General George B. McClellan. He rejoined the army on his exchange, 8 August, 1862,  second battle of Bull Run. At a critical time in that battle, when his brigade, unable to hold the enemy in check, fell back in confusion, observing that the flag-staff of the 2d Regiment had been broken by a bullet, he seized the flag from the color-bearer and, dashing to the right, rode twice up and down the line, waving it and cheering his men. The troops rallied, and General George H. Gordon, in his " Army of Virginia," says: "Reynolds's division, like a rock, withstood the advance of the victorious enemy, and saved the Union Army from rout." He was assigned to the command of the state militia in defence of Pennsylvania during the Maryland Campaign, and on 29 September. 1862, received the thanks of the legislature for his services. He was commissioned major-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, succeeded General Joseph Hooker in command of the 1st Corps of the Army of the Potomac, was engaged on the left at the battle of Fredericksburg, and was promoted colonel of the 5th U. S. Infantry, 1 June, 1863. On the opening day of the battle of Gettysburg, 1 July, 1863. where he was in command of the left wing— the 1st, the 3d, and the 11th Corps, and Buford's cavalry division—he encountered the van of Lee's Army, and, after making disposition of his men in person, and urging them on to a successful charge, he was struck by a rifle-ball that caused instant death. A sword of honor was awarded him by the enlisted men of the Pennsylvania reserves at the close of the Peninsula Campaign. The men of the 1st Corps erected a bronze heroic statue of him, by John Q. A. Ward, on the field of Gettysburg, and subsequently placed his portrait, by Alexander Laurie, in the library of the U. S. Military Academy, and the state of Pennsylvania placed a granite shaft on the spot where he fell at Gettysburg. On 18 September, 1884, the Reynolds memorial Association unveiled in Philadelphia a bronze equestrian statue of General Reynolds, by John Rogers, the gift of Joseph E. Temple. See "Reynolds Memorial Address," by Joseph Q. Rosengarten (Philadelphia, 1880), and "The Unveiling of the Statue of General John F. Reynolds, by the Reynolds Memorial Association" (1884).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 228.

RHETT, Robert Barnwell, politician, born in Beaufort, South Carolina, 24 December, 1800; died in St. James Parish, Louisiana, 14 September, 1876. He was the son of James and Marianna Smith, but in 1837 adopted the name of Rhett, which was that of a colonial ancestor. He studied law, was elected to the legislature in 1826, and in 1832 became attorney-general of South Carolina. During the nullification controversy he was an ardent advocate of extreme state rights views. He served six successive terms in Congress, from 1837 till 1849, having been elected as a Democrat, and on the death of John C. Calhoun he was chosen to fill the latter's seat in the U. S. Senate, which he took on 6 January, 1851. In Congress he continued to uphold extreme southern views, and in 1851–2, during the secession agitation in South Carolina, he advocated the immediate withdrawal of his state from the Union, whether it should be accompanied by others or not. On the defeat of his party in the latter year, he resigned from the senate, and after the death of his wife in the same year he retired to his plantation, taking no part in politics for many years. He was an active member of the South Carolina secession Convention of December, 1860, and prepared the address that announced its reasons for passing the ordinance. Subsequently he was a delegate to the provisional Confederate Congress at Montgomery, Alabama, in 1861, and presided over the committee that reported the Confederate Constitution. He was afterward a member of the regular Confederate Congress. Mr. Rhett was for some time owner of the Charleston “Mercury,” the organ of the so called “fire-eaters,” in which he advocated his extreme views. During the war it was conducted by his son, Robert Barnwell Rhett, Jr. After the Civil War Mr. Rhett moved to Louisiana, and was seen no more in public life, except as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1868.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 229-230.

RHETT, Thomas Grimké, soldier, born in South Carolina about 1825; died in Baltimore, Maryland, 28 July, 1878. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1845, assigned to the Ordnance Corps, and served at Washington Arsenal till 1846, when he was transferred to the mounted rifles and ordered to Mexico. He was brevetted captain, 12 October, 1847, for gallantry in the defence of Puebla, and after the war was on frontier duty, becoming captain in 1853, and paymaster, with the rank of major, 7 April, 1858. He resigned on 1 April, 1861, and reported to the provisional Confederate government at but, not receiving the recognition to which he thought himself entitled, returned to his native state, and was commissioned major-general by Governor Francis W. Pickens. He was chief of staff to General Joseph E. Johnston till June, 1862, when he was ordered to the Trans-Mississippi Department. After the war General Rhett was colonel of ordnance in the Egyptian Army from 1870 till 1873, when he had a paralytic stroke, and resigned. He remained abroad till 1876, but found no relief from his malady.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 230.

RHIND, Alexander Colden, naval officer, born in New York City, 31 October, 1821. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman, from Alabama, 3 September, 1838, became passed midshipman, 2 July 1845; master, 21 February, 1853; and lieutenant, 17 March, 1854. He served in the “John Adams,” of the Pacific Squadron, in 1855–6, and in the “Constellation,” on the coast of Africa, in 1859–61. At the beginning of the Civil War he commanded the steamer “Crusader,” on the South Atlantic Blockade, and participated in a series of operations in Edisto Sound, South Carolina, for which he received the thanks of the Navy Department in 1861–2. He was commissioned lieutenant-commander on 16 July, 1862, and had charge of the “Seneca" in 1862, and the monitor “Keokuk” in 1862-63. On 7 April, 1863, he took the “Keokuk" within 550 yards of Fort Sumpter, becoming the special target of all the forts. His vessel was hit ninety times and nineteen shot penetrated at or below the water-line. She withdrew from action sinking, but Rhind kept the ship afloat till next morning, when she sank, but the crew were saved. He was commissioned commander, 2 January, 1863, continued on duty off Charleston, commanding the steamer “Paul Jones” and the flag-ship “Wabash,” and participated in engagements with Fort Wagner and other forts in 1863–74. In the attack, 18 July, 1863, he commanded the division of gunboats. He was given the gun-boat “Agawam," of the North Atlantic Squadron, in 1864–’5, was in James River from May till October, 1864, co-operating with Grant's army, and bombarded forts and batteries, especially Howlett's, for which he received the thanks of the Navy Department. In the attack on Fort Fisher he was selected to command the “Louisiana” with a volunteer crew from his vessel. She was loaded with 215 tons of gunpowder and bombs, fitted with fuses set to explode by clockwork, and towed to within 200 yards of the beach and 400 yards from the fort. The perilous undertaking, suggested by General Benjamin F. Butler, was successful, but did not injure the fort. Commander Rhind was recommended for promotion, was commissioned captain, 2 March, 1870, commanded the “Congress,” on the European station, in 1872, was light-house inspector in 1876–’8, and was commissioned commodore, 30 September, 1876. He was on special duty and president of the Board of Inspection from 1880 till 1882, became a rear-admiral on 30 October, 1883, and on the following day was placed on the retired list.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 230.

RICE, Alexander Hamilton, 1818-1895.  Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Boston, Massachusetts.  Four term Congressman, December 1859-March 1867.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery.  (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 232-233; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 534; Congressional Globe)

RICE, Alexander Hamilton, governor of Massachusetts, born in Newton Lower Falls, Massachusetts, 30 August,
1818. He received a business training in his father's paper-mill at Newton and in a mercantile house in Boston, and, after his graduation at Union College in 1844, established himself in the paper business at Boston. He became a member of the school committee, entered the common council, was chosen president of that body, and in 1855 and 1857 was elected mayor of Boston on a citizens' ticket. During his administration the Back Bay improvements were undertaken, the establishment of the Boston City Hospital was authorized, and on his recommendation the management of the public institutions was committed to a board composed in part of members of the common council and in part chosen from the general body of citizens. He served several years as president of the Boston board of trade, and has been an officer or trustee of numerous financial and educational institutions. He was elected to Congress by the Republican Party for four successive terms, serving from 5 December, 1859, till 3 March, 1867. He served on the Committee on Naval Affairs, and, as chairman of that committee in the 38th Congress introduced important measures. He was a delegate to the Loyalists' Convention at Philadelphia in 1866, and to the Republican National Convention in 1868. He was governor of Massachusetts in 1876, 1877, and 1878. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 232-233. 

RICE, John H., Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)

RICHARDS, William M., Deerfield, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1838-40

RICHARDSON, Asa, New York, American Abolition Society (Radical Abolitionist, Vol. 1, No. 1, New York, August 1855)

RICHARDSON, Charles L., Massachusetts, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Executive Committee, 1843-48.

RICHARDSON, Jonas, New York, American Abolition Society (Radical Abolitionist, Vol. 1, No. 1, New York, August 1855)

RICE, Americus Vespucius, soldier, born in Perrysville, Ohio, 18 November, 1835. He was graduated at Union College in 1860, and began the study of law. On 12 April, 1861, he enlisted in the National Army, soon afterward was appointed a lieutenant, and then a captain in the 22d Ohio Volunteers, and served in West Virginia. When his term of enlistment expired in August, 1861, he assisted in recruiting the 57th Ohio Infantry, returned to the field as captain of a company, and became lieutenant-colonel, and afterward colonel, of the regiment. He fought in General William T. Sherman's campaigns, in General William B. Hazen's division, was wounded several times, and during the march to the sea lost his right leg. The people of his district gave him a majority of votes as the Democratic candidate for Congress in 1864, but he was defeated by the soldiers vote. He was promoted brigadier-general on 31 May, 1865, and mustered out on 15 January, 1866. In 1868 he became manager of a private banking business in Ottawa, Ohio. He was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention at Baltimore in 1872, and was elected in 1874 to Congress, and re-elected in 1876. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 233.

RICE, Benjamin Franklin, U.S. Senator, born in East Otto, Cattaraugus County, New York, 26 May, 1828. After obtaining his education in an academy, he taught for several winters, studied law, and was admitted to the bar at Irvine, Kentucky. He was a presidential elector in 1856, and was elected to the Kentucky Legislature in 1865. Mr. Rice moved to Minnesota in 1860, enlisted in the National Army in 1861, was appointed a captain in the 3d Minnesota Infantry, and served in that grade till 1864, when he resigned and established himself in the practice of law at Little Rock, Arkansas. He was the organizer of the Republican Party in Arkansas in 1867, was chairman of its central committee, managed the electoral canvass during the predominance of his party, and was elected to the U. S. Senate, serving from 3 June, 1868, till 3 March, 1873.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 233.

RICE, Henry Mower, U.S. Senator, born in Waitsfield, Vermont, 20 November, 1816. He emigrated to the territory of Michigan in 1835, and was employed in making surveys of Kalamazoo and Grand Rivers, and on the survey of the Sault Sainte Marie Canal in 1837. He moved to Fort Snelling, Iowa territory, in 1839, and was post-sutler at Fort Atkinson in 1840-'2, and subsequently an agent of a fur-trading company, and established trading posts from Lake Superior to the Red River of the North. On 2 August, 1847, he served as U. S. commissioner at Fond du Lac in making a treaty with the Ojibway Indians for the cession of the country south of Crow Wing and Long Prairie Rivers. On 21 August he obtained from the Pillager Band of Ojibways the cession of a large tract between those rivers, known as the Leaf River Country. He assisted in making many other treaties. He settled in St. Paul in 1849, was elected a delegate from Minnesota Territory to Congress in 1853, was re-elected in 1855, was the author of the law extending the right of pre-emption over unsurveyed lands in the territory, and procured the passage of an act authorizing the framing of a state constitution preparatory to the admission of Minnesota into the Union. He was then elected to the U. S. Senate, serving from 11 May, 1858, till 3 March, 1863. Mr. Rice was a member of the committees on Finance and Military Affairs, and the special committee on the Condition of the Country in 1860-'l, and a delegate to the Philadelphia National Union Convention in 1866. He was the founder of Bayfield, Wisconsin, and Munising, Michigan, and has given Rice Park to the city of St. Paul.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p.

RICE, James Clay, soldier, born in Worthington, Massachusetts, 27 December, 1829; died near Spottsylvania Court House, Virginia, 11 May, 1864. He obtained an education by his own efforts, and, after graduation at Yale in 1854, engaged in teaching at Natchez, Mississippi, and conducted the literary department of a newspaper. He also began the study of law, and continued it in New York City, where he was admitted to the bar in 1856 and entered into practice. When the Civil War began he enlisted as a private, became adjutant and captain, and, on the organization of the 44th New York Regiment, was appointed its lieutenant-colonel. He became colonel of the regiment soon afterward, and led it in the battles of Yorktown, Hanover Court-House, Gaines's Mills, Malvern Hill, Manassas, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville, and at Gettysburg commanded a brigade, and (luring the second day's fight performed an important service by holding the extreme left of the line against repeated attacks and securing Round Top mountain against a flank movement. For this he was commissioned as brigadier-general of volunteers, 17 August, 1863. He participated in the advance on Mine Run and in the operations in the Wilderness, and was killed in the battle near Spottsylvania.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 235

RICE, Samuel Allen, soldier, born in Penn Yan, New York, 27 January, 1828; died in Oskaloosa, Iowa, 6 July, 1864. He was educated at Ohio University and at Union College, where he was graduated in 1849. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1852, and began practice at Oskaloosa, Iowa, where he was elected county attorney in 1853. In 1856 he was chosen attorney-general of Iowa, and in 1858 he was continued in that office for a second term. He entered the National Army as colonel of the 33d Iowa volunteers, his commission dating from 10 August, 1862, promoted brigadier-general of volunteers. For bravery at Helena, Arkansas, he August, 1863, and served with credit through the campaigns of 1863–4 in Arkansas until he was mortally wounded at Jenkin's Ferry, 30 April, 1864.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 236.

RICE, Elliott Warren, soldier, born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 16 November, 1835; died in Sioux City, Iowa, 22 June, 1887, was educated at Ohio University and Union law-school, admitted to the bar, and practised in Oskaloosa, Iowa. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the National Army as a private, and first met the enemy at Belmont, Missouri, 7 November, 1861. He rose to the rank of brigadier-general, his commission dating from 20 June, 1864, fought with distinction in the important battles of the southwest, and in General William T. Sherman's campaign in Georgia and the Carolinas a brigade in General John M. Corse's division. He was brevetted major-general on 13 March, 1865, and mustered out on 24 August.[Brother of General Samuel Allen Rice].
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 236.

RICHARDSON, Albert Deane, journalist, born in Franklin, Massachusetts, 6 October, 1833; died in New York City, 2 December, 1869. He was educated at the district school of his native village and at Holliston Academy. At eighteen years of age he went to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, where he formed a newspaper connection, wrote a farce for Barney Williams, and appeared a few times on the stage. In 1857 he went to Kansas, taking an active part in the political struggle of the territory, attending anti-slavery meetings, making speeches, and corresponding about the issues of the hour with the Boston “Journal.” He was also secretary of the territorial legislature. Two years later he went to Pike's Peak, the gold fever being then at its height, in company with Horace Greeley, between whom and Richardson a lasting friendship was formed. In the autumn of 1859 he made a journey through the southwestern territories, and sent accounts of his wanderings to eastern journals. During the winter that preceded the Civil War he volunteered to go through the south as secret correspondent of the “Tribune,” and returned, after many narrow escapes, just before the firing on Sumter. He next entered the field as war correspondent, and for two years alternated between Virginia and the southwest, being present at many battles. took, in company with Junius Henri Browne, a fellow-correspondent of the “Tribune,” and Richard T. Colburn, of the New York “World,” to run the batteries of Vicksburg on two barges, which were lashed to a steam-tug. After they had been On the night of 3 May, 1863, he under fire for more than half an hour, a large shell struck the tug, and, bursting in the furnace, threw the coals on the barges and set them on fire. Out of 34 men, 18 were killed or wounded and 16 were captured, the correspondents among them. The Confederate government would neither release nor exchange the “Tribune” men, who, after spending eighteen months in seven southern prisons, escaped from Salisbury, North Carolina, in the dead of winter, and, walking 400 miles, arrived within the National lines at Strawberry Plains, Tennessee, several months before the close of the war. They had had charge of the hospitals at Salisbury, where a dreadful mortality prevailed, and brought with them a complete list, so far as procurable, of the deaths there, which they printed in the “Tribune,” furnishing the only information that kindred and friends in the north had of their fate. Richardson's death was the result of a pistol-shot fired by Daniel McFarland in the “Tribune” office on 26 November, 1869. McFarland had lived unhappily with his wife, who had obtained a divorce and was engaged to marry Mr. Richardson. A few days before his death they were married, the ceremony being performed by the Reverend Henry Ward Beecher. Richardson's first wife had died while he was in prison. The last four years of his life were passed in lecturing, travel, and writing. He published “The Field, the Dungeon, and the Escape” (Hartford, 1865); “Beyond the Mississippi.” (1866); and “A Personal History of Ulysses S. Grant” (1868), all of which sold largely. A collection of his miscellaneous writings, with a memoir by his widow, Abby Sage Richardson, was printed under the title “Garnered Sheaves” (1871).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 240-241.

RICHARDSON, Edmund, merchant, born in Caswell County, North Carolina, 28 June, 1818; died in Jackson, Mississippi, 11 June, 1886. He attended a common school for several terms, became a clerk in a store in Danville, Virginia, and at sixteen years of age settled in Jackson, Mississippi where he gradually engaged in cotton-planting, shipping, and manufacturing to a large extent. At the close of the Civil War he was bankrupt, but he successfully engaged in business again, and became the largest cotton-planter in the world. His fortune was estimated at from $10,000,000 to $12,000,000, and he was the owner of forty cotton-plantations in Louisiana. He was chairman of the board of management of the New Orleans Centennial Exposition in 1884-'5, and gave $25,000 toward paying its expenses.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 241.

RICHARDSON, Henry Hobson, architect, born in Priestley's Point, St. James Parish, Louisiana, 29 September, 1838; died in Brookline, Massachusetts, 28 April, 1886. His father, Henry D. Richardson, was a planter of American birth, but his earlier ancestors were Scotchmen, who had moved to England before the family came to this country. His mother was Catherine Caroline Priestley, a granddaughter of Dr. Joseph Priestley. He was at first intended for West Point and the army, but the death of his father changed his plans, and he was graduated at Harvard in 1859. His college career was not remarkable for proficiency or promise, but after his graduation he went to Paris, where he began the study of architecture, and at once developed remarkable powers and capacity for work. The loss of his property during the Civil War obliged him to serve in an architect's office for his support while he was pursuing his studies. In 1865 he returned to this country and became a partner of Charles D. Gambrill in the firm of Gambrill and Richardson. His earliest buildings were in Springfield, Massachusetts, where the railroad offices and the Agawam Bank at once gave evidence of his power. The Church of the Unity in the same city is a Gothic building, and quite unlike the ecclesiastical structures of his later years. His strongest work began with the erection of Brattle Street Church in Boston in 1871. The next year he presented his plans for Trinity Church, Boston (shown in the accompanying illustration), for which he was chosen to be the architect, and which occupied much of his thought and time till it was finished in 1877. It is after the manner of the churches of Auvergne in France, and gets its character from its great central tower, which, both within and without, is the feature of its architecture. Before he had done with Trinity, Mr. Richardson was already at work upon the Cheney Buildings at Hartford, Connecticut, and not much later on the Memorial library at North Easton, the public library at Woburn, and the state capitol at Albany, on which last building he was employed for many years, in connection with Leopold Eidlitz and Frederick Law Olmsted, to carry forward the work which had been begun by others. These buildings and others, which belong to the same period, show the full ripeness of his powers. They have the qualities that belong to all his future work— breadth and simplicity, the disposition to produce effect rather by the power of great mass and form than by elaboration of detail, the free use of conventional types and models, and a freshness and variety that spring from sympathetic feeling of the meaning and necessities of each new structure. A freely treated Romanesque preponderates in all his style, and was well suited to his own exuberant but solid and substantial nature. His influence began to be felt very soon and very widely. Without any effort or desire to create a school, he drew about him a large number of young men, on whom the impress that he made was very strong. After he came from New York to Brookline, in the neighborhood of Boston, about 1875, his house and working-rooms were thronged with students and alive with work. There he prepared his plans for Sever Hall and Austin Hall at Harvard; for libraries at Quincy, Malden, and Burlington; for railroad-stations along the Boston and Albany and other roads; for the cathedral at Albany, which, however, was not given to him to build; for the Albany City-Hall; for dwellings in Washington and Boston; for the two great buildings that he left unfinished at his death, the Board of Trade in Cincinnati and the court-house in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania; for great warehouses in Boston and Chicago; and for other structures of many sorts throughout the land. The result of them all has been a strengthening, widening, and ennobling of the architecture of the country which must always mark an epoch in its history. Mr. Richardson was a man of fascinating intelligence and social power. He died in the midst of his work, although his last ten years were a long, brave, cheerful fight with feeble health and constant suffering. His life has been written, in an illustrated quarto, by Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer (Boston, 1888).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 241-242.

RICHARDSON, Israel Bush, soldier, born in Fairfax, Vermont, 26 December, 1815; died in Sharpsburg, Maryland, 3 November, 1862. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1841, entered the 3d U.S. Infantry, and served through the Florida War. He became 1st lieutenant in 1846, participated in the principal battles of the Mexican War, and received the brevets of captain and major for gallantry at Contreras, Churubusco, and Chapultepec. His coolness in action won him the name of “fighting Dick” in the army. He became captain in 1851, resigned in 1855, and settled on a farm near Pontiac, Michigan. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed colonel of the 2d Michigan Regiment, and when he reported with his regiment in Washington, D.C., to have my “Fighting Dick’ with me again.” A few days afterward he was placed at the head of a brigade with which he covered the retreat of the army at Bull Run, his commission of brigadier-general of volunteers dating from 17 May, 1861. He commanded a division of General Edward V. Sumner's corps at the battle of the Chickahominy, where he acted with great gallantry, became major-general of volunteers, 4 July, 1862, was engaged at the second battle of Bull Run, at South Mountain, and Antietam, receiving fatal wounds in the latter fight. He was a lineal descendant of Israel Putnam.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 242.

RICHARDSON, James, clergyman, born in Dedham, Massachusetts, in 1817; died in Washington, D.C., 10 November, 1863. He was graduated at Harvard in 1837, and during his course aided in collecting Thomas Carlyle’s “Miscellanies,” which were published under Ralph Waldo Emerson's supervision (Boston, 1836). He afterward became a clerk of a county court, taught in New Hampshire, and was principal of a school near Providence, Rhode Island. He was graduated at the Harvard Divinity-School in 1845, ordained in Southington, Connecticut, and in 1847 became pastor of the Unitarian Society in Haverhill, Massachusetts. He took charge of the church in Rochester, New York, in 1856, but was compelled by the failure of his health to resign in 1859, and returned to his former home in Dedham. He continued to preach and lecture for many years, and constantly contributed to the press. During the Civil War his services were given to the hospitals in Washington, D.C. He published several discourses, which include two farewell sermons at Southington, Connecticut. (Boston, 1847).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 242.

RICHARDSON, John Smythe, Congressman, born in Sumter District, South Carolina, 29 February, 1828, was graduated at the College of South Carolina in 1850, admitted to the Sumter bar in 1852, and, while practising his profession, also engaged in planting. He served in the Confederate Army throughout the Civil War, attained the rank of colonel, and was a member of the South Carolina legislature in 1865-'7, of the Democratic National Convention in 1876, and of Congress in 1879-'83.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 243.

RICHARDSON, John Peter, statesman, born at Hickory Hill, Sumter District, South Carolina, 14 April, 1801; died in Fulton, South Carolina, 24 January, 1864, was the son of James, who was governor of South Carolina in 1802-'4. John was graduated at the College of South Carolina in 1819, admitted to the bar at Fulton in 1821, and extensively engaged in planting. He served in the legislature in 1824-'36, steadily opposed nullification, and was an active member of the Union Party. He was chosen to Congress as a Democrat in 1836 to succeed Richard Manning, served till March. 1839, and was governor of South Carolina in 1840-'2. He then returned to the practice of his profession, in which he continued until his death. He was a delegate to the southern convention in 1850, president of the Southern rights Association in 1851, and a member of the South Carolina Convention in 1860, in which he opposed secession.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 243.

RICHARDSON, William Alexander, senator, born in Payette County, Kentucky, 11 October, 1811; died in Quincy, Illinois, 27 December, 1875. He was educated at Transylvania University, came to the bar at nineteen years of age, and settled in Illinois. He became state attorney in 1835, was in the legislature several terms, serving as its speaker, and was a presidential elector on the Polk and Dallas ticket in 1844. He entered the U. S. Army as captain of an Illinois company in 1846, and was promoted major for gallantry at Buena Vista. He was elected to Congress as a Democrat in 1846, served in 1847-'56, when he resigned, and in 1863 was chosen U. S. Senator to fill the unexpired term of Stephen A. Douglas. He was a delegate to the New York Democratic Convention in 1868, but after that date retired from public life.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 244.

RICHE, George Inman, educator, born in Philadelphia, 21 January, 1833. He was graduated at the Philadelphia High-School in 1851. studied law, and was admitted to the bar in Philadelphia in 1854. During the Civil War he was paymaster of U. S. volunteers, and in 1864-'7 he was a member of the common council. He was for several years president of the Republican Invincibles, a political organization in Philadelphia. Mr. Riche is best known for his educational work. In 1867-'86 he was the principal of the Philadelphia High-School.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 244.

RICHMOND, Dean, capitalist, born in Barnard, Vermont, 31 March, 1804; died in New York City, 27 August, 1866. His ancestors were farmers, living in and about Taunton, Massachusetts, but his father, Hathaway, moved to Vermont. In 1812 the family moved again to Salina, New York. Business reverses overtook the elder Richmond, and he went to the south and soon afterward died in Mobile. At the age of fifteen years Dean entered upon the business of manufacturing and selling salt at Salina with success. Before he had attained his majority he was chosen a director in a Syracuse bank. In 1842 he established himself in business in Buffalo, New York, as a dealer and shipper of western produce, with his residence at Attica, and subsequently at Batavia. He won a reputation for upright dealing and responsibility that was not surpassed by any resident in the lake region. He became interested in railways, was a leader in the movement to consolidate the seven separate corporations that subsequently constituted the New York Central Railroad, and chiefly by his personal efforts procured the passage of the act of consolidation by the legislature. Upon the organization of the company in 1853 Mr. Richmond was made vice-president, and in 1864 he was chosen president, which post he held till his death. Mr. Richmond did not have the advantages of an early education, but his extensive and careful reading in later years, and his observation of men and things, made him most intelligent. Early in life he espoused the cause of the Democratic Party, and while yet a boy he enjoyed the confidence of the leaders that constituted the “Albany Regency.” He became the leader of his party in the state of New York, and for several years he was chairman of the Democratic State Committee, but he never sought nor held public office.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 246.

RICKETTS, James Brewerton, soldier, born in New York City, 21 June, 1817; died in Washington, D.C., 22 September, 1887. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1839, assigned to the 1st U.S. Artillery, and served during the Canada border disturbances on garrison duty, and in the war with Mexico, taking part in the battle of Monterey, and holding the Rinconada Pass during the battle of Buena Vista. He had been made 1st lieutenant, 21 April, 1846, became captain on 3 August, 1853, and served in Florida against the Seminole Indians, and subsequently on frontier duty in Texas. At the beginning of the Civil War he served in the defence of Washington, D.C., commanded a battery in the capture of Alexandria, Virginia, in 1861, was wounded and captured at Bull Run on 21 July, and on that day was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, and made brigadier-general of U.S. volunteers. He was confined as a prisoner of war, and afterward was on sick leave of absence until June, 1862, when he engaged in operations in the Shenandoah Valley, and participated with the Army of the Potomac in the Northern Virginia, the Maryland, and the Richmond Campaigns, fighting in all the chief battles. On 1 June, 1863, he became major of the 1st U.S. Artillery, and he received the brevet of colonel, U.S. Army, for gallant and meritorious services at Cold Harbor, Virginia, 3 June, 1864. He served in the siege of Petersburg, Virginia, in that year in the defence of Maryland against General Jubal Early's raid, and in the Shenandoah Campaign, receiving the brevet of major-general of volunteers on 1 August, 1864, for gallant conduct during the war, particularly in the battles of the campaign under General Ulysses S. Grant and General Philip H. Sheridan. He was severely wounded at Cedar Creek, Virginia, 19 October, 1864, and was on sick-leave from that date until 7 April, 1865. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general, U.S. Army, for gallant services at Cedar Creek, and major-general, U.S. Army, for gallant and meritorious service in the field. On 28 July, 1865, he was assigned to the command of a District in the Department of Virginia, which post he held until 30 April, 1866, when he was mustered out of the volunteer service. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel, 21st U.S. Infantry, on 28 July, 1866, but declined this post. He was retired from active service on 3 January, 1867, for disability from wounds received in battle, and served on courts-martial from that date until 22 January, 1869.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 247.

RIDDLE, Albert Gallatin, lawyer, born in Monson, Massachusetts, 28 May, 1816. His father moved to Geauga County, Ohio, in 1817, where the son received a common-school education, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1840, practised law, and was prosecuting attorney from 1840 till 1846. He served in the legislature in 1848–9, and called the first Free-Soil Convention in Ohio in 1848. In 1850 he moved to Cleveland, was elected prosecuting attorney in 1856, defended the Oberlin slave-rescuers in 1859, and was elected to Congress as a Republican, serving from 4 July, 1861, till 3 March, 1863. He made speeches then in favor of arming slaves, the first on this subject that were deliver in Congress, and others on emancipation in the District of Columbia and in vindication of President Lincoln. In October, 1863, he was appointed U.S. consul at Matanzas. Since 1864 he has practised law in Washington, D.C., and, under a retainer of the State Department, aided in the prosecution of John H. Surratt for the murder of President Lincoln. In 1877 he was appointed law-officer to the District of Columbia, which office he now (1888) holds. For several years, from its organization, he had charge of the law department in Howard University. Mr. Riddle is the author of “Students and Lawyers,” lectures (Washington, 1873); “Bart Ridgely, a Story of Northern Ohio.” (Boston, 1873); “The Portrait, a Romance of Cuyahoga Valley” (1874); “Alice Brand, a Tale of the Capitol" (New York, 1875); “Life, Character, and Public Services of James A. Garfield” (Cleveland, 1880); “The House of Ross” (Boston, 1881); “Castle Gregory.” (Cleveland, 1882); “Hart and his Bear” (Washington, 1883); “The Sugar-Makers of the West Woods” (Cleveland, 1885); “The Hunter of the Chagrin" (1882); “Mark Loan, a Tale of the Western Reserve” (1883); “Old Newberry and the Pioneers” (1884); “Speeches and Arguments” (Washington, 1886); and “Life of Benjamin F. Wade’’ (Cleveland, 1886).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 248.

RIDDLE, George Reade, senator, born in Newcastle, Delaware, in 1817; died in Washington, D.C., 29 March, 1867. He was educated at Delaware College, studied engineering, and engaged in locating and constructing railroads and canals in different states. He then studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1848, and was deputy attorney-general of Newcastle County till 1850. In 1849 he was appointed a commissioner to retrace Mason and Dixon's line. (See MASON, CHARLES.) He was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 1 December, 1851, till 3 March, 1855, and was afterward chosen U.S. Senator in place of James A. Bayard, serving from 2 February, 1864, till 29 March, 1867. Mr. Riddle was a delegate to the Democratic National Conventions of 1844, 1848, and 1856.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 248.

RIDDLEBERGER, Harrison Holt, senator, born in Edinburg, Shenandoah County, Virginia, 4 October, 1844. After receiving a common-school education he studied at home for two years under a tutor. During the Civil War he served for three years in the Confederate Army as lieutenant of infantry and captain of cavalry. At the close of the war he studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began to practise at Woodstock, Virginia, where he still (1888) resides. His first civil office was that of commonwealth's attorney for his county, which he held for two terms. He was then elected and re-elected to the state house of delegates, serving for four years, and subsequently sat in the Senate of Virginia for the same period. Since 1870 he has edited three local newspapers, "The Tenth Legion," "The Shenandoah Democrat," and " The Virginian." He was a member of the state committee of the Conservative Party until 1875, a presidential elector on the Democratic ticket in 1870, and on the "Readjuster " ticket in 1880. He was commonwealth's attorney and state senator when, in 1881, he was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Readjuster in the place of John W. Johnston, Conservative. His term of service will expire on 3 March. 1889.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 248-249.

RIDGELY, Daniel Boone, naval officer, born near Lexington, Kentucky, 1 August, 1813; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 5 May, 1868. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman, 1 April, 1828, and was commissioned lieutenant, 10 September, 1840. During the Mexican War he was attached to the sloop “Albany,” and participated in the bombardment and capture of Vera Cruz, Tuspan, Alvarado, and Tampico in 1846–'9. He was attached to the Naval Observatory at Washington in 1850–2, cruised in the sloop “Germantown" in 1854 in the West Indies, and, was commissioned commander, 14 September, 1855. In 1857–’8 he commanded the steamer “Atalanta " in the Paraguayan Expedition. He was on leave when the Civil War began, but volunteered for active service promptly, commanded the steamer “Santiago de Cuba" in the West Indies during the early part of the contest, from 1861 till 1863, and was successful in capturing blockade-runners. He was commissioned captain, 16 July, 1862. In 1864–5 he commanded the steamer “Shenandoah " on the north Atlantic Blockade, and assisted on  both attacks on Fort Fisher. In the year 1865…
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 250.

RIGGS, George Washington, banker, born in Georgetown, D. C, 4 July, 1813; died at Green Hill, Prince George's County, Maryland, near Washington, 24 August, 1881. He was educated at Yale, and in 1836, with William W. Corcoran, formed the banking house of Corcoran and Riggs. which acquired a national fame during the Mexican War by taking up the entire loan that was called for by the government in 1847 and 1848. This proved a profitable transaction from the large commission that was received and indirectly by bringing the firm into great publicity. When Mr. Corcoran retired from business Mr. Riggs formed the present firm of Riggs and Company. He also entered largely into the purchase of real estate in Washington and other parts of the District of Columbia. Mr. Riggs took a great interest in the management of the affairs of the District, and in 1873 he acted as chairman of the committee that presented a petition to congress asking for an investigation into the conduct of the board of public works. The result of the investigation was that the congressional committee reported in favor of abolishing the existing territorial government, and a new system was inaugurated, which vested all authority in Congress itself. Mr. Riggs possessed literary and artistic taste, and collected a  of valuable books and many works of art.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 253-254.

RIKER, John Lafayette, a colonel in the National Army, was killed at the battle of Fair Oaks, 31 May, 1862.

RILEY, Bennet, 1787-1853, soldier, territorial governor of California  (Rodriguez, 2007, p. 52; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 254; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 8, Pt. 1, p. 608; Annals of Congress; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 18, p. 512)

RILEY, Bennett, soldier, born in Alexandria, Virginia, 27 November, 1787; died in Buffalo,
New York, 9 June, 1853. He entered the army from civil life at an early period, being appointed from Maryland an ensign of rifles, 19 January, 1813, and continued in the service until he died. He became lieutenant on 12 March, served in the war of 1812, and was promoted captain, 6 August, 1818, major, 26 September, 1837, and lieutenant-colonel, 1 December, 1839. He served with gallantry in 1823 in an action with the Arickaree Indians, and for his services at Chakotta, Florida, 2 June, 1840, he was brevetted colonel. In the Mexican War of 1846-'7 he was given important commands. He led the 2d U.S. Infantry under Scott, and the 2d Brigade of Twiggs's division in the valley of Mexico. He received the brevet of brigadier-general, 18 April, 1847, for gallantry at Cerro Gordo, and that of major-general, 20 August, 1847, for Contreras. After one of his successful engagements with the enemy General Winfield Scott assured him that his bravery had secured a victory for the American Army. At the conclusion of the war General Riley was placed in command of the Pacific Department, with headquarters at Monterey. He was appointed military governor of California, and served as the first chief magistrate of the territory and until the admission of the state into the Union. He became colonel of the 1st U.S. Infantry on 31 January, 1850. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, pp. 254.  

RITCHIE, John, 1817-1887, Indiana, anti-slavery activist, Union Army officer.  Moved to Kansas in 1855 to support the efforts to have Kansas enter the Union as a Free State.  Served as a delegate in two Kansas Constitutional Conventions.  He supported Free Stater leader James H. Lane.  Served as a Colonel in the Civil War.

RITTER, Thomas, New York, New York, abolitionist, American Abolition Society, Executive Committee, 1855-1856.

ROBBINS, James W., Lenox, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1838-40

ROBERTS, Anthony Ellmaker, 1803-1885, Pennsylvania, abolitionist.  U.S. Marshal.  Two-term Member of Congress from the Ninth District of Pennsylvania, 1855-1859.  Republican leader in Republican Party in Pennsylvania.  Opposed slavery.  Roberts was supported by Congressional leader Thaddeus Stevens.  (Herringshaw, 1902; Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774-1949)

ROBERTS, Benjamin Franklin, 1814-1881, African American, abolitionist, printer, journalist, newspaper publisher, opposed colonization.  Published the Anti-Slavery Herald in Boston, Massachusetts. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 9, p. 481)

RILEY, Henry Hiram, lawyer, born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, 1 September, 1813; died in Constantine, Michigan, 8 February, 1888. He was left an orphan at the age of ten, received a common-school education in New Hartford, New York, learned the printer's trade in Hudson, New York, worked in New York City as a journeyman printer from 1834 till 1837, and from 1837 till 1842 edited the "Seneca Observer," a Democratic paper, at Watertown, New York, at the same time pursuing the study of law. He sold this and went to Kalamazoo, Michigan, where he was admitted to the bar, and entered into practice in Constantine, taking a high rank in his profession. He was prosecuting attorney for St. Joseph County for six years, a member of the state senate in 1850-'l, a delegate to the Democratic Convention of 1860 at Charleston, where he supported the candidacy of Stephen A. Douglas for the presidency, a state senator again in 1862, an active member of the commission that revised the state constitution in 1873, and afterward judge of the circuit court, he contributed to the " Knickerbocker Magazine," under the pen-name of "Simon Oakleaf," a series of articles called "Puddleford Papers, or Humors of the West," which were followed by "Puddleford and its People." The latter was issued in book-form (New York, 1854), and the earlier papers, which were partly humorous and partly descriptive of nature, were subsequently published in a volume in a revised form, and attained popularity (1857). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 255.

RINEHART, William Henry, sculptor, born near Union Bridge, Carroll County, Maryland, 13 September. 1825; died in Rome, Italy, 28 October, 1874. His youth was passed at the homestead, and he attended school until he was nearly eighteen years of age, when he began to work on his father's farm, but became the assistant of a stone-cutter in the neighborhood. By strict attention to duty he soon excelled his employer, and in 1844 secured an apprenticeship in a Baltimore marble-yard, where he also took up drawing and other studies in his leisure hours. His energy and talent attracted the attention of his employers, who not only advanced him, but built a studio for him on their own premises. Many of the works that he produced during this time still exist in Baltimore. But after several years he decided to devote himself wholly to the art to which he had become attached, and in 1855 went to Italy to continue his studies. While there he executed two bas-reliefs in marble, " Night" and " Morning." On his return, two years later, he opened a studio in Baltimore, where he executed, besides numerous busts, a fountain-figure for the post-office at Washington, and two figures, "Indian" and "Backwoodsman," to support the clock in the house of representatives. In 1858 he settled in Rome. During the succeeding eight years there came from his studio " Hero and Leander"; "Indian Girl" ; " St. Cecilia"; " Sleeping Babes " ; " Woman of Samaria "; "Christ "and the "Angel of Resurrection " (both now in Loudoun cemetery); and the bronze statue, "Love, reconciled with Death" in Greenmount Cemetery, Baltimore. He completed also the bronze doors of the capitol, which Thomas Crawford left unfinished at his death. He made visits to this country in 1866 and in 1872, bringing with him in the latter year his statue of Chief-Justice Roger B. Taney, which in the same year was unveiled in Annapolis, Maryland. In 1873 he set sail once more for Italy with a large number of orders. A desire to fill these all in time induced him to remain in Rome longer than usual during the summer, and he fell a victim to malaria. Besides those already mentioned, Rinehart's principal works include "Antigone"; "Nymph"; "Clytie," which he has called his masterpiece, and which is owned by the Peabody Institute; "Atalanta"; "Latona and her Children"; "Diana and Apollo"; "Endymion" (1874); and "Rebecca." in the Corcoran gallery at Washington.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 256.

RINGOLD, Samuel, soldier, born in Washington County, Maryland, in 1800; died in Point Isabel, Texas, 11 May, 1846. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1818, served for several years as aide-de-camp to General Winfield Scott, became 1st lieutenant in 1822, and was brevetted captain in 1832. He became captain in 1836, participated in the Florida War, and was brevetted major " for active and efficient conduct" during hostilities. He then organized a corps of flying artillery, and was mortally wounded at Palo Alto, the first battle of the Mexican War. He introduced flying artillery into this country, invented a saddle-tree, which was subsequently known as the McClelland saddle, and a rebounding hammer made of brass for exploding the fulminating primers for field-guns, that prevented the blowing away of the hammer.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 257.

RINGOLD, Cadwalader, naval officer, born in Washington County, Maryland, 20 August, 1802; died in New York City, 20 April, 1867. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman, 4 March, 1819, served in Commodore Porter's “mosquito fleet" in the West Indies in 1823-'4 for the suppression of piracy, and was commissioned lieutenant, 17 May, 1828. In 1838 he was appointed to command the brig "Porpoise" in Lieutenant Charles Wilkes's Exploring Expedition, and participated in making the discovery of the Antarctic Continent. In August, 1840, he took part in an attack on the natives of Suahib, Feejee Islands, where two of the officers of the exploring expedition had been killed by cannibals. He assisted in the survey of Columbia River, Puget sound, the harbor of San Francisco and Sacramento River, and among the South Sea Islands. He returned to New York in June, 1842, by way of the Cape of Good Hope, after circumnavigating the globe, and collected valuable scientific information concerning the Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. On 16 July, 1849, he was commissioned a commander. He was on special duty in California in 1849-'51, and in the Bureau of Construction at the Navy Department in 1852, and took command of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, sailing in the "Vincennes," but feeble health compelled him to return home. In September, 1855, he was placed on the reserved list, and on 2 April, 1856, he was promoted to captain on the active list. He had special duty in Washington in 1859-60. When the Civil War began, he was placed in command of the frigate " Sabine." He was commissioned commodore, 16 July, 1862, and placed on the retired list, 20 August, 1864. He was promoted to rear-admiral on the retired list, 25 July, 1866.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 257.

RINGOLD, George Hay, soldier, born in Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1814; died in San Francisco, California, 4 April, 1864, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1833, and became 2d lieutenant, 6th U.S. Infantry, on 15 August, 1836. He resigned from the army in 1837 and engaged in farming. He was reappointed with the rank of additional paymaster in 1846, and became major on the staff, and paymaster in 1847. He served in the pay department during the Mexican War, became lieutenant-colonel and deputy paymaster-general in May, 1862. and was in charge of the paymasters of the Department of the Pacific from 1861 till his death, he was an accomplished scholar, draughtsman, and painter, and published "Fountain Rock, Amy Weir, and other Metrical Pastimes " (New York, 1860).  
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 257.

RIPLEY, James Wolfe, soldier, born in Windham, Connecticut, 10 December, 1794; died in Hartford, Connecticut, 16 March, 1870. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1814, entered the artillery, served in the second war with Great Britain, and participated in the defence of Sackett’s Harbor. He became battalion quartermaster of artillery in 1816, 1st lieutenant in 1818, was engaged during the Seminole War in the seizure of Pensacola and the capture of San Carlos de Barrancas, and was commissioner for running the boundary-line of the Florida Indian reservations in 1823-'4. He became captain in 1825, was in command at Charleston Harbor during the threatened South Carolina nullification disturbances in 1832-'3, and became major in 1838. He was superintendent of the Springfield Armory in 1841-'54, and in May, 1848. was brevetted lieutenant-colonel "for the performance of his duty in the prosecution of the Mexican War." He became full lieutenant-colonel in 1854, was chief of ordnance in the Department of the Pacific in 1855-'7, and became colonel and Chief of Ordnance, U. S. Army, which he held till his retirement in 1863. He received the brevet of brigadier-general, U. S. Army, in July, 1861, and in August was promoted to the full rank. From his retirement until his death he was inspector of the armament of fortifications on the New England Coast. In March, 1865, he received the brevet of major-general, U. S. Army, for "long and faithful service."
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 260.

RIPLEY, Roswell Sabine, soldier, born in Worthington, Franklin County, Ohio, 14 March, 1823; died in New York City, 26 March, 1887, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843, served in the Mexican War, where he was engaged at Monterey, Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, and the capture of the city of Mexico, and was brevetted captain for Cerro Gordo and major for Chapultepec. He engaged in the Florida War in 1849, but resigned from the army in 1853 and engaged in business in Charleston, South Carolina. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the Confederate service, directed the fire on Fort Sumter, 13 April, 1861, and in August of that year was appointed brigadier-general, with command of the Department of South Carolina and its coast defences. He was in charge of the 2d Military District of that state from December, 1861, till May, 1862, commanded a brigade that was composed of two Georgia and two North Carolina regiments in the defence of Richmond, Virginia, in June, 1862, and with it participated in the battles of Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mills. Malvern Hill, South Mountain, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. He then returned to South Carolina in charge of the 1st Military District of that state, constructed the defences of Charleston, and met the naval attack on 7 April. 1863. After the evacuation of that city he joined General Robert E. Lee in Richmond, and continued with him till the surrender. He went abroad after the war, resided in Paris for several years, and subsequently returned and engaged in business in Charleston, South Carolina. He published a "History of the Mexican War" (2 vols., New York, 1849).
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 260.

RIVES, John Cook (reeves), journalist, born in Franklin County, Virginia, 24 May, 1795; died in Prince George County, Maryland, 10 April, 1864. He moved to Kentucky at eleven years of age, was brought up by his uncle, Samuel Casey, acquired a good education, and in 1824 moved from Edwardsville, Illinois, (in which city he had been connected with a bank), to Washington, D. C, where he became a clerk in the fourth auditor's office. During the early part of President Jackson's administration, with Francis Blair, senior, he founded the "Congressional Globe," of which he was sole proprietor till 1864. He possessed much humor, and was generous in the extreme in his public and private benefactions. Altogether he gave about $30,000 to the wives of soldiers who had enlisted in the National Army from the District of Columbia, besides innumerable smaller amounts to private individuals, and he subsequently gave $12,000 toward the equipment of two regiments in the District of Columbia.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 267.

RIVES, William Cabell, senator, born in Nelson County, Virginia, 4 May, 1793; died at his country-seat, called Castle Hill, near Charlottesville, Virginia, 25 April, 1868. He was educated at Hampden Sidney and William and Mary, and studied law and politics under Thomas Jefferson. He served in 1814-'15 with a body of militia that was called out for the defence of Virginia during the second war with Great Britain, and was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1816 and of the legislature in 1817-'19. He was elected to Congress in 1822 as a Democrat, served three successive terms, and in 1829 was appointed by President Jackson minister to France, where he negotiated the Indemnity Treaty of 4 July, 1831. On his return in 1832 he was chosen U. S. Senator, in place of Littleton Tazewell, as a Van Buren conservative, but he resigned in 1834 in consequence of his unwillingness to participate in the Senate's vote of censure on President Jackson's removal of the U. S. bank deposits, of which he approved, but which the Virginia Legislature reprobated. The political character of that body having changed, he was returned to the Senate in 1835 in place of John Tyler, who had resigned, and held office till 1845. In January, 1837, he voted for Thomas H. Benton's "expunging resolution." which erased from the journal of the senate the resolution of censure for the removal of the bank deposits. He was again minister to France in 1849-'53. In 1861 he was one of the five commissioners to the "peace" Congress in Washington. After the secession of Virginia, with which he was not in sympathy, He served in the first and second provisional Confederate Congresses. Mr. Rives possessed extensive culture, and a pleasing and popular address. He published numerous pamphlets and addresses, and "Life and Character of John Hampden" (Richmond, 1845); "Ethics of Christianity " (1855); and "History of the Life and Times of James Madison" (4 vols., Boston, 1859-'69). In the preparation of this work he had the advantage of a long and intimate acquaintance with its subject, and the use of all his manuscripts and papers.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 267.

RIVES, Alfred Landon, engineer, born in Paris, France, 25 March, 1830, studied at Virginia Military Institute and at the University of Virginia, and in 1854 was graduated at the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris. He was an assistant engineer in completing the U. S. Capitol building, Washington. D. C, and in building the aqueduct there, in charge of the U. S. survey in improving Potomac River, and designed and constructed the Cabin John Bridge, near Washington, which at the time of its completion was the largest single-arch stone bridge in the world. Since the Civil War he has been general manager of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, and a vice-president and general manager of the Richmond and Danville Railroad, and he is now (1888) superintendent of the Panama Railroad.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. V, p. 267.