American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
Conscience of the Nation

Updated April 4, 2021

l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Hab-Har


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                      Bab-Bee         Cab-Che         Dab-Dev                               Fai-Fle
                      Bel-Bon          Chi-Cle          Dib-Dye                                Flo-Fur
                      Boo-Bro         Cli-Cox
                      Bru-Byr          Cra-Cuy

G                    H                    I                     J                     K                    L

Gag-Gid         Hab-Har                                                                             Lad-Loc
Gih-Gra         Has-Hil                                                                               Log-Lyt
Gre-Gru         Hin-Hyd

M                    N                    O                    P                    Q                    R

McA-McW                                                   Pac-Pie                                 Rad-Riv
Mad-Mid                                                      Pik-Put                                  Roa-Rya

S                     T                    U                    V                    W                    XYZ

Sac-Sha          Tab-Tho                                                       Wad-Way
She-Smi         Thr-Tyn                                                        Wea-Whe
Sno-Sti                                                                                Whi-Wil 
Sto-Sza                                                                                Wim-Wyt



Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Hab-Har

, author, born in Brooklyn, New York, 24 February, 1842. He lived in Illinois from his eighth till his seventeenth year, and was educated in the common school. He then went to New York, learned to set type in the establishment of Harper and Brothers, and subsequently entered their counting-room. He enlisted in the army as a private in 1862, rose to the rank of 1st lieutenant, and served through the war. He re-entered the employ of the Harpers in 1865, and remained there till 1872, when he went into business for himself, and in six months was bankrupt. He now became a contributor to periodicals, and was literary editor of the "Christian Union" from 1874 till 1877, since which time he has been on the editorial staff of the New York "Herald." His first literary work was a series of sketches of western life. His "Helen's Babies" (which one publishing-house rejected because it was too small for a book, another because it was too childish for adults to read, and a third on the ground that its moral tendency would be bad) was published in Boston in 1876, and has sold to the extent of more than 250,000 copies in the United States. Eleven different English editions of it have appeared, besides several in the British Colonies, and it has been translated into French, German, and Italian. "This book." says the author, "grew out of an attempt to keep for a single day a record of the doings of a brace of boys of whom the author is half owner."  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 21

HACKETT, Alexander Wylly, naval officer, born in New York City, 24 March, 1826; died in Baltimore, Maryland, 26 March, 1883, entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1841, became passed midshipman in 1847, master, 14 September, 1855, and lieutenant on the following day. On 30 May, 1860, he resigned from the service and became a merchant in Japan, being the first to introduce Japanese tea into this country. He returned at the beginning of the Civil War, and was for six months a prisoner in Fort McHenry. After the war he engaged in business in Baltimore, which he pursued until his death. Besides numerous articles in periodicals he published " My Last Cruise," an account of the U. S. North Pacific Exploring Expedition (2d ed., Philadelphia, 1857).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 22

HACKLEY, Charles Elihu, physician, born in Unadilla, New York, 22 February, 1836. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1856, and at the medical school in I860. He was surgeon in the 2d U. S. Cavalry in 1861-'4, and was surgeon-in-chief of the 3d Cavalry Division. Army of the Potomac. He was appointed physician to the New York Hospital in 1867, was surgeon to the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary in 1865-'75, and clinical professor of diseases of the eye and ear in the Women's Medical College, New York, in 1870-'6. He has translated Stellwag's " Diseases of the Eye" 1867); Niemeyer's "Practical Medicine" (1869); Billroth's "Surgical Pathology" (1871); and has written articles in Wood's "Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences," and other contributions to medical literature.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 23.

HACKLEMAN, Pleasant Adam, soldier, born in Franklin County, Indiana, 15 November, 1814; died near Corinth, Mississippi, 4 October, 1862. His father, Major John Hackleman, fought in the war of 1812. After engaging for a number of years in farming, the son studied law, and was admitted to the bar in May, 1837. He began practice in Rushville, rose rapidly to distinction in his profession, and in August, 1837, was elected judge of the probate court, of Rush County, which office he held till 1841, when he was elected to the state house of representatives. After serving for several years as clerk of Rush County, he was, in 1847 and 1858, a candidate for congress, but was defeated. In 1860 he was a member of the Republican National Convention at Chicago, and in 1861 of the peace conference at Washington. He entered the national service in May, 1861, as colonel of the 16th Indiana Regiment, and, after the first battle of Bull Run, served under General Banks in Virginia. He was made a brigadier-general, 28 April, 1862, and in June was ordered to report to General Grant in the southwest. He took an active part in the battle of Iuka and in that of Corinth, where he was killed on the second day of the fight.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 23.

HAGNER, Peter Valentine, soldier, born in Washington, D. C, 28 August, 1815, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1836, and assigned to the 1st U.S. Artillery. He served on topographical duty, took part in the Florida Campaign of 1836-'7 with a field battery, was assigned to frontier duty during the Canada border disturbances until July, 1838, and then transferred to the Ordnance Corps. On 22 May, 1840, he was promoted 1st lieutenant of ordnance. In the war with Mexico he was attached to the siege-train company of ordnance of General Scott's army, brevetted captain for "gallant and meritorious conduct" at Cerro Gordo, 18 April, 1847, and major for Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847. He was wounded at the San Cosme Gate in the assault and capture of the City of Mexico the day following. Major Hagner made a visit to Europe under orders from the Secretary of War in 1848-'9, inspecting laboratories and manufactories of percussion-caps, and procuring information upon the systems of artillery and the armament and equipment of troops. He was promoted to captain of ordnance, 10 July, 1851, and major of ordnance, 3 August, and was in command of various arsenals and inspector of powder until the beginning of the Civil War. On 25 April, 1861, he was assigned to the duty of ordering, inspecting, and purchasing arms and ordnance stores, and in March, 1862, appointed assistant to the commission on ordnance contracts and claims. He was inspector of the factories making small arms for the government till 25 December, 1863, when he was assigned to the command of the Watervliet Arsenal; was made lieutenant-colonel of ordnance, 1 June, 1863, brevetted colonel and brigadier-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, for  his services in the ordnance department, and advanced to the rank of colonel of ordnance, 7 March, 1867. He was placed on the retired list, 1 June, 1881, at his own request, having been in the service for more than forty years.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 25-26.

HAHN, Michael, politician, born in Bavaria, 24 November, 1830; died in Washington, D. C, 15 March, 1886. While he was an infant his parents moved to New York, and a few years later to New Orleans. He was graduated at the high-school of that city, and in the law department of the University of Louisiana in 1854. When twenty-two years of age he was elected school-director, served for several years, and at one time was president of the board. He was antagonistic to the Slidell wing of the Democratic Party, opposed Mr. Buchanan for president in 1856, was a strong Douglas advocate, and a vehement anti-slavery agitator. In 1860-'l he was a member of the committee that canvassed the state against secession, and he personally exerted all his influence to prevent disunion. Mr. Hahn's opponents charged that in 1861, with all public, state, and parish officers, he took the oath of allegiance to the Confederate government; but the official records show that he renewed his oath of office as notary, but omitted the oath of allegiance, and no public notice was taken of the omission. On the arrival of Admiral Farragut's fleet in New Orleans, 25 April, 1862, Mr. Hahn took the oath of allegiance to the United States, and represented the 2d Congressional District of Louisiana in congress as a Republican, from 17 February to 3 March, 1863. At the end of his term he returned to New Orleans, advocated the reopening of the Federal courts, and bought and edited the "New Orleans True Delta," in which he advocated emancipation. In March, 1864, he was inaugurated governor of Louisiana. He possessed the full confidence of Mr. Lincoln, who wrote him a letter advising that the elective franchise be extended to the Negro race, and granting him the additional powers of military governor. In 1865 he was chosen U.S. Senator, but did not press his claim to his scat. In July, 1866, while present at the Mechanics' Institute in New Orleans during the riot of that month, he was severely wounded. Mr. Hahn became the editor of the "New Orleans Republican" in 1867, and four years later moved to his sugar-plantation in St. Charles Parish, where he built the village of Hahnville. He was a member of the legislature from 1872 till 1876, and in 1879 was elected district judge, which office he resigned in 1885, on his election to congress, where he was the only Republican member from his state.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 27.

HAIGHT, Henry Huntley, lawyer, born in Rochester, New York, 20 May, 1825; died in San Francisco, California, 2 September, 1878. His father, Fletcher M. Haight, was U. S. Judge for the District of California. The son was graduated at Yale in 1844, studied law, and was admitted to the bar at St. Louis in October, 1846. He afterward moved to California, where he entered on the practice of his profession in 1850. He was appointed U. S. District Judge by President Lincoln, and in 1867 was elected governor by the Democratic Party, remaining in office until 1871, when he was renominated, but defeated by Newton Booth. He then returned to the practice of law, and was a member-elect of the State Constitutional Convention.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 27.

HAINES, Daniel, governor of New Jersey, born in New York City, 6 January, 1801; died in Hamburg, Sussex County, New Jersey, 26 January, 1877. He was graduated at Princeton in 1820, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1823, and settled at Hamburg in 1824. In 1837 he entered public life as a member of the council, and was one of the board of canvassers who resisted the governor in giving certificates of election to the Whig candidates in the famous " broad-seal " election. In 1843 he was elected governor, and while in office proclaimed the new constitution. His efforts during his one year's term of office left their impress on the common-schools and on the state normal-school, which had been projected by him. In 1847 he was again elected governor, and served for three years. He was afterward chosen a judge of the supreme court, where he served until 1861, and was during his tenure of office a member ex-officio of the court of error and appeals. From 1870 till 1876 he was a member of several judicial  commissions relating to state boundaries. He was one of the committee on the reunion of the two branches of the Presbyterian Church, and aided materially in accomplishing the result. He was influential in establishing the insane asylum in Trenton, the Soldiers' Home in Newark, and the Reform-school for Juveniles in Jamesburg. He went to Cincinnati in 1870 as a commissioner to the National Prison Reform Association, and was one of the committee that met in London in 1872 to organize an international congress on prison discipline. He was also president of the Sussex County Bible Society, and the oldest living trustee of Princeton College.   
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 27-28.

HAINES, Alanson Austin, clergyman, born in Hamburg, New Jersey, 18 March, 1830, was graduated at Princeton in 1857, and at the theological seminary there in 1858. He held pastorates in Berlin, Maryland, and Amgansett, Long Island, till 1862, when he was appointed chaplain of the 15th New Jersey Regiment. He served till the close of the war, accompanying his regiment in the thirty-six battles in which it was engaged, and since his discharge in 1865 has held a pastorate in his native place. In 1873 he was appointed engineer of the Palestine exploration Society, and in that capacity visited the Holy Land, Egypt, and Turkey, making maps, sketches of Oriental scenery, and transcripts of rock inscriptions. Mr. Haines is the author of a" History of the Fifteenth Regiment of New Jersey Volunteers" (New York, 1883), and is a contributor to various periodicals.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 28.

HAINES, Thomas Ryerson, lawyer, born in Hamburg, New Jersey, 15 March, 1838; died near Harrisonburg, Virginia, 6 June, 1862, was graduated at Princeton in 1857, and in 1860, having been admitted to the bar, entered on the practice of his profession in Newark, New Jersey. On 15 August, 1861, he became 1st lieutenant in the 1st New Jersey Cavalry Regiment, and in March, 1862, was commissioned captain after declining an appointment on a general's staff. He had already gained credit as adjutant and regimental judge-advocate. He became the victim of a rash movement on the part of the colonel of his regiment. Five miles in advance of its supports, that regiment was driven into the woods near Harrisonburg, and was surprised and cut in pieces by a vastly superior force. While he was bravely endeavoring to rally his troops, Captain Haines was mortally wounded.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 28

HAINES, Thomas Jefferson, soldier, born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 26 October, 1827; died in Hartford, Connecticut, 14 August, 1883. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1849, assigned to the 1st U.S. Artillery, and served in Fortress Monroe, Virginia, after which he became assistant professor of mathematics at West Point. He took part in the Florida hostilities against the Seminole Indians, as acting assistant adjutant-general, and in the early part of the Civil War held the same post in the Department of Virginia. He was chief commissary of the Department of the Missouri in 1861-"2, and then served as chief purchasing and supervising commissary in the Departments of the Missouri, Tennessee, and the Northwest from 1862 till 1865, holding the rank of major. He also held this office for the territory between the Mississippi and New Mexico and Utah, and was in charge of affairs of the subsistence department in Illinois and the Department of the Mississippi to the southern boundary of Arkansas. He was brevetted brigadier-general on 13 March, 1865, for faithful and meritorious services. He had general charge of the subsistence department throughout the western states and territories from 1865 till 1868, and served as chief of the commissariat department of the south from 1868 till 1873. He was then purchasing and depot commissary at Boston till 1875, when he was made assistant to the commissary-general in Washington,  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 28.

HALDERMAN, John Acoming, diplomatist, born in Missouri, 15 April, 1833. He spent his boyhood in Kentucky, and studied law there, but emigrated to Kansas in 1854. In his new home he opposed slavery, and was successively private secretary to the first governor, judge of the probate court, mayor of Leavenworth two terms, member of both houses of the legislature, and regent of the State University. He was major of the 1st Kansas Infantry during the Civil War, provost-marshal-general of the Western Army, on the staff of General Nathaniel Lyon, in 1861, and was mentioned in the official report for "gallant and meritorious conduct" at the battle of Springfield. After the war he travelled extensively. In 1880 he was appointed U. S. consul at Bangkok. Siam, and subsequently promoted to the post of consul-general by President Garfield. In 1882 he was further advanced to the station of minister-resident in Siam. In 1883 Highland University conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. For his endeavors in behalf of civilization in the far east he received the thanks of the Universal postal union. In August, 1885, he resigned his office and returned to the United States. In recognition of his "faithful observance of treaty relations," and of his efforts to suppress a nefarious traffic in spirits under cover of the American flag, his majesty, the king of Siam, honored him with the decoration of knight commander of the most exalted order of the white elephant. King Norodom tendered the investiture of commander of the royal order of Cambodia in appreciation of his efforts to introduce posts and telegraphs into Cambodia and Cochin China. He was honored by the friendship of General Grant, who felt great interest in his mission of peace and justice to Siam, and to the great soldier is ascribed the declaration that the "minister's career in southern Asia was one of the highest successes in American diplomacy."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 29.

HALE, Edward Everett, 1822-1909, Boston, Massachusetts, clergyman, Unitarian minister, writer, abolitionist leader.  Co-founder of the Freedman’s Aid Society in 1862, which aided African Americans.  (Adams, 1977; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 325-326; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 32-33, Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 99; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 9, p. 816)

HALE, Edward Everett,
clergyman, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 3 April, 1822, after studying at the Boston Latin-school, was graduated at Harvard in 1839. He then spent two years as an usher in the Latin-school, and read theology and church history with the Reverend Samuel K. Lothrop and the Reverend John G. Palfrey. In 1842 he was licensed to preach by the Boston association of Congregational ministers, after which he spent several years in ministering to various congregations, passing the winter of 1844-'5 in Washington. His first regular settlement was in 1846 as pastor of the Church of the Unity in Worcester, Massachusetts, where he remained until 1856. In that year, he was called to the South Congregational (Unitarian) Church in Boston, where he still (1887) remains. Mr. Hale's influence has been extensively felt in all philanthropic movements. His book “Ten Times One is Ten” (Boston, 1870) led to the establishment of clubs devoted to charity, which are now scattered throughout the United States, with chapters in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Islands of the Pacific. These associations have a membership that is supposed to exceed 50,000 in number, and are called “Harry Wadsworth clubs.” They have for their motto: “Look up and not down; look forward and not back; look out and not in; lend a hand.” The “Look-up Legion,” a similar organization among the Sunday-schools, is due to his inspiration, and includes upward of 5,000 members. He also has taken great interest in the Chautauqua literary and scientific circle, of which he is one of the counsellors, and is a frequent contributor to the “Chautauquan.” Mr. Hale has served his college as a member of the board of overseers for successive terms, and has been very active in advancing the interests of Harvard. He has also held the office of president of the ? B K Society, and in 1879 received the degree of S. T. D. from Harvard. As a boy, he learned to set type in his father's printing-office, and he has served on the “Daily Advertiser” in every capacity from reporter up to editor-in-chief. Before he attained his majority, he wrote his full share in the monthly issues of the “Monthly Chronicle” and the “Boston Miscellany.” In later years, he edited the “Christian Examiner,” and also the “Sunday-School Gazette.” In 1869 he founded, with the American Unitarian association, “Old and New,” for the purpose of giving wider currency to liberal Christian ideas through the medium of a literary magazine. Six years afterward this journal was merged into “Scribner's Monthly.” In 1886 he again returned to journalism and began the publication of “Lend a Hand; a Record of Progress and Journal of Organized Charity.” As a writer of short stories Mr. Hale has achieved signal distinction. His “My Double, and How he undid Me,” published in the “Atlantic Monthly” in 1859, at once caught the popular fancy. “The Man Without a Country,” published anonymously in the “Atlantic” during 1863, produced a deep impression on the public mind, and has a permanent place among the classic short stories of American writers. His “Skeleton in the Closet” also well known, was contributed to the “Galaxy” in 1866. He has been associated in several literary combinations, among which is “Six of One by Half a Dozen of the Other” (Boston, 1872), a social romance jointly constructed by Harriet B. Stowe, Adeline D. T. Whitney, Lucretia P. Hale, Frederick W. Loring, Frederic B. Perkins, and Mr. Hale himself, its projector. His historical studies began when he was connected with the “Advertiser,” and for six years he was its South American editor, having been led to the study of Spanish and Spanish-American history at a time when he expected to be the reader and amanuensis of William H. Prescott, the historian. Beginning in this way, his studies have increased until he is regarded as an authority on Spanish-American affairs. He has contributed important articles to Justin Winsor's “History of Boston” to his “History of America” to Bryant and Gay's “Popular History of the United States,” and frequent papers to the proceedings of the American antiquarian Society. Of the latter, perhaps the most important is his discovery of how California came to be so named. He has edited “Original Documents from the State Paper Office, London, and the British Museum, illustrating the History of Sir W. Raleigh's First American Colony and the Colony at Jamestown, with a Memoir of Sir Ralph Lane” (Boston, 1860), and John Lingard's “History of England” (13 vols., Boston, 1853). Besides the foregoing, he has published “The Rosary” (Boston, 1848); “Margaret Percival in America” (1850); “Sketches of Christian History” (1850); “Letters on Irish Emigration” (1852); “Kansas and Nebraska” (1854); “Ninety Days’ Worth of Europe” (1861); with the Reverend John Williams. “The President's Words” (1865); “If, Yes, and Perhaps” (1868); “Puritan Politics in England and New England” (1869); “The Ingham Papers” (1869); “How To Do It” (1870); “His Level Best, and Other Stories” (1870); “Daily Bread, and Other Stories” (1870); “Ups and Downs, an Every-Day Novel” (1871); “Sybaris, and Other Homes” (1871); “Christmas Eve, and Christmas Day” (1874); “In His Name” (1874); “A Summer's Vacation, Four Sermons” (1874); “Workingmen's Homes, Essays and Stories” (1874); “The Good Time Coming, or Our New Crusade” (1875); “One Hundred Years” (1875); “Philip Nolan's Friends” (New York, 1876); “Back to Back” (1877); “Gone to Texas, or the Wonderful Adventures of a Pullman” (Boston, 1877); “What Career?” (1878); “Mrs. Merriam's Scholars” (1878); “The Life in Common” (1879); “The Bible and its Revision” (1879); “The Kingdom of God” (1880); “Crusoe in New York” (1880); “Stories of War” (1880); “June to May” (1881); “Stories of the Sea” (1881); “Stories of Adventure” (1881); “Stories of Discovery” (1883); “Seven Spanish Cities” (1883); “Fortunes of Rachel” (New York, 1884); “Christmas in a Palace” (1884); “Christmas in Narragansett” (1884); “Stories of Invention” (Boston, 1885); “Easter” (1886); “Franklin in France” (1887); “The Life of Washington” (New York, 1887); and “The History of the United States.”—Another brother, Charles, journalist, born  in Boston, Massachusetts, 7 June, 1831; died there, 1 March, 1882, was graduated at Harvard in 1850, and entered his father's employ as a reporter. In 1852 he began the publication of “To-day, a Boston Literary Journal,” a weekly of which only two volumes were published, and later became junior editor of the “Daily Advertiser.” Meanwhile he also contributed to the “North American Review” and to the “Nautical Almanac.” In 1855 he was chosen to the legislature from one of the Boston districts, and continued be re-elected until 1860, being speaker during his last term, and the youngest man ever chosen that office. From 1864 till 1870 he was U. S. consul-general to Egypt, and it was largely his efforts that John H. Surratt was arrested and sent back to the United States. In 1871 he returned to Boston, and was elected in that to the state H. He was appointed chairman of the committee on railroads, in which capacity he drew up the general railroad act now in force, and was active in securing its enactment. In 1872-'3 he was assistant Secretary of State under Hamilton Fish. He then returned to Boston, began the study of law, and in 1874 was admitted to the bar. In the same year, he was again elected to the legislature, and continued to serve in that body for four years. During the latter part of his life he lived in retirement, occupied in literary work, and was much of the time an invalid. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 32-33.

HALE, James T., Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery

HALE, John Parker, 1806-1873, New Hampshire, statesman, diplomat, U.S. Congressman, U.S. Senator.  Member of the anti-slavery Liberty Party.  President of the Free Soil Party, 1852.  Elected to Congress in 1842, he opposed the 21st Rule suppressing anti-slavery petition to Congress.  Refused to support the annexation of Texas in 1845.  Elected to the U.S. Senate in 1846, he was the first distinctively anti-slavery senator.  Adamantly opposed slavery for his 16 years in office.  U.S. Senator, 1847-1853, 1855-1865.  In 1851, served as Counsel in the trial of rescued slave Shadrach.  In 1852, he was nominated for President of the United States, representing the Free Soil Party.  As U.S. Senator, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery.  (Blue, 2005, pp. 8, 35, 51-54, 74, 100-102, 121, 126, 152, 164, 170, 205, 220; Filler, 1960, pp. 187, 189, 213, 247; Goodell, 1852, p. 478; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 20, 28, 29, 33-37, 43-46, 51, 60, 63-65, 68, 72, 254n; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 50, 54, 298; Sorin, 1971, pp. 130, 132; Wilson, 1872, pp. 624-628; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 33-34; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 105; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 9, p. 862; Congressional Globe)

HALE, John Parker, senator, born in Rochester, New Hampshire, 31 March, 1806; died in Dover, New Hampshire, 19 November, 1873. He studied at Phillips Exeter academy, and was graduated at Bowdoin in 1827. He began his law studies in Rochester with Jeremiah H. Woodman, and continued them with Daniel M. Christie in Dover, where he was admitted to the bar, 20 August, 1830. In March, 1832, he was elected to the state house of representatives as a Democrat. On 22 March, 1834, he was appointed U. S. District attorney by President Jackson, was reappointed by President Van Buren, 5 April, 1838, and was moved, 17 June, 1841, by President Tyler on party grounds. On 8 March, 1842, he was elected to congress, and took his seat, 4 December, 1843. He opposed the 21st rule suppressing anti-slavery petitions, but supported Polk and Dallas in the presidential canvass of 1844, and was nominated for re-election on a general ticket with three associates. The New Hampshire legislature, 28 December, 1844, passed resolutions instructing their representatives to vote for the annexation of Texas, and President Polk, in his message of that year, advocated annexation. On 7 January, 1845, Mr. Hale wrote his noted Texas letter, refusing to support annexation. The state convention of his party was reassembled at Concord, 12 February, 1845, and under the lead of Franklin Pierce struck Mr. Hale's name from the ticket, and substituted that of John Woodbury. Mr. Hale was supported as an independent candidate. On 11 March, 1845, three Democratic members were elected, but there was no choice of a fourth. Subsequent trials, with the same result, took place 23 September and 29 November, 1845, and 10 March, 1846. During the repeated contests, Mr. Hale thoroughly canvassed the state. At his North Church meeting in Concord, 5 June, 1845. Mr. Pierce was called out to reply, and the debate is memorable in the political history of New Hampshire. At the election of 10 March, 1846, the Whigs and Independent Democrats also defeated a choice for governor, and elected a majority of the state legislature. On 3 June, 1846, Mr. Hale was elected speaker; on 5 June, the Whig candidate, Anthony Colby, was elected governor; and on 9 June. Mr. Hale was elected U. S. Senator for the term to begin 4 March, 1847. In a letter from John G. Whittier, dated Andover, Massachusetts, 3d mo., 18th, 1846, he says of Mr. Hale: “He has succeeded, and his success has broken the spell which has hitherto held reluctant Democracy in the embraces of slavery. The tide of anti-slavery feeling, long held back by the dams and dykes of party, has at last broken over all barriers, and is washing down from your northern mountains upon the slave-cursed south, as if Niagara stretched its foam and thunder along the whole length of Mason and Dixon's line. Let the first wave of that northern flood, as it dashes against the walls of the capitol, bear thither for the first time an anti-slavery senator.” On 20 October, 1847, he was nominated for president by a National liberty Convention at Buffalo, with Leicester King, of Ohio, for vice-president, but declined, and supported Mr. Van Buren, who was nominated at the Buffalo Convention of 9 August, 1848. On 6 December, 1847, he took his seat in the Senate with thirty-two Democrats and twenty-one Whigs, and remained the only distinctively anti-slavery senator until joined by Salmon P. Chase, 3 December, 1849, and by Charles Sumner, 1 December, 1851. Mr. Hale began the agitation of the slavery question almost immediately upon his entrance into the Senate, and continued it in frequent speeches during his sixteen years of service in that body. He was an orator of handsome person, clear voice, and winning manners, and his speeches were replete with humor and pathos. His success was due to his powers of natural oratory, which, being exerted against American chattel-slavery, seldom failed to arouse sympathetic sentiments in his audiences. Mr. Hale opposed flogging and the spirit-ration in the navy, and secured the abolition of the former by law of 28 September, 1850, and of the latter by law of 14 July, 1862. He served as counsel in 1851 in the important trials that arose out of the forcible rescue of the fugitive slave Shadrach from the custody of the U. S. marshal in Boston. In 1852 he was nominated at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, by the Free-Soil Party for president, with George W. Julian as vice-president, and they received 157,685 votes. His first senatorial term ended, and he was succeeded by Charles G. Atherton, a Democrat, on 4 March, 1853, on which day Franklin Pierce was inaugurated president. The following winter Mr. Hale began practising law in New York City. But the repeal of the Missouri Compromise measures again overthrew the Democrats of New Hampshire; they failed duly to elect U. S. Senators in the legislature of June, 1854, and in March, 1855, they completely lost the state. On 13 June, 1855, James Bell, a Whig, was elected U. S. Senator for six years from 3 March, 1855, and Mr. Hale was chosen for the four years of the unexpired term of Mr. Atherton, deceased. On 9 June, 1858, he was re-elected for a full term of six years, which ended on 4 March, 1865. On 10 March, 1865, he was commissioned minister to Spain, and went immediately to Madrid. Mr. Hale was recalled in due course, 5 April, 1869, took leave, 29 July, 1869, and returned home in the summer of 1870. Mr. Hale, without sufficient cause, attributed his recall to a quarrel between himself and Horatio J. Perry, his secretary of legation, in the course of which a charge had been made that Mr. Hale's privilege, as minister, of importing free of duty merchandize for his official or personal use, had been exceeded and some goods put upon the market and sold. Mr. Hale's answer was, that he had been misled by a commission-merchant, instigated by Mr. Perry. The latter was moved 28 June, 1869. Mr. Hale had been one of the victims of the “National hotel disease,” and his physical and mental faculties were much impaired for several years before his death. Immediately upon his arrival home he was prostrated by paralysis, and shortly afterward received a fracture of one of the small bones of the leg when thrown down by a runaway horse. In the summer of 1873 his condition was further aggravated by a fall that dislocated his hip. Appleton’s 1892 p. 29.

Chapter: “Vermont and Massachusetts. --John P. Hale. -- Cassius M. Clay,” by Henry Wilson, in History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, 1872.
While the struggle for the annexation of Texas by Joint Resolution was in progress, the friends of that measure left no means untried which political chicanery or menace could suggest. The President elect made no concealment of his purpose; and it was distinctly understood that those Democrats who opposed the measure had little to expect from his administration. Even those in New York who had signed the secret circular which alone made Mr. Polk's election possible were soon made to feel the force of that displeasure which the Slave Power usually inflicted on those who resisted its authority. 

But its immediate and most marked demonstration was in New Hampshire, and John P. Hale was its first victim. Though at first successful, its ultimate results were disastrous to the cause and party which prompted it. For it placed Mr. Hale in a far more commanding position than he had ever occupied before, and gave his ready tongue a voice and an audience it could never otherwise have obtained, besides affording an example of successful resistance to partisan tyranny and slaveholding dictation greatly damaging to their pretentious and hitherto unquestioned supremacy.

Mr. Hale, then a member of the House of Representatives, had been nominated by the Democratic Party for re-election. But he had not, like the great body of that party, forgotten its strong anti-Texas testimonies; nor would he, at the bidding of the convention which overslaughed Mr. Van Buren and nominated Mr. Polk; or in the hope of the prospective patronage of the incoming administration, disown that record, and applaud what a few short weeks before had been so vociferously condemned.

Compelled to define his position, he did not hesitate to reaffirm his opposition to the scheme, and to vote against it, though he regarded that declaration and vote as his political death-warrant; a martyrdom from which he evidently expected no resurrection. Indeed, he at once made his arrangements to retire from public life, and to resume his profession in the city of New York; a purpose from which he was with some difficulty dissuaded.

What he apprehended soon transpired. Such honesty of purpose, such fealty to right, such contumacy to party discipline could not be tolerated in the ranks of the exacting Democracy of that State. Early in January Mr. Hale addressed to his constituents a letter on the annexation of Texas. It was an earnest and unequivocal condemnation of the scheme. The reasons given by its advocates in support of the measure he declared to be "eminently calculated to provoke the scorn of earth and the judgment of Heaven "; and he avowed that he could never consent, by any agency of his, to place the country in the attitude of annexing a foreign nation for the avowed purpose of sustaining and perpetuating slavery.

At once the leading Democratic presses of New Hampshire and of the country opened upon him a war of denunciation, calling upon his constituents to rebuke and silence him. The Democratic State Committee immediately issued a call for a convention at Concord on the 12th of February. Franklin Pierce, who had been distinguished in Congress for his fidelity to the Slave Power, addressed the meeting, sharply and bitterly criticising this independent action of Mr. Hale, and defending the policy of annexation. He admitted that he would rather have Texas annexed as free territory, but he exclaimed, "Give it to us with slavery, rather than not have it, and have it now." And such an avowal was consistently applauded by the same convention which had just voted down, by "an emphatic No," the proposition that the meeting should be opened with prayer.

Stephen S. Foster, being present, inquired if he might be permitted “to set the speaker right in a few of his misstatements." A violent clamor at once arose against permission. The chairman decided that none but delegates could speak; and Mr. Foster took his seat, with the declaration: " I consider myself, in common with every man in the house, insulted by the remarks of the gentleman who has just taken his seat." And that convention of the same party which had a few months before pronounced against the annexation scheme, and whose chief organ had declared it to be “black as ink and bitter as hell," at once changed front on this very issue, and by a unanimous vote struck Mr. Hale's name from the ticket on which it had so recently inscribed it, and placed in its stead that of an obscure politician.
But many of Mr. Hale's constituents were more hopeful than their leader; at least, they were less resigned and less disposed to submit to defeat and death. Under the lead of Amos Tuck, who had already taken an active part in giving expression and direction to the popular disfavor against such high-handed tyranny, they at once prepared for action. In consequence of 'their earnest and vigorous proceedings, even without much aid from Mr. Hale, who deemed all resistance to the decrees of the party hopeless, the Democratic candidate lacked a thousand votes of a majority. While this result surprised and exasperated the Democratic leaders, it greatly encouraged Mr. Hale and his friends. Stimulated by their success, and continuing the struggle with increased determination and vigor, they established at the State capital the “Independent Democrat," under the editorial control of George G. Fogg. It was conducted with signal ability and tact, rendered essential service, and contributed largely to the triumph of this first successful revolt against the iron despotism of the Slave Power.

In the next election, Mr. Hale participated. He canvassed the State, delivering speeches, in which he brought into full play the capacities and characteristics of his peculiar, versatile, and popular eloquence. Great excitement pervaded the State, and crowds thronged to hear him. But the Democratic leaders were indignant at his continued contumacy, and deeply chagrined at his manifest success with the people. These feelings found voice at a meeting held at the capital the first week of June. During that week, the legislature commenced its session, and the religious and benevolent associations of the State held their anniversaries. Mr. Hale was expected to address a meeting at the Old North Church. Unwilling that his speech should be heard, as it probably would be, by the political and religious representatives of the State then assembled, the Democratic leaders determined that it should be replied to on the spot. Franklin Pierce was selected for that purpose. Aware that he was addressing many men of large intelligence and influence, and that his words would be sharply criticised by him under whose lead his name had been stricken from the ticket, Mr. Hale spoke with calmness, dignity, and effect. Those who listened to him could not but feel, whether they agreed with him or not, that he had been actuated by conscientious convictions and a high sense of public duty.
Mr. Pierce had noted, with the quick instincts of an adroit politician, the marked effects produced by Mr. Hale's manly and temperate vindication of his principles and position. Evidently in a towering passion, he spoke under the deepest excitement. He was domineering and insulting in manner, and bitter and sarcastic in the tone and tenor of his remarks. Mr. Hale replied briefly, but pertinently and effectively. He closed his triumphant vindication of his motives, opinions, and purposes against the aspersions of his bitter enemy with these words: “I expected to be called ambitious, to have my name cast out as evil, to be traduced and misrepresented. I have not been disappointed. But if things have come to this condition, that conscience and a sacred regard for truth and duty are to be publicly held up to ridicule, and scouted at 'Without rebuke, as has just been done here, it matters little whether we are annexed to Texas or Texas is annexed to us. I may be permitted to say that the measure of my ambition will be full if my earthly career shall be finished and my bones are laid beneath the soil of New Hampshire, and, when my wife and children shall repair to my grave to drop the tear of affection to my memory, they may read on my tombstone: 'He who lies beneath surrendered office and place and power, rather than bow down and worship slavery.' "
At the second election, the Democratic candidate lacked some fifteen hundred votes necessary to an election. Several other attempts were made, in which the “Independent Democrats," though they failed of electing their own, succeeded in defeating the Democratic candidate, and in holding the balance of power. In the election of 1846, Mr. Hale was chosen a member of the legislature, was made Speaker, and subsequently elected to the Senate of the United States. The State was then subdivided into congressional districts, and Mr. Tuck was nominated to fill the seat Mr. Hale had occupied in the national House of Representatives. As a majority of votes was necessary for an election, no choice was effected during the whole of the XXIXth Congress. But in July, 1847, by a coalition between the Whigs and " Independent Democrats “in the first and third districts, Mr. Tuck was chosen in the former and General James Wilson in the latter. Mr. Tuck served six years in Congress, and made an honorable record. His chief distinction, and perhaps his chief service, however, grew out of his bold and wise leadership in that first and successful assault upon the party which had for years controlled the State with iron sway; beating down the very Gibraltar of the Northern Democracy, and making it one of the leading and most reliable States in opposition to the Slave Power.

And if merit is due to any actors in the great struggle now under review, surely no inconsiderable share belongs to those who, in that dark night, dared to beard the lion in his Northern lair, and strike for freedom with the odds so fearfully against them. Nor is the nation's debt of gratitude to Mr. Hale small for his long, brave fight in the Senate, against the scorn and contumely of the slaveholding majority. For if he did not then proclaim the full and perfect evangel of liberty, his was certainly the voice of one crying in the wilderness, preparing the way of complete deliverance. As his successful resistance to party and slaveholding tyranny broke the spell of its assumed invincibility, and encouraged others to go and I do likewise, so his ready eloquence and wit, his brilliant repartee and unfailing good-humor, did much to familiarize the country with the subject, and to call attention to its facts and principles, which perhaps a sterner advocate would have failed to effect.

Source:  Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, Vol. 1.  Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1872, 624-628.

HALE, Salma, historian, born in Alstead, Cheshire County, New Hampshire, 7 March, 1787; died in Somerville, Massachusetts, 19 November, 1866. His father, David Hale, joined the American Army after the battle of Lexington, and served throughout the Revolutionary War. Salma, the third of fourteen children, was apprenticed to a printer in Walpole, N. H. At seventeen he wrote an English grammar (Worcester, Massachusetts, 1804), which was afterward rewritten under the title "A New Grammar of the English Language" (New York, 1831). At the age of eighteen he became editor of "The Political Observatory," at Walpole, New Hampshire. He then studied law, became clerk of the court of common pleas for Cheshire County, and moved to Keene, New Hampshire, in 1813. In 1817-34 he was clerk of the supreme judicial court, and in the latter year was admitted to the bar. In 1816 he was elected to congress as a Republican, but declined a re-election. He subsequently devoted himself to the preparation of a "History of the United States," which gained a prize of $400 and a gold medal that had been offered by the American academy of belles-lettres of New York "for the best-written history of the United States, which shall contain a suitable exposition of the situation, character, and interests, absolute and relative, of the American republic, calculated for a class-book in academies and schools." This was first published under the title of "The History of the United States of America, from their First Settlement as Colonies to the Close of the War with Great Britain in 1815 " (1821). It was afterward continued to 1845, and went through many editions. Mr. Hale was a trustee of Dartmouth in 1816, and of the University of Vermont in 1823, and received honorary degrees from each. He was secretary to the commissioners for determining the northeastern boundary-line of the United States, was president of the New Hampshire Historical Society in 1830, a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1828 and 1844, and of the Senate in 1824 and 1845. He was a contributor to newspapers and periodicals, was instrumental in organizing the first agricultural Society in New Hampshire, and in promoting temperance, education, the abolition of slavery, and the Unitarian movement. While in congress he opposed the Missouri Compromise. His works include "The Administration of John Q. Adams and the Opposition by Algernon Sidney" (Concord, N. H., 1826); "Conspiracy of the Spaniards against Venice, translated from Abbe Real, and of John Lewis Fiesco against Genoa, translated from Cardinal De Retz " (Boston, 1828); "Annals of the Town of Keene, from its First Settlement in 1734 to 1790" (Concord, New Hampshire, 1826, and a continuation to 1815, Keene, 1851); "An Oration on the Character of Washington" (Keene, New Hampshire, 1832); "Address on the Connection of Chemistry and Agriculture," delivered before the Cheshire County agricultural Society (Keene, 1848); and an "Address before the New Hampshire Historical Society in 1828" (Concord, 1832; Manchester. 1870).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 34.

HALE, Sarah Josepha (Buell), author, born in Newport, New Hampshire, 24 October, 1788; died in Philadelphia, 30 April, 1879. She was taught by her mother, and her childhood's reading was derived principally from the English poets. In 1813 she married David Hale, a lawyer, brother of Salma Hale, and was left a widow with five children in 1822. Mrs. Hale then resorted to the pen as a means of support, and in 1828 moved to Boston to take charge of the newly established " Ladies' Magazine." which she conducted till 1837. In that year it was united with " Godey's Lady's Book," published in Philadelphia, and Mrs. Hale became editor of that periodical, but did not remove to Philadelphia till 1841. In Boston she originated the Seaman's aid Society, the parent of many similar organizations in various ports. In her position as editor she advocated the advancement of women, urging especially their employment as teachers, and the establishment of seminaries for their higher education. The idea of educating women for medical and missionary service in heathen lands was another of her thoughts, and she devoted much labor to securing its practical adoption. This was first attempted through the Ladies' Medical Missionary Society, which was formed in Philadelphia, mainly by her exertions. The object was finally accomplished through the Woman's Union Missionary Society for heathen lands, formed in New York in 1860, with its chief branch in Philadelphia, of which Mrs. Hale was president for several years. Mrs. Hale proposed through her Boston magazine that the women of New England should raise $50,000 to complete the Bunker Hill Monument, and took a leading part in organizing the fair by which the suggestion was successfully carried out. About the same time she suggested that Thanksgiving day should be made a national festival, and be held on the same day throughout the country. She continued to urge this for twenty years, not only in her magazine, but by personal correspondence with the governors of states and with presidents of the United States. President Lincoln adopted her suggestion in 1864, and the observance has now become established. Mrs. Hale retired from editorial work in 1877. Her fugitive poems, including " The Light of Home," " Mary's Lamb," and "It Snows," became widely familiar. Her best-known work is "Woman's Record, or Sketches of all Distinguished Women from the Creation to the Present Day " (New York, 1853; 3d ed., revised and enlarged, 1869). Her other publications are "The Genius of Oblivion and Other Poems" (Concord, 1823); "Northwood," a novel (Boston. 1827; republished in London as "A New England Tale"; New York, 1852); "Sketches of American Character " (1830); "Traits of American Life " (Philadelphia, 1835); "Flora's Interpreter " (Boston, 1835; reprinted in London); "The Ladies' Wreath," a selection from the female poets of England and America (1835); "The Way to Live Well, and to be Well while we Live" (1838); "Grosvenor, a Tragedy" (1838); "The White Veil," a bridal gift (Philadelphia, 1854); "Alice Ray," a romance in rhyme (Boston, 1846); "Harry Gray, the Widow's Son," a story of the sea (1848); "Three Hours, or the Vigil of Love" (Philadelphia, 1848); "Ladies' New Book of Cookery" New York, 1852); "New Household Receipt Book" (1853; 2d ed., Philadelphia, 1855); "A Dictionary of Poetical Quotations" (1854); "The Judge, a Drama of American Life " (1854); "The Bible Reading-Book" (1854); " Manners, or Happy Homes and Good Society" (Boston, 1868); and "Love, or Woman's Destiny, with Other Poems" (Philadelphia, 1870). She also edited several annuals, including "The Opal" and " The Crocus," also " The Poet's Offering" (Philadelphia); "Miss Acton's Cookery"; "Letters of Madame de S6vign6" (1856); "Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu" (1856); and other works. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 35.

HALL, George B., soldier, born in Brooklyn in 1826, died there, 24 May, 1864, entered the New York militia as a private, and rapidly rose through several grades. At the beginning of the Mexican War he was appointed lieutenant in the first Regiment of New York Volunteers, and served at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, and Churubusco. In 1850 he was commissioned major of the 13th Militia Regiment, and the following year lieutenant-colonel, he was a clerk in New York at the beginning of the Civil War, and engaged in raising troops. He was elected colonel of the 27th New York Regiment, and participated in many engagements, from that of the Stafford raid of 1862 to the battle of Fredericksburg.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 40.

HALL, Hiland, jurist, born in Bennington, Vermont, 20 July, 1795; died in Springfield, Massachusetts, 18 December, 1885. He was educated in the common schools, was admitted to the bar in 1819, and elected to the Vermont Legislature in 1827. He was State attorney in 1828-'31, and served in congress from 1833 till 1843, having been elected as a Whig. He was then appointed bank-commissioner, became judge of the state supreme court in 1846, and in 1850 2d comptroller of the treasury, and land-commissioner to California to settle disputed titles between citizens of the United States and Mexicans. Judge Hall was an earnest advocate for anti-slavery, and a delegate to the first National Republican Convention in 1856. In 1858 he succeeded Ryland Fletcher as governor of Vermont, and was re-elected in 1859. He was a delegate to the Peace Congress that was held in Washington, D. C, in February, 1861. Governor Hall was president of the Vermont Historical Society for twelve years, and for twenty-five years was vice-president of the New England Historic-Genealogical Society. He is the author of a " History of Vermont" (Albany, 1868).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 41

HALL, Newman, English clergyman, born in Maidstone, Kent, 22 May, 1816. He was graduated at the University of London in 1841, and received the degree of LL. B. there in 1855. He had charge of the Albion Congregational Church in Hull from 1842 till 1854, when he moved to London to become pastor of Surrey Chapel, Blackfriar's Road, known as Rowland Hill's chapel. In 1850 he opposed the general cry against papal aggression. During the Civil War he was a firm friend of the U. S. government, and at its close visited the United States in the interest of international good-will. He opened congress with prayer, and delivered an oration on " International Relations " in the House of Representatives in November, 1867. As a memorial of this visit, Lincoln Tower, part of his new church-building on Westminster road, was built by the joint subscriptions of Americans and Englishmen. In 1873 he again visited the United States, lecturing in the principal cities. His publications have been widely circulated and reprinted in the United States. Among these are "The Christian Philosopher" (London, 1849); "Italy, the Land of the Forum and the Vatican" (1853); "Lectures in America" (New York, 1868); "Sermons and History of Surrey Chapel" (1868); "From Liverpool to St. Louis'' (London, 1869); "Pilgrim's Songs." a volume of devotional poetry (1871); "Prayer; its Reasonableness and Efficacy" (1875); "The Lord's Prayer" (1883); and "Songs of Earth and Heaven" (1885). He delivered a lecture on the assassination of President Lincoln, in London, in 1865.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 43.

HALL, Robert Bernard, 1812-1868, Episcopal clergyman, member of the Massachusetts State Senate, U.S. Congressman, 1855-1859, one of twelve founders of the New England Anti-Slavery Society in Boston in 1832 and the American Anti-Slavery Society in Philadelphia in 1832  (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 43; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892, p. 315)

HALL, Robert Bernard, clergyman, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 28 January, 1812; died in Plymouth, Massachusetts, 15 April, 1868. He entered the Boston Public Latin-school in 1822, and studied theology at New Haven in 1833-'4. He was ordained to the ministry of the Orthodox Congregational Church, but afterward became an Episcopalian. In 1855 he was a member of the Massachusetts Senate and was elected to congress in 1855 on the Know-Nothing ticket, and again in 1857 on the Republican ticket. He was a delegate to the Union Convention in Philadelphia in 1866. Mr. Hall was one of the twelve founders of the New England Anti-Slavery Society in Boston in January, 1832, and was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society in Philadelphia in December, 1833. The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by Iowa Central College in 1858. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 43

HALL, James Frederick, soldier, born in New York City, 31 January, 1822; died in Tarrytown, New York, 9 January, 1884. With a younger brother, Thomas, he was a member of the firm of William Hall and Sons. In 1861 he assisted the commissary-general of ordnance of the state to equip twenty-eight regiments for the field. He then set to work to fit out a regiment for himself. Mr. Parrott, of the West Point Foundry, presented to Mr. Hall a full battery of field-guns, which was afterward permitted to act with the 1st Regiment of Engineers, organized by Mr. Hall and Colonel Serrell. Colonel Hall, at the head of these men, did good work at the taking of Port Royal. He constructed the works on Tybee Island, and was present at the capture of Fort Pulaski, Georgia, which followed. He received honorable mention for his gallantry on the field at Pocotaligo and Olustee, Florida He was present at the capture of Morris Island and at the two attacks on Fort Wagner, and co-operated with Sherman against Savannah and Charleston. For two years he acted as provost-marshal-general of the Department of the South. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 24 February, 1865.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 45.

HALL, William P., soldier, born about 1820; died in New York City, 20 October, 1865. He enlisted as a private in the regular army, and before he was of age was advanced to the rank of sergeant-major. He took part in the Mexican War, and it is said that he was the first to place the United States colors on the heights of Chapultepec. For this act he was commissioned captain in the regular army, which appointment he refused for private reasons. His claims were strongly urged by his comrades for the snuff-box that was left by Andrew Jackson as a legacy to the bravest soldier. The New York Common Council, who had the difficult task of awarding this gift, decided in favor of another on the ground that Lieutenant-Colonel Hall belonged to the regular army, which debarred him from the list of competitors. He served in the Civil War, was seriously wounded on several occasions, and was taken prisoner by the Confederates when major of the 9th New York, or Ira Harris Cavalry. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, 11 January, 1865. He contracted a disease in prison which caused his death. He contributed many articles to periodicals.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 45.

HALLECK, Henry Wager, soldier, born in Westernville, Oneida County, New York, 16 January, 1815: died in Louisville, Kentucky, 9 January, 1872. He received a common-school education at Hudson academy, New York, passed through a part of the course at Union, and was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1839, standing third in a class of thirty-one. Among his classmates were General James B. Ricketts, General Edward O. C. Ord, and General Edward R. S. Canby. He was made a 2d lieutenant of engineers in 1839. In 1845 he was on a tour of examination of public works in Europe, and during his absence was promoted to a 1st lieutenancy. On his return to the United States, the committee of the Lowell Institute, Boston. Massachusetts, attracted by Halleck's able report on " Coast Defence " (published by congress), invited him to deliver twelve lectures on the science of war. These he published in a volume, with an introductory chapter on the justifiableness of war, under the title of "Elements of Military Art and Science" (New York, 1846; 2d ed., with the addition of much valuable matter, including notes on the Mexican and Crimean wars, 1861). This popular compendium, then the best in our language, was much used by students of the military profession, and during the Civil War became a manual for officers of the army, particularly for volunteers. At the beginning of the Mexican War Lieutenant Halleck was detailed as engineer for military operations on the Pacific Coast, and sailed with Captain Tompkins's artillery command in the transport" Lexington," which, after a seven months' voyage around Cape Horn, reached her destination at Monterey, California During this long and tedious passage he undertook a translation from the French of Baron Jomini's "Vie politique et Militaire de Napoleon," which, with the aid of a friend, he revised and published with an atlas (4 vols., 8vo, New York, 1864). After partially fortifying Monterey as a port of refuge for our Pacific fleet and a base for incursions into California, Lieutenant Halleck took an active part in affairs both civil and military. As Secretary of State under the military governments of General Richard B. Mason and General James W. Riley, he displayed great energy and high administrative qualities. As a military engineer he accompanied several expeditions, particularly that of Colonel Burton, into Lower California, and participated in several actions. Besides his engineer duties, he performed those of aide-de-camp to Commodore Shubrick during the naval and military operations on the Pacific Coast, including the capture of Mazatlan, of which for a time Halleck was lieutenant-governor. For these services he was brevetted captain, to date from 1 May, 1847. After the termination of hostilities and the acquisition of California by the United States, a substantial government became necessary. General Riley, in military command of the territory, called a convention to meet at Monterey, 1 September, 1849, to frame a state constitution. This convention, after six weeks' consideration, upon a constitution, which was adopted by the people; and by act of congress, 9 September, 1850, California was admitted to the Union. In all of these transactions Halleck was the central figure, on whose brow "deliberation sat and public care." As the real head of Riley's military government, he initiated the movement of state organization, pressed it with vigor, and was a member of the committee that drafted the constitution, of which instrument he was substantially the author, he remained as aide-de-camp on the staff of General Riley, and from 21 December, 1852, was inspector and engineer of light-houses, and from 11 April, 1853, a member of the board of engineers for fortifications on the Pacific Coast, being promoted captain of engineers, 1 July, 1853. All these places he held till his resignation from the military service, 1 August, 1854. After leaving the army, Halleck devoted himself to the practice of law in a firm of which for some time he had been a member, and continued as director-general of the New Almaden Quicksilver Mine, an office he had held since 1850. Notwithstanding all these duties, he found time for study and to prepare several works, including " A Collection of Mining Laws of Spain and Mexico " (1859); a translation of "De Fooz on the Law of Mines, with Introductory Remarks " (1860); and a treatise on "International Law, or Rules regulating the Intercourse of States in Peace and War" (1861). The last-named work he subsequently condensed to adapt it for the use of schools and colleges (Philadelphia, 1866). He was also, in 1855, president of the Pacific and Atlantic Railroad from San Francisco to San Jose, California, and major-general of California militia in 1860-'l. Union College gave him the degree of A. M. in 1843, and that of LL. D. in 1862. In 1848 he was appointed professor of engineering in the Lawrence scientific school of Harvard University, but declined the honor. At the beginning of the Civil War he was at the head of the most prominent law firm in San Francisco, with large interests and much valuable property in California, and living in affluence; but he at once tendered his services in defence of the Union. General Winfield Scott, knowing his worth, immediately and strongly urged upon President Lincoln his being commissioned with the highest grade in the regular army, and accordingly he was appointed a major-general, to date from 19 August, 1861. He went without delay to Washington, was ordered to St. Louis, and on 18 November, 1861, took command of the Department of the Missouri, embracing the states of Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Arkansas, and western Kentucky. Around him was a chaos of insubordination, inefficiency, and peculation, requiring the prompt, energetic, and ceaseless exercise of his iron will, military knowledge, and administrative powers. The scattered forces of his command were a medley of almost every nationality. Missouri and Kentucky were practically but a border screen to cover the operations of the seceding south; and even his headquarters at St. Louis, fortified at exorbitant cost and in violation of all true engineering principles, neither protected the city from insurrection within nor from besiegers without. Hardly had Halleck assumed command when he began to crush out abuses. Fraudulent contracts were annulled: useless stipendiaries were dismissed; a colossal staff hierarchy, with more titles than brains, was disbanded; composite organizations were pruned to simple uniformity; the construction of fantastic fortifications was suspended: and in a few weeks order reigned in Missouri. With like vigor he dealt blow after blow upon all who, under the mask of citizens, abetted secession. But while from headquarters thus energetically dealing with the secessionists at home, he did not neglect those in arms, over whom, by his admirable strategic combinations, he quickly secured success after success, till, in less than six weeks, a clean sweep had been made of the entire country between the Missouri and Osage Rivers; and General Sterling Price, cut off from all supplies and recruits from northern Missouri, to which he had been moving, was in full retreat for Arkansas. Halleck now turned his attention to the opening of the Mississippi River. General Scott had intended unbarring it by a flotilla and an army descending it in force; but Halleck was satisfied that this plan would only scotch the serpent of secession. He held that the Confederacy must be rent in twain by an armed wedge driven in between this great stream and the mountains on the east. On 27 January, 1862, the president had ordered a general advance of all the land and naval forces of the United States to be made simultaneously against the insurgents on the 22d of the coming month. In anticipation of his part of the grand movement, early in February Halleck sent his chief of staff to Cairo to direct in his name, when necessary, all operations auxiliary to the armies about to take the field on the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland Rivers, which their respective commanders soon set in motion. The Confederate first line of defence was screened behind Kentucky's quasi neutrality, with its flanks strongly protected by the fortifications of Columbus and Bowling Green; but its centre was only feebly secured by Ports Henry and Donelson. The second line of defence followed the railroad from Memphis on the Mississippi to Chattanooga—a most important position in the mountains, threatening both South Carolina and Virginia by its railroad connections with Charleston and Richmond. Still a third line, with almost continuous communication by rail, extended from Vicksburg through Meridian, Selma, and Montgomery to Atlanta, with railroad branches reaching to the principal ports on the Gulf and the South Atlantic. In a little more than three months of Halleck's sway in the west, General Ulysses S. Grant, aided by Commodore Andrew H. Foote's "gunboats, captured Forts Henry and Donelson; the strategically turned flanks of the enemy's line, protected by the powerful works of Bowling Green and Columbus, were deserted; and Nashville, the objective of the Campaign, was in the possession of the National forces. In the meantime General Samuel R. Curtis had been sent to drive the Confederates out of Missouri, and early in March gained the decisive battle of Pea Ridge, in Arkansas, the enemy flying before him to the protection of White River; and General John Pope, despatched to New Madrid, after taking that place, confronted the fugitives from Columbus at Island No. 10, which, by the happy device of Hamilton's cut-off canal, was taken in reverse, and this strong barrier of the Mississippi moved by the joint action of the army and navy. By these operations the Confederate first line, from Kansas to the Alleghany mountains, being swept away, and the strongholds captured or evacuated, the National forces moved triumphantly southward, pressing back the insurgents to their second line of defence, which extended from Memphis to Chattanooga. On 11 March, 1862, to give greater unity to military operations in the west, the departments of Kansas and Ohio were merged into Halleck's command, the whole constituting the Department of the Mississippi, which included the vast territory between the Alleghany and Rocky mountains. General Don Carlos Buell, marching from Nashville, was directed, on the withdrawal of the enemy from Murfreesboro, to unite with General Grant, proceeding to Pittsburg Landing by the Tennessee, and their union secured the great victory of Shiloh. Then Halleck took the field, and, after reorganizing and recruiting his forces, moved on Corinth, where the enemy was strongly intrenched on the important strategic position at the junction of the railroads connecting the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River with the Atlantic ocean. By striking a vigorous blow here on the enemy's left centre, Halleck proposed to repeat the strategy that had so admirably accomplished its purpose against the Confederate first line; but success was indispensable, and hence he made every step of his progress so secure that no disaster should entail the loss of what he had already gained. With the National Army much shattered by the rude shock of Shiloh, he cautiously advanced upon his objective point through a hostile, rough, marshy, and densely wooded region, where all the roads and bridges were destroyed, and rain fell in torrents. On 30 May he was in possession of Corinth's fifteen miles of heavy intrenchments, strengthened by powerful batteries or redoubts at every assailable point, the whole being covered to the boggy stream in front by a dense abatis, through which no artillery or cavalry, nor even infantry skirmishers, could have passed under fire. When Halleck communicated this success to the war department, the secretary replied: "Your glorious despatch has just been received, and I have sent it into every state. The whole land will soon ring with applause at the achievement of your gallant army and its able and victorious commander." Immediately General Pope was sent in hot pursuit of the retreating enemy; soon afterward General Buell was despatched toward Chattanooga to restore the railroad connections; General Sherman was put in march for Memphis, but the navy had captured the place when he reached Grand Junction; without delay, batteries were constructed on the southern approaches of the place to guard against a sudden return of the enemy; and, with prodigious energy, the destroyed railroad to Columbus was rebuilt to maintain communications with the Mississippi and Ohio, in jeopardy by the sudden fall of the Tennessee, by which supplies had been received. It was now more than six months since Halleck assumed command at St. Louis, and from within the limits of his department the enemy had been driven from Missouri, the northern half of Arkansas, Kentucky, and most of Tennessee, while strong lodgments were made in Mississippi and Alabama. Secretary Stanton, always chary of praise, had said that Halleck's "energy and ability received the strongest commendations of the war department," and added, " You have my perfect confidence, and you may rely upon my utmost support in your undertakings." Such, in fact, was the very high appreciation of Halleck's merits by both the president and the Secretary of War that during the general's occupation of Corinth, while he was organizing for new movements against the enemy's third line of defence, two assistant secretaries of war and a senator were sent there to urge upon Halleck the acceptance of the post of general-in-chief; but he declined the honor, and did not go to Washington till positive orders compelled him to do so. Reluctantly leaving Corinth, to which he hoped to return and enter upon the great work of opening the Mississippi and crushing the Confederacy in the southwest, Halleck reached Washington, 23 July, 1862, and at once assumed command as general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States. The first problem presented was, how safely to unite the two eastern armies in the field so as to cover the capital and make common head against the enemy, then interposed between them and ready to be thrown at will on either, and able generals held different opinions as to the best measures to be adopted to accomplish the desired end. The general-in-chief entered upon the duties of his high office with heart and soul devoted to the preservation of the Union. Often compelled to assume responsibilities that belonged to others,  constantly having to thwart the purposes of selfish schemers, and always constrained to be reticent upon public affairs, which many desired to have divulged, Halleck, like all men in high station in times of trial, became a target for the shafts of the envious, the disloyal, and the disappointed. Doubtless, with scant time for the most mature reflection, he made errors; but, says Turenne, the great marshal of an age of warriors, "Show me the commander who has never made mistakes, and you will show me one who has never made war." Congress, in recognition of General Grant's glorious campaigns of Vicksburg and Chattanooga, revived the grade of lieutenant-general. Though a desire was manifested in high places in some way to retain Halleck in the performance of his functions, he at once insisted that compliance should be made with the obvious intentions of the law, and that, being senior in rank, Grant must necessarily be the general-in-chief. Halleck, however, remained at Washington from 12 March, 1804, till 19 April, 1865, as chief-of-staff of the army, under the orders of the Secretary of War and the general-inchief, performing much of the same duties that had before devolved upon him; and from 22 April till 1 July, 1865, was in command of the Military Division of the James, with headquarters at Richmond. On the termination of hostilities, and the disbandment of the volunteer forces, Halleck was ordered to the Military Division of the Pacific, of which he took command 30 August, 1865, and on 16 March, 1869, was transferred to that of the south, which he retained while he lived. Since his death, when he can no longer defend himself, much unjust criticism has assailed his reputation. The chief charge was "Halleck's injustice to Grant," which (Jen. James B. Fry, by a forcible article in the " Magazine of American History," has proved to be nothing more than "misunderstandings" between these distinguished soldiers. A more serious charge, almost of treason, was made by General Lew Wallace, but has been triumphantly refuted by official documents. Halleck, with few advantages in early life, and hardly the rudiments of a classical education, overcame all obstacles by the power of mind and character. He took at once a prominent place at the United States Military Academy, was a conspicuous officer of engineers, became a youthful statesman in the creation of a state, rose to the direction of various public trusts, established an enviable reputation for authorship, and held command of great armies in the tremendous struggle for a nation's existence.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 48-51

HALLOCK, Gerard, journalist, another son of Moses, born in Plainfield, Massachusetts, 18 March, 1800; died in New Haven, Connecticut, 4 January, 1866, was graduated at Williams in 1819, and began his connection with the press in 1824 by the establishment of the "Boston Telegraph," a weekly, which the year following was merged into the "Boston Recorder." In 1827 he became part owner of the "New York Observer," and in 1828 was associated with David Hale in the publication of the "Journal of Commerce." In 1828 the partners fitted out a schooner to cruise off Sandy Hook and intercept European vessels, and in 1833 they ran an express from Philadelphia to New York, with eight relays of horses, and thus were enabled to publish the proceedings of congress a day in advance of their contemporaries. When other journals imitated their enterprise, they extended their relays to Washington. This system of news collection resulted in the establishment of the celebrated Halifax express. Mr. Hallock was an unflinching supporter of a national pro-slavery policy, yet he was generous in his treatment of individual slaves who made appeals to his charity. He purchased and liberated not less than one hundred of these, and provided for their transportation to Liberia. He contributed largely to the support of the religious denomination to which he belonged, and spent about $119,000 in the erection and maintenance for fourteen years of a church in New Haven. He was a founder of the Southern aid Society, designed to take the place of the American home Missionary Society in the south, when the latter withdrew its support from slave-holding churches. Mr. Hallock was a thorough classical scholar, and early in life gave lessons in Hebrew to clergymen. In August, 1861, the "Journal of Commerce," with four other papers, was presented by the grand jury of the U. S. circuit court for " encouraging rebels now in arms against the Federal government, by expressing sympathy and agreement with them, the duty of acceding to their demands, and dissatisfaction with the employment of force to overcome them." This was followed by the promulgation of an order from the post-office department at Washington forbidding the use of the mails by the indicted papers. Ihese measures resulted in the retirement of Mr. Hallock from journalism. He sold his interest in his paper, and thenceforth refrained from contributing a line to the public press. This abrupt change of all his habits of life, action, and thought brought with it the seeds of disease, and he only survived the loss of his cherished occupation a little more than four years. See " Life of Gerard Hallock " (New York, 1869).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 52.

HALLOWELL, Mary Post, 1823-1913, suffragist, reformer, abolitionist  (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 52)

HALLOWELL, Richard Price, 1835-1904, merchant, reformer, ardent abolitionist.  Follower of Wendell Phillips and William Lloyd Garrison.  (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 52; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 160)

HALLOWELL. Richard Price, merchant, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 16 December, 1835. He studied for two years at Haverford College, in 1859 moved to West Medford, Massachusetts, and during the same year began business in Boston as a wool-merchant. He was identified with the abolition movement led by Wendell Phillips and William Lloyd Garrison, and during the Civil War was made a special agent by Governor John A. Andrew, of Massachusetts, to recruit for the Negro regiments. Mr. Hallowell is treasurer of the Free religious association, and vice-president of the New England woman suffrage association. He has contributed many articles to the " Index," and has published " The Quaker Invasion of Massachusetts (Boston, 1883) and " The Pioneer Quakers " (1887). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 52.

HALLOWELL, Edward Needles, 1837-1871, soldier, brother of abolitionist Richard Price Hallowell.  Superseded Colonel Robert Gould Shaw as the commander of the 54th Massachusetts (U.S. Colored Troops).  He was Brevetted Brigadier General at the end of the Civil War. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 52-53)

HALLOWELL, Edward Needles, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 3 November, 1837; died at West Medford, Massachusetts, 26 July, 1871, became aide-de-camp to General John C. Fremont soon after the beginning of the Civil War, and in January, 1862, was made 2d lieutenant in the 20th Massachusetts Volunteers. He was engaged in the principal battles of the Peninsular Campaign, and at Antietam served on the staff of General Napoleon J. T. Dana. In March, 1803, he was made captain in the 54th (Colored) Massachusetts Volunteers, major in April, and lieutenant-colonel in May. He was wounded at the assault on Fort Wagner, 18 July, 1868, and given command of his regiment, succeeding Colonel Robert G. Shaw, who was killed in that action. At the battle of Olustee, in February, 1864, he brought his regiment into action at the crisis, checked the advance of a victorious army, and made it possible for the National column to retire upon Jacksonville. He was brevetted brigadier-general, 27 July, 1865.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.52-53

HALPINE, Charles Graham, writer, born in Oldcastle, County Meath, Ireland, 20 November, 1829; died in New York City, 3 August, 1868. His father, Reverend Nicholas J. Halpine, was for many years editor of the " Evening Mail," the chief Protestant paper of Dublin. The son was graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1846. It was his original intention to study medicine, but he preferred the law, meanwhile writing for the press. The sudden death of his father and his own early marriage compelled him to adopt journalism as a profession, and his versatile talents soon gained for him a reputation even in England. In 1852 he came to New York City with his family, secured employment on the "Herald," and in a few months had established relations with several periodicals. His remarkable talents made it possible for him to undertake a great variety of literary work, most of which was entirely ephemeral. He had previously resided in Boston, where he was assistant editor of the " Post," and also established with Benjamin P. Shillaber (Mrs. Partington) a humorous journal called the "Carpet Bag," which was unsuccessful. Later he was associate editor of the " New York Times," of which he had been Washington correspondent, and the celebrated Nicaragua correspondence at the time of Walker's expedition was written by him for that journal. He also continued his relations with the Boston "Post," and in 1856 became principal editor and part proprietor of the New York "Leader," which under his management rapidly increased in circulation. He also contributed poetry to the New York "Tribune," including his lyric "Tear down the flaunting lie! Half-mast the starry flag!" which was attributed to Horace Greeley. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted in the 69th New York Infantry, in which he was soon elected a lieutenant and served faithfully during the three months for which he volunteered. When the regiment was ordered to return home, he was transferred to General David Hunter's staff as assistant adjutant-general, with the rank of major, and soon afterward accompanied that officer to Missouri to relieve General Fremont. Major Halpine received the commendation of officers that had been educated at the U. S. Military Academy as one of the best executive officers of his grade in the army. He accompanied General Hunter to Hilton Head, and while there wrote a series of burlesque poems in the assumed character of an Irish private. Several of these were contributed to the New York "Herald" over the pen-name of "Miles O'Reilly," and with additional articles were issued as "Life and Adventures, Songs, Services, and Speeches of Private Miles O'Reilly, 47th Regiment, New York Volunteers" (New York. 1864), and "Baked Meats of the Funeral: A Collection of Essays, Poems, Speeches, and Banquets, by Private Miles O'Reilly, late of the 47th Regiment, New York Volunteer Infantry, 10th Army Corps. Collected, Revised, and Edited, with the Requisite Corrections of Punctuation, Spelling, and Grammar, by an Ex-Colonel of the Adjutant-General's Department, with whom the Private formerly served as Lance Corporal of Orderlies " (1866). He was subsequently assistant adjutant-general on General Henry W. Halleck's staff, with the rank of colonel, and accompanied General Hunter on his expedition to the Shenandoah Valley in the spring of 1864. This proved unsuccessful, and he returned to Washington, but soon afterward resigned, receiving the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers. He then made New York his home, and, resuming his literary work, became editor and later proprietor of "The Citizen," a newspaper issued by the Citizens' association to advocate reforms in the civil administration of New York City. In 1867 he was elected register of the county by a coalition of Republicans and Democrats. Incessant labor brought on insomnia with the use of opiates, and his death was the result of an undiluted dose of chloroform. Besides the books mentioned above, he was the author of " Lyrics by the Letter H " (New York, 1854); and after his death Robert B. Roosevelt collected "The Poetical Works of Charles G. Halpine (Miles O'Reilly)," with a biographical sketch and explanatory notes (New York, 1869).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 53

HALSALL, William Formby, artist, born in Kirkdale, England, 20 March, 1844. He early settled in Boston, where he received his education. Subsequently he went to sea and for seven years followed the life of a sailor. In 1860 he began the study of fresco-painting with William E. Norton, in Boston, but at the beginning of the Civil War enlisted in the U. S. Navy, and served for two years. He then returned to fresco-work, but soon abandoned it for marine-painting, which he has since followed in Boston, studying for eight years in the Lowell Institute. Among his works are the "Chasing a Blockade-Runner in a Fog," "Rendezvous of the Fishermen," "The Mayflower," "Arrival of the Winthrop Colony," and "Niagara Falls." His "First Battle of the Iron-Clads" was purchased by the U. S. government in 1887, and is to be hung in the capitol at Washington.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p.53

HALSEY, Job Foster, 1800-1881, Allegheny Town, Pennsylvania, theologian.  Founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society, December 1833.  Manager, 1833-35, 1835-37 (Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 54)

HALSEY, Job Foster, clergyman, born  in Schenectady, New York, 12 July, 1800; died in Norristown, Pennsylvania, 7 March, 1881, was graduated at Union in 1819, studied theology with his brother, and spent the years from 1823 till 1826 at Princeton seminary. From 1826 till 1828 he held charge of the Old Tennent Church in Freehold, New Jersey. He was agent for the American Bible Society in New Jersey in 1828-'9, for the American Tract Society in Albany, New York, in 1829-'30, and for the Sunday-school union in Pittsburg in 1830-'1. From 1831 till 1836 he was pastor of the First Church in Alleghany City, Pennsylvania, and in 1835-'6 a professor in Marion Manual-Labor College, Missouri. He was principal of Raritan Seminary for young ladies in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, from 1836 till 1848, pastor at West Bloomfield (now Montclair), New Jersey, from 1852 till 1856, and pastor of the 1st Presbyterian Church in Norristown, Pennsylvania, from 1856 till he resigned in 1881. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 54.

HALSTED, Nathaniel Norris, merchant, born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, 13 August, 1816; died in Newark, New Jersey, 6 May, 1884. At a very early age he was adopted by his uncle, Caleb O. Halsted, a merchant of New York, who educated him in the schools of that city and in the Boys' Seminary at Woodbridge, New Jersey. Entering the dry-goods establishment of his uncle, he became at the age of twenty-nine years a partner in the house, and so continued until 1855, when he retired with a fortune. Soon afterward he moved to Newark, New Jersey, having purchased stock in the New Jersey Rubber Company, of which he became a director and finally president. In the early part of the Civil War he received an appointment on the staff of Governor Olden, of New Jersey, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and when recruiting camps were established at Trenton he was brevetted brigadier-general and placed in command. Princeton is indebted to him for the astronomical observatory which bears his name, and in the erection of which he expended $55,000. He had been a trustee of this institution for many years at the time of his death. He also gave largely for the establishment and successful conduct of the New Jersey State Agricultural Society, of which he was the first president. The New Jersey Historical Society, in its " Proceedings," makes mention of him not only as one of its benefactors, but as an earnest laborer in every worthy cause. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 54

HALSTEAD, Oliver Spencer, lawyer, born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 1827; died in Newark., New Jersey, 9 July, 1871, was known as " Pet" Halsted. He was active in polities during the war, and was a warm friend of General Philip Kearny and President Lincoln. His address, persistency, and assurance made him potent in Washington during the war and for a year or two afterward in regard to appointments and removals, especially in New Jersey.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 53-54.

HAMBLIN, Joseph Eldridge, soldier, born in Yarmouth, Massachusetts, in 1828; died in New York City, 3 July, 1870. For many years prior to 1861 he was a member of the 7th Militia Regiment, and soon after the outbreak of the Civil War became adjutant of the 5th New York Regiment. In November, 1861, shortly after the formation of the 65th New York, he was transferred to that regiment. He rapidly rose to the command, and participated in Grant's campaign of 1864 from the Wilderness to Petersburg. In July, 1864, his regiment was transferred to the Shenandoah Valley, to resist the demonstration of Breckinridge and Early against Washington and Maryland. Colonel Hamblin participated in each of Sheridan's brilliant successes in the valley, and was severely wounded at Cedar Creek. For gallantry in this action he was brevetted brigadier-general, and placed in command of the brigade. Upon the return of the Corps to Petersburg he was, in the spring of 1865, promoted to full rank, and participated in all the subsequent engagements of the Army of the Potomac to the surrender at Appomattox. For distinguished bravery at Sailor's Creek, 6 April, 1865, the last engagement between the Confederates and the Army of the Potomac, he was brevetted major-general, and was mustered out with that rank at Washington, 15 January, 1866. After the war he entered upon civil pursuits in New York.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 55

HAMER, Thomas L., soldier, born in Pennsylvania; died in Monterey, Mexico, 2 December, 1846. He emigrated to Ohio when quite young, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1821, and began practice at Georgetown in that state. He served for several years in the Ohio House of Representatives, where he was once speaker, and was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 2 December, 1833, to 3 March, 1839. While he was a representative in Congress he nominated Ulysses S. Grant, the son of a constituent, to be a cadet at the U. S. Military Academy. He served in the Mexican War, volunteering as a private, and receiving the next day, 1 July, 1846, the commission of brigadier-general. He distinguished himself at Monterey, and commanded his division after General William O. Butler was wounded. He died shortly afterward, and Congress, in recognition of his gallantry, presented a sword to his nearest male relative.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 55-56

HAMILTON, Morgan Calvin, 1809-1893, Alabama, abolitionist, soldier.  U.S. Senator from Texas, 1870-1877.  Member of the Radical wing of the Republican Party.  Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III. P. 64.

Calvin, senator, born  near Huntsville, Alabama, 25 Feb., 1809. He received a common-school education, and moved to the republic of Texas in 1837, where he was a clerk in the War Department in 1839-'45, and during the greater part of the last three years was acting Secretary of War. He was appointed comptroller of the state treasury in September, 1867, was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1868, and on the reconstruction of the state was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Republican, and was re-elected, serving from 1870 till 1877.  Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III. P. 64

HAMILTON, Schuyler, soldier, son of John Church, born in New York City, 25 July, 1822, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1841, entered the 1st U.S. Infantry, and was on duty on the plains and as assistant instructor of tactics at West Point. He served with honor in the Mexican War, being brevetted for gallantry at Monterey, and again for his brave conduct in an affair at Mil Flores, where he was attacked by a superior force of Mexican lancers, and was severely wounded in a desperate hand-to-hand combat. From 1847 till 1854 he served as aide-de-camp to General Winfield Scott. At the beginning of the Civil War he volunteered as a private in the 7th New York Regiment, and was attached to the staff of General Benjamin F. Butler, and then acted as military secretary to General Scott until the retirement of the latter. He next served as assistant chief of staff to General Henry W. Halleck, at St. Louis, Missouri, with the rank of colonel. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 12 November, 1861, and ordered to command the Department of St. Louis. He participated in the important operations of the armies of the Tennessee and of the Cumberland, was the first to suggest the cutting of a canal to turn the enemy's position at Island No. 10, and commanded a division in the operations against that island and New Madrid, for which he was made a major-general on 17 September, 1802. At the battle of Farmington he commanded the reserve. On 27 February, 1863, he was compelled by feeble health to resign. From 1871 till 1875 he filled the post of hydrographic engineer for the Department of Docks in New York City. He is the author of a "History of the National Flag of the United States" (New York, 1852), and on 14 June, 1877, the centennial anniversary of its adoption, delivered an address on " Our National Flag."  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.

HAMILTON, Charles Smith, soldier, born in New York, 10 November, 1822, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843, and assigned to the infantry. He served with honor in the war with Mexico, was brevetted captain for gallantry in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, and was severely wounded at Molino del Rey. He was afterward on frontier duty till April, 1853, when he resigned and engaged in farming in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed, 11 May, 1861, colonel of the 3d Wisconsin Regiment, and was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers six days later. He served in Virginia during the siege of Yorktown in May, 1862, and on 19 September of that year was promoted to major-general of volunteers. After the siege of Yorktown he was transferred to the Army of the Mississippi, and commanded a division at Corinth, and won the battle of Iuka.  Afterward he was in command of the left wing of the Army of the Tennessee, and of the 10th Corps. He resigned his military commission in April, 1863, and engaged in manufacturing at Fond du Lac. Wisconsin, but subsequently moved to Milwaukee. He was president of the board of regents of the University of Wisconsin from 1866 till 1875, and United States Marshal for the District of Wisconsin from 1869 till 1877.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 63-63.

HAMILTON, Frank Hastings, surgeon, born in Wilmington, Vermont, 10 September, 1813; died in New York City, 11 August, 1886. He was graduated at Union in 1830, after which he entered the office of Dr. John G. Morgan, and in 1831 attended a full course of lectures in the Western College of physicians and surgeons in Fairfield, New York. In 1833 he was licensed to practise by the Cayuga County medical censors, and two years later received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania. Soon afterward he began to give a course of lectures in anatomy and surgery in his office in Auburn, which he continued until 1838. In 1839 he was appointed professor of surgery in the Western College of Physicians and Surgeons, and a year later was called to the Medical College of Geneva. During 1843-'4 he visited Europe and contributed a record of his experiences to the " Buffalo Medical Journal." In 1846 he became professor of surgery in the Buffalo Medical College, subsequently becoming dean, and also surgeon to the Buffalo Charity Hospital. Two years later he left his chair in Geneva and moved to Buffalo, in order to attend to his practice, which was rapidly increasing. On the organization of the Long Island College Hospital in 1859 he was called to fill the chair of principles and practice of surgery, and was also chosen surgeon-in-chief of the hospital. In May, 1861, he was appointed professor of military surgery, a chair which at that time existed in no other college in the United States. At the beginning of the Civil War he accompanied the 31st New York Regiment to the front, and had charge of the general field hospital in Centreville during the first battle of Bull Run. In July, 1861, he was made brigade surgeon, and later medical director, and in 1862 organized the U. S. General Hospital in Central park, New York. In February, 1863, he was appointed a medical inspector in the U. S. Army, ranking as lieutenant-colonel, but resigned in September and returned to his duties in Bellevue Hospital Medical College, where in 1861 he had been appointed professor of military surgery and attending surgeon to the hospital. In 1868-'75 he was professor of the principles and practice of surgery in the college, and remained surgeon to the hospital until his death. He was also consulting surgeon to other hospitals and to various city dispensaries, and in that capacity Dr. Hamilton had few equals. On the assassination of President Garfield he was called in consultation, and remained associated with the case until the death of the president. His notable operations were many, and his descriptions of improved processes are numerous. He invented a bone-drill and an apparatus for broken jaw, and invented or modified appliances for nearly every fracture of long bones, with various instruments in military and general surgery. He was the first to introduce the use of gutta-percha as a splint where irregular joint surfaces require support, and the closing of old ulcers by the transplanting of new skin has been repeatedly attributed to him by French and German physicians. He was a member of various medical associations, and was president of the New York state Medical Society in 1855, of the New York pathological Society in 1866, of the New York medicolegal Society in 1875-'6, of the American academy of medicine in 1878, and of the New York Society of Medical jurisprudence in 1878 and 1885. In 1869 he received the degree of LL. D. from Union College. Dr. Hamilton was a large contributor to medical journals, and many of his special memoirs are accepted as authorities. His works in book form include "Treatise on Strabismus" (Buffalo, 1844); "Treatise on Fractures and Dislocations" (Philadelphia, 1860; 7th ed., 1884, French and German translations); "Practical Treatise on Military Surgery" (New York, 1861); and "The Principles and Practice of Surgery " (1872; 2d ed., 1873). He edited a translation of Amussat on the "Use of Water in Surgery" (1861), and "The Surgical Memoirs of the War of the Rebellion," published under the direction of the United States Sanitary Commission (Washington, 1871).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 63.

HAMILTON, Robert, 1819-1870, African American, abolitionist leader, journalist. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 5, p. 319, Vol. 8, p. 449)

HAMLIN, Hannibal, 1809-1891. Vice President of the United States, 1861-1865, under President Abraham Lincoln.  Congressman from Maine, 1843-1847.  U.S. Senator from Maine, 1848-1857, 1857-1861, and 1869-1881.  Governor of Maine, January-February 1857.  In February 1857, he resigned as Governor of Maine to return to the U.S. Senate.  In 1861, he was elected U.S. Vice President.  Was an adamant opponent of the extension of slavery into the new territories.  Supported the Wilmot Proviso and spoke against the Compromise laws of 1850.  Strongly opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act.  Early founding member of the Republican Party.  Supported Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and creation of Black Regiments for the Union Army. (Harry Draper Hunt (1969). Hannibal Hamlin of Maine, Lincoln's first Vice-President. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-2142-3. OCLC 24587.   Charles Eugene Hamlin (1899). The Life and Times of Hannibal Hamlin. Syracuse University Press. OCLC 1559174; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 65-66; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 1, p. 196)

HAMLIN, Hannibal, statesman, born in Paris, Oxford County, Maine, 27 August, 1809. He was prepared for a collegiate education, but was compelled by the death of his father to take charge of the home farm until he was of age. He learned printing, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1833, and practised in Hampden, Penobscot County, until 1848. He was a member of the legislature from 1836 till 1840, and again in 1847, and was speaker of the lower branch in 1837-9 and 1840. In 1840 he received the Democratic nomination for member of Congress, and, during the exciting Harrison campaign, held joint discussions with his competitor, being the first to introduce that practice into Maine. In 1842 he was elected as a Democrat to Congress, and reelected in 1844. He was chosen to the U. S. Senate for four years in 1848, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of John Fairfield, and was re-elected in 1851, but resigned in 1857 to be inaugurated governor, having been elected to that office as a Republican. Less than a month afterward, on 20 February, he resigned the governorship, as he had again been chosen U. S. Senator for the full term of six years. He served until January, 1861, when he resigned, having been elected vice-president on the ticket with Abraham Lincoln. He presided over the Senate from 4 March, 1861, till 3 March, 1865. In the latter year he was appointed collector of the Port of Boston, but resigned in 1866. From 1861 till 1865 he had also acted as regent of the Smithsonian Institution, and was reappointed in 1870, continuing to act for the following twelve years, during which time he became dean of the board. He was again elected and re-elected to the U. S. Senate, serving from 4 March, 1869, till 3 March, 1881. In June of that year he was named minister to Spain, but gave up the office the year following and returned to this country. He received the degree of LL. D. from Colby University, then Waterville College, of which institution he was trustee for over twenty years. Senator Hamlin, although a Democrat, was an original anti-slavery man, and so strong were his convictions that they finally led to his separation from that party. Among the significant incidents of his long career of nearly fifty years may be mentioned the fact that, in the temporary and involuntary absence of David Wilmot from the House of Representatives, during the session of the 29th Congress, at the critical moment when the measure, since known as " the Wilmot Proviso," had to be presented or the opportunity irrevocably lost, Mr. Hamlin, while his anti-slavery friends were in the greatest confusion and perplexity, seeing that only a second's delay would be fatal, offered the bill and secured its passage by a vote of 115 to 106. In common, however, with Abraham Lincoln, Mr. Hamlin strove simply to prevent the extension of slavery into new territory, and did not seek to secure its abolition. In a speech in the U. S. Senate, 12 June, 1856, in which he gave his reasons for changing his party allegiance, he thus referred to the Democratic Convention then recently held at Cincinnati: "The convention has actually incorporated into the platform of the Democratic party that doctrine which, only a few years ago, met with nothing but ridicule and contempt here and elsewhere, namely, that the flag of the Federal Union, under the Constitution of the United States, carries slavery wherever it floats. If this baleful principle be true, then that national ode, which inspires us always as on a battle-field, should be re-written by Drake, and should read: 'Forever float that standard sheet! Where breathes the foe but falls before us, With slavery's soil beneath our feet, And slavery's banner streaming o'er us.'" When he had been elected vice-president on the ticket with Mr. Lincoln, he accepted an invitation to meet the latter at Chicago, and, calling on the president-elect, found him in a room alone. Mr. Lincoln arose, and, coming toward his guest, said abruptly: "Have we ever been introduced to each other, Mr. Hamlin" "No, sir, I think not," was the reply. "That also is my impression," continued Mr. Lincoln; "but I remember distinctly while I was in Congress to have heard you make a speech in the Senate. I was very much struck with that speech, senator—particularly struck with it— and for the reason that it was filled, chock up, with the very best kind of anti-slavery doctrine." "Well, now," replied Hamlin, laughing, " that is very singular, for my one and first recollection of yourself is of having heard you make a speech in the house— a speech that was so full of good humor and sharp points that I, together with others of your auditors, was convulsed with laughter." The acquaintance, thus cordially begun, ripened into a close friendship, and it is affirmed that during all the years of trial, war, and bloodshed that followed, Abraham Lincoln continued to repose the utmost confidence in his friend and official associate. Hannibal's son, Charles, lawyer, born in Hampden, Maine, 13 September, 1837, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1857, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1858. He became major of the 18th Maine Regiment in August, 1862, was appointed assistant adjutant-general of volunteers, 26 April, 1863, and served in the field with the Army of the Potomac from Chancellorsville through the Gettysburg Campaign to that of the Wilderness, after which he was put on duty as inspector of artillery, and also served at Harper's Ferry in 1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865. General Hamlin was city solicitor of Bangor in 1867, has been register in bankruptcy since that year, and was a member of the legislature in 1883 and 1885, serving in the latter year as speaker. He has published " The Insolvent Laws of Maine " (Portland, Maine, 1878).—Another son. Cyrus, soldier, born in Hampden, Maine, 26 April, 1839; died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 28 August, 1867, was educated at Hampden Academy and Waterville College (now Colby University), but was not graduated, he entered the army as captain and aide-de-camp in 1862, and served on the staff of General Fremont, whose favorable notice he attracted by his conduct at Cross Keys. He afterward became colonel of the 80th Regiment of Colored troops, serving in the Department of the Gulf, and on 8 December, 1864, was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded the Military District of Port Hudson in 1864-'5, and on 13 March, 1865, was brevetted major-general of volunteers. General Hamlin was among the first to advocate raising colored troops and the first that was appointed from Maine to command a colored regiment. After the war he practised law in New Orleans, where he took an active part in the movements of the reconstruction period. His death was caused by disease contracted in the army.— Hannibal's nephew, Augustus Choate, physician, born in Columbia, Maine, 28 August, 1828, was graduated at Bowdoin in 1851, and studied medicine in Paris and at Harvard, where he received his degree in 1854. He was surgeon in the army in 1861—'5, became medical director of the 11th Corps, and was medical inspector during the campaign at Fort Wagner, at Nashville, and elsewhere. In 1865 he moved to Bangor, Maine, and engaged in general practice. He has contributed articles on "Alimentation," '' Transfusion," " Transmission of Diseases," " Tetanus," and other subjects to the medical journals, and is the author of "History of Andersonville " (Boston, 1806); " The Tourmaline " (1873); and "Leisure Hours Among the Gems " (1884).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 65-66.

HAMMOND, James Henry, statesman, born in Newberry District, 15 November, 1807; died in Beech Island, Aiken County, South Carolina, 13 November, 1864, was graduated at South Carolina College in 1825, and was admitted to the bar in 1828. In 1830 he became the editor of the "Southern Times," published at Columbia, in which he advocated nullification. He was throughout his life a supporter of John C. Calhoun's views. During the nullification excitement he was on the staff of Governor Hamilton, and subsequently on that of Governor Hayne. He was elected to Congress, serving from 7 December, 1835, till 16 February, 1836, when he resigned, on account of impaired health, and visited Europe, remaining abroad for nearly two years. From 1842 till 1844 he was governor of South Carolina. During his term of office he gave especial attention to the improvement of military education in the state, and established the State Geological and Agricultural Survey. For the next thirteen years Mr. Hammond, who had given up the active practice of his profession on his marriage to a lady of large fortune, devoted his attention to the development of his estates and the reclaiming of waste land. He was then elected to the U. S. Senate in place of Andrew P. Butler, and served from 7 December, 1857, till 11 November, 1860. In March, 1858, he delivered a speech on the admission of Kansas, which gave much offence at the north, and won for him the title of "Mudsill Hammond." The following is the paragraph to which most exception was taken: "In all social systems there must be a class to do the mean duties, to perform the drudgery of life; that is, a class requiring but a low order of intellect and but little skill. Its requisites are vigor, docility, fidelity. Such a class you must have, or you would not have that other class which leads progress, refinement, and civilization. It constitutes the very mudsills of society and of political government; and you might as well attempt to build a house in the air as to build either the one or the other except on the mudsills. Fortunately for the south, she found a race adapted to that purpose to her hand—a race inferior to herself, but eminently qualified in temper, in vigor, in docility, in capacity to stand the climate, to answer all her purposes. We use them for the purpose and call them slaves. We are old-fashioned at the south yet; it is a word discarded now by ears polite; but 1 will not characterize that class at the north with that term; but you have it; it is there; it is everywhere; it is eternal." In a recent letter the speaker's son, Harry, thus explains the reference to "mudsills" in the foregoing extract: "It is a very great mistake to suppose that my father could ever have made a speech against the working-classes. . . . As to ' mudsills,' a totally perverted meaning has been fastened to the expression. My father had built a mill, and four times it had to be taken down on account of trouble with the mudsills, which had to be placed in a sort of quicksand hard to control. Thus 'mudsills,' instead of meaning something low and insignificant, were, as I well remember, a matter of paramount interest and importance to him. It was just when he had at last placed his mudsills securely that he had occasion to use this expression." In the same speech occurs the passage: "No, sir, you dare not make war on cotton. No power on earth dares make war upon it. Cotton is king. Until lately the Bank of England was king, but she tried to put her screws as usual, the fall before last, upon the cotton-crop, and was utterly vanquished. The last power has been conquered." On the secession of South Carolina he retired from the Senate, and after hostilities began returned to the superintendence of his estates, being prevented by failing health from active participation in the war. While governor he published a letter to the Free Church of Glasgow, and two others in reply to an antislavery circular written by Thomas Clarkson, of England. These letters called forth severe replies from those to whom they were addressed, and, with other essays on the same subject, were issued in book-form under the title "The Pro-Slavery Argument" (Charleston, 1853). He was also the author of papers on agriculture, manufactures, banks, railroads, and literary topics, and an elaborate review of the life, character, and services of John C. Calhoun, contained in an address delivered in Charleston in November, 1850, on the invitation of the city council. This is considered by many the best effort of his life. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 67-68.

HAMMOND, Marcus Claudius Marcellus, soldier, born in Newberry District, South Carolina, 12 December, 1814; died in Beech Island, Aiken County, South Carolina, 23 January, 1876, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1836, and assigned to the 4th U.S. Infantry, he was made 1st lieutenant, 7 November, 1839, and resigned, 31 December, 1842, on account of severe illness. From 1842 till 1846 he was a planter in Georgia, but at the beginning of the Mexican War he was appointed additional paymaster, and served until 15 April, 1847, when he was again compelled to resign on account of impaired health. He then retired to a plantation at Hamburg, South Carolina, whence he moved to Athens, Georgia, in 1860, and to Beech Island, South Carolina, in 1863. He held various commissions in the state militia between 1849 and 1853, and was a member of the state House of Representatives in 1856-'7. He is the author of various essays on agricultural, political, and military subjects published between 1843 and 1849, and of " A Critical History of the Mexican War," which appeared in the " Southern Quarterly Review" between 1849 and 1853. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 68.

HAMMOND, John Fox, physician, born in Columbia, South Carolina, 7 December, 1821; died in Poughkeepsie, New York, 29 September, 1886, was graduated at the University of Virginia, the Medical College at Augusta, Georgia, and in 1841 at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania. He was appointed assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army, 16 February, 1847; major and surgeon, 26 February, 1861: brevet lieutenant-colonel, 13 March, 1865, "for faithful and meritorious service during the war; and lieutenant-colonel, 26 June, 1876. In 1849 he had medical charge of troops infected with cholera on the western frontier, and served in Florida from November, 1852, till October, 1853, during an epidemic of yellow fever. In 1862 he was medical director of the 2d Army Corps of the Potomac, and was present at the siege of Yorktown and the principal battles of the Peninsula. After the close of the war he served on various medical boards.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 68.

HAMMOND, William Alexander, physician, born in Annapolis, Maryland, 28 August, 1828. He was graduated at the medical department of the University of the City of New York, and entered the U. S. Army in 1849 as assistant surgeon, with the rank of 1st lieutenant. In October, I860, he resigned to accept the professorship of anatomy and physiology in the University of Maryland, but at the beginning of the Civil War he again entered the U.S. Army and was assigned to the organization of general hospitals in Hagerstown, Frederick, and Baltimore. Afterward the U. S. Sanitary Commission urged his appointment as surgeon-general of the army, and in April, 1862, he received this commission with the rank of brigadier-general. He instituted radical changes in the management of his office, established the Army Medical Museum by special order, and suggested the plan of the "Medical and Surgical History of the Rebellion." Charges of irregularities in the award of liquor contracts were made against him, and he was tried by court-martial, and dismissed from the army in August, 1864. He at once moved to New York, where he settled in the practice of his profession, and made a specialty of diseases of the nervous system. In 1867-'73 he was professor of diseases of the mind and nervous system in Bellevue Hospital Medical College, and then was elected to a similar chair in the medical department of the University of the City of New York. He remained there until 1882. when he became one of the founders of the New York post-graduate medical school, and has since delivered lectures on his specialty in that institution. Dr. Hammond has also delivered lectures in the medical department of the University of Vermont, and in 1870 became physician at the New York state Hospital for diseases of the nervous system. In 1878 a bill was submitted to Congress authorizing the president to review the proceedings of the court-martial, and, if justice demanded, to reinstate Dr. Hammond. This measure was passed by the House unanimously, and by the Senate with but one dissenting vote. In August. 1879, it was approved by the president, and Dr. Hammond was restored to his place on the rolls of the army as surgeon-general and brigadier-general on the retired list. Besides contributing to current medical literature, he founded and edited the "Maryland and Virginia Medical Journal," was one of the originators of the " New York Medical Journal," and established the " Quarterly Journal of Psychological Medicine and Medical Jurisprudence,'' becoming its editor. His medical works in book form include "Physiological Memoirs" (Philadelphia. 1863); "A Treatise on Hygiene, with Special Reference to the Military Service " (1863); "Lectures on Venereal Diseases (1864); "On Wakefulness, with an Introductory Chapter on the Physiology of Sleep " (1865); "On Sleep and its Derangements" (1869); "Insanity and its Medico Legal Relations" (New York, 1866); "Physics and Physiology of Spiritualism" (1870); "Diseases of the Nervous System," which has been translated into French and Italian (1871); "Insanity in its Relation to Crime" (1873); "Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System," edited by T. M. B. Cross (1874); "Spiritualism and Allied Causes and Conditions of Nervous Derangement " (1876; reissued as "Certain Forms of Nervous Derangement," 1880); "Treatise on Insanity in its Medical Relations"(1883); and "On Sexual Impotence in the Male " (1883). He has also edited "Military. Medical, and Surgical Essays," prepared for the U. S. Sanitary Commission (Philadelphia, 1864), and translated from the German, Meyer's "Electricity in its Relations to Practical Medicine" (New York, 1869; new ed.. 1874). Dr. Hammond is the author of various novels, including " Robert Severne; his Friend and Enemies" (Philadelphia, 1867); "Lai" (New York, 1884); "Dr. Grattan" (1884); "Mr. Oldmixon " (1885); "A Strong-Minded Woman, or Two Years After" (1886); and " On the Susquehanna" (1887).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 69.

HAMPTON, Wade, born 21 April, 1791; died on a plantation near Mississippi River, 10 February, 1858, became lieutenant of dragoons in 1813, and was acting inspector-general and aide to General Jackson at New Orleans in January, 1815. He succeeded to his father's estates; his home at Columbia, South Carolina, was famous for its beauty and elegance, and the grounds were improved at a cost of $60,000, a large sum for that time. His sisters married General John S. Preston and Governor Richard Manning.— Wade, son of the second Wade, born in Columbia, South Carolina, in 1818, was graduated at the University of South Carolina, and afterward studied law, but without the intention of practising. Under his father's training he became a good horseman, a famous hunter, and an accomplished fisherman. He served in the legislature of South Carolina but his political views were those of a Democrat of a national, rather than a secession, tendency, and were not popular in his state. His speech against the reopening of the slave-trade was called by the New York "Tribune " "a master-piece of logic, directed by the noblest sentiments of the Christian and patriot." His earlier life was, however, devoted to his plantation interests in South Carolina and Mississippi, and to the pursuits of a man of fortune. When the Civil War began, Hampton first enlisted as a private, but soon raised a command of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, which was known as "Hampton's Legion," and won distinction in the war. At Bull Run 600 of his infantry held for some time the Warrenton Road against Keyes's Corps, and were sustaining Bee when Jackson came to their aid. In the Peninsular Campaign they were again distinguished, and at Seven Pines lost half their number, and Hampton himself received a painful wound in the foot. Soon afterward he was made brigadier-general of cavalry, and assigned to General J. E. B. Stuart's command. He was frequently selected for detached service, in which he was uncommonly successful. In the Maryland and Pennsylvania Campaigns of 1863 Hampton was actively engaged, and he distinguished himself at Gettysburg, receiving three wounds. It is said that twenty-one out of twenty-three field-officers and more than half the men in Hampton's command wore killed or wounded in this battle. Hampton was made a major-general, with rank from 3 August, 1863. In 1864, after several days' fighting, he gave Sheridan a check at Trevillian's Station, which broke up a plan of campaign that included a junction with Hunter and the capture of Lynchburg. In twenty-three days he captured over 3,000 prisoners and much material of war, with a loss of 719 men. He was made commander of Lee's cavalry in August, with the rank of lieutenant-general, and in September struck the rear of the National Army at City Point, bringing away 400 prisoners and 2,486 beeves. Soon afterward, in another action, he captured 500 prisoners. In one of these attacks he lost his son in  battle, Hampton was then detached to take command of General Joseph E. Johnston's cavalry, and did what he could to arrest the advance of Sherman's army northward from Savannah in the spring of 1865. After the unfortunate burning of Columbia, South Carolina, on its evacuation by the Confederates, a sharp discussion arose between General Hampton and General Sherman, each charging the other with the willful destruction of the city. After the war he at once engaged in cotton-planting, but was not successful. He accepted from the first all the legitimate consequences of defeat, an entire submission to the law, and the civil and political equality of the Negro; but he has steadily defended the motives and conduct of his people and their leaders. In 1866, speaking of the Negro, he said: "As a slave, he was faithful to us; as a free man, let us treat him as a friend. Deal with him frankly, justly, kindly." During the reconstruction period Hampton's conciliatory policy found little favor for some time, but in 1876 he was nominated for governor against Daniel H. Chamberlain. Each claimed to be elected, and two governments were organized, but Mr. Chamberlain finally yielded his claims. (See Chamberlain, Daniel H.) In 1878 he met with an accident by which he lost a leg: but, while his life was despaired of, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, where he is still serving (1887). In the Senate his course has been that of a conservative Democrat. He has advocated a sound currency, resisting all inflation, and has generally acted in concert with Thomas A. Bayard, whose aspirations for the presidency he has supported. General Hampton married in early life Margaret Preston, youngest daughter of General Francis Preston. His second wife was the daughter of Senator George McDuffie, of South Carolina.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 69-70.

HANCOCK, John, jurist, born in Jackson County, Alabama, 29 October, 1824. After two years in the University of East Tennessee, Knoxville, he studied law in Winchester, Tennessee, was admitted to the bar in 1846, and settled in Texas in 1847. In that year he held the office of state's attorney. He was appointed judge of the district court of the state in 1851, where he served until his resignation in 1855. In 1860-'l he was a member of the legislature, but was expelled on refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the southern Confederacy. He declined to take arms during the Civil War, and, in order to avoid conscription, went to Mexico in 1864, and subsequently to New York and Kentucky. After witnessing General Lee's surrender, he returned to Texas, and took an active part in the restoration of order. He was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1866, and was a member of Congress from 1872 till 1877, and again in 1881-3, having been elected as a Democrat. During his term of service he secured the passage of acts changing the manner of issuing rations to Indians on the reservations, so that they were given every seventh day; prohibiting hunting-parties unless accompanied by U. S. troops, thus ending Indian raids from the reservations; and establishing a military telegraph around the frontiers of Texas.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 72

HANCOCK, Winfield Scott, soldier, born in Montgomery Square, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 14 February, 1824; died on Governor's Island, New York harbor, 9 February, 1886. His grandfather, Richard Hancock, of Scottish birth, was one of the impressed American seamen of the war of 1812 who were incarcerated in Dartmoor Prison in England. His father. Benjamin Franklin Hancock, was born in Philadelphia, and when quite a young man was thrown upon his own resources, having displeased his guardian by not marrying in the Society of Friends. He supported himself and wife by teaching while studying law, was admitted to the bar in 1828. and moved to Norristown, where he practised his profession forty years, earning the reputation of a well read, judicious, and successful lawyer. Winfield S. Hancock had the combined advantages of home instruction and a course in the Norristown academy and the public high-school. He early evinced a taste for military exercises, and at the age of sixteen entered the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated, 1 July, 1844. He was at once brevetted 2d lieutenant in the 6th U.S. Infantry, and assigned to duty at Fort Towson, Indian territory. He received his commission as 2d lieutenant while his regiment was stationed on the frontier of Mexico, where the difficulties that resulted in the Mexican War had already begun. He was ordered to active service in the summer of 1847, joined the army of General Scott in its advance upon the Mexican capital, participated in the four principal battles of the campaign, and was brevetted 1st lieutenant for gallant and meritorious conduct in those of Contreras and Churubusco. From 1848 till 1855 he served as regimental quartermaster and adjutant, being most of the time stationed at St. Louis. On 7 November, 1855, he was appointed assistant quartermaster with the rank of captain, and ordered to Fort Myers, Florida, where General William S. Harney was in command of the military forces operating against the Seminoles. He served under this officer during the troubles in Kansas in 1857-'8, and afterward accompanied his expedition to Utah, where serious complications had arisen between the Gentiles and the Mormons. From 1859 till 1861 Captain Hancock was chief quartermaster of the Southern District of California. At the beginning of the Civil War in 1861 he asked to be relieved from duty on the Pacific Coast, and was transferred to more active service at the seat of war. In a letter to a friend at this time he said: "My politics are of a practical kind—the integrity of the country, the supremacy of the Federal government, an honorable peace, or none at all." He was commissioned a brigadier-general of volunteers by President Lincoln, 23 September, 1861, and at once bent all his energies to aid in the organization of the Army of the Potomac. During the Peninsular Campaign under General McClellan he was especially conspicuous at the battles of Williamsburg and Frazier's Farm. He took an active part in the subsequent campaign in Maryland, at the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, and was assigned to the command of the 1st Division of the 2d Army Corps, on the battlefield, during the second day's fight at Antietam, 17 September, 1862. He was soon afterward made a major-general of volunteers, and commanded the same division in the attempt to storm Marye's Heights, at the battle of Fredericksburg, 13 December, 1862. In this assault General Hancock led his men through such a fire as has rarely been encountered in warfare. He commanded 5,006 men, and left 2,013 of them on the field. In the three days' fight at Chancellorsville, in May, 1863, Hancock's division took a prominent part. While on the march through western Maryland in pursuit of the invading army of General Lee, on 25 June, he was ordered by the president to assume command of the 2d Army Corps. On the 27th General Hooker asked to be relieved from the command of the Army of the Potomac; and orders from the War Department reached his headquarters near Frederick, Maryland, assigning Major-General George G. Meade  to its command. On 1 July the report reached General Meade, who was fifteen miles distant, that there was fighting at Gettysburg, and that General Reynolds had been killed. General Meade, who knew nothing of Gettysburg, sent General Hancock with orders to take immediate command of the forces and report what should be done; whether to give the enemy battle there, or fall back to another proposed line. Hancock reported that he considered Gettysburg the place to fight the coming battle, and continued in command until the arrival of Meade. In the decisive action of 3 July he commanded on the left centre, which was the main point assailed by the Confederates, and was shot from his horse. Though dangerously wounded, he remained on the field till he saw that the enemy's assault was broken, when he despatched his aide-de-camp, Major W. G. Mitchell, with the following message: "Tell General Meade that the troops under my command have repulsed the enemy's assault, and that we have gained a great victory. The enemy is now flying in all directions in my front." General Meade returned this reply: "Say to General Hancock that I regret exceedingly that he is wounded, and that I thank him in the name of the country and for myself for the service he has rendered to-day." In a report to General Meade, after he had been carried from the field, he says that, when he left the line of battle, " not a rebel is in sight upright, and if the 5th and 6th Corps are pressed up, the enemy will be destroyed." Out of fewer than 10,000 men the 2d Corps lost at Gettysburg about 4,000 killed or wounded. It captured 4,500 prisoners and about thirty colors. General Hancock at first received but slight credit for the part he took in this battle, his name not being mentioned in the joint resolution passed by Congress, 28 January, 1804, which thanked Meade, Hooker, Howard, and the officers and soldiers of the Army of the Potomac generally. But justice was only delayed, as, on 21 April, 1866, Congress passed a resolution thanking him for his services in the campaign of 1863. Disabled by his wound, he was not again employed on active duty until March, 1864, being meanwhile engaged in recruiting the 2d Army Corps, of which he resumed command at the opening of the spring campaign of that year, and bore a prominent part in the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, where the fighting was almost continuous from the 5th to the 26th of May. In the engagement at Spottsylvania Court-House, General Hancock, on the night of the 11th, moved to a position within 1,200 yards of General Lee's right centre, where it formed a sharp salient since known as "the bloody angle," and early on the morning of the 12th he gave the order to advance. His heavy column overran the Confederate pickets without firing a shot, burst through the abatis, and after a short hand-to-hand conflict inside the intrenchments, captured "nearly 4,000 prisoners, twenty pieces of artillery, with horses, caissons, and material complete, several thousand stand of small arms, and upward of thirty colors." The fighting at this point was as fierce as any during the war, the battle raging furiously and incessantly along the whole line throughout the day and late into the night. General Lee made five separate assaults to retake the works, but without success, in the subsequent operations of the army, at the crossing of the North Anna, the second battle of Cold Harbor, and the assault on the lines in front of Petersburg. General Hancock was active and indefatigable till 17 June, when his Gettysburg wound, breaking out afresh, became so dangerous that he was compelled to go on sick-leave, but resumed his command  again in ten days. He was appointed a brigadier-general in the regular army, 12 August, 1864, "for gallant and distinguished services in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, and Cold Harbor, and in all the operations of the army in Virginia under Lieutenant-General Grant." On 21 August the 2d Corps was brought to Petersburg by a long night march, and on the 25th occurred the only notable disaster in Hancock's career. While he was intrenched at Ream's Station on the Weldon Railroad, which the Corps had torn up, his lines were carried by a powerful force of the enemy, and many of his men captured. The troops forming the remnants of his corps refused to bestir themselves, and even the few veterans left seemed disheartened by the slaughter they had seen and the fatigues they had undergone. General Morgan's account of the battle describes the commander, covered with dust, begrimed with powder and smoke, laying his hand upon a staff-officer's shoulder and saying: "Colonel, I do not care to die, but I pray to God 1 may never leave this field." In the movement against the South Side Railroad, which began 26 October, General Hancock took a leading part, and, although the expedition failed, his share in it was brilliant and successful. This was his last action. On 26 November he was called to Washington to organize a veteran corps of 50,000 men, and continued in the discharge of that duty till 26 February, 1865, when he was assigned to the command of the Middle Military Division, and ordered to Winchester, Virginia, to relieve General Sheridan from the command of the Army of the Shenandoah. The latter set out the next morning with a large force of cavalry on his expedition down the Shenandoah valley. General Hancock now devoted himself to organizing and equipping a force as powerful as possible from the mass at his command; and his success was acknowledged in a despatch from the Secretary of War. After the assassination of President Lincoln, General Hancock's headquarters were transferred to Washington, and he was placed in command of the defences of the capital. On 26 July, 1866, he was appointed a major-general in the regular army, and on the 10th of the following month he was assigned to the command of the Department of the Missouri, where he conducted a successful warfare against the Indians on the plains, until relieved by General Sheridan. He was transferred to the command of the 5th Military District, comprising Texas and Louisiana, 26 August, 1867, with headquarters at New Orleans. At this time he issued his " General Order No. 40," which made it plain that his opinion as to the duties of a military commander in time of peace, and as to the rights of the southern states, were not consistent with the reconstruction policy determined upon by Congress. He was therefore relieved at his own request, 28 March, 1868, and given the command of the Division of the Atlantic, with headquarters in New York City. After the accession of General Grant to the presidency, he was sent, 5 March, 1869, to the Department of Dakota; but on the death of General Meade, 6 November, 1872, he was again assigned to the Division of the Atlantic. General Hancock s name was favorably mentioned in 1868 and 1872 as a candidate for presidential honors, and he was nominated the candidate of the Democratic Party in the Cincinnati Convention, 24 June, 1880. On the first ballot he received 171 votes, in a convention containing 738 members, and Senator Bayard, of Delaware, 153. The remainder of the votes were scattered among twelve candidates. On the second ballot General Hancock received 320 votes, Senator Thomas F. Bayard, 111, Illinois, and Speaker Samuel J. Randall, of the House of Representatives, advanced from 6 to 128 votes. On the next ballot General Hancock received 705 votes, and the nomination was made unanimous. The election in November resulted in the following popular vote: James A. Garfield, Republican, 4,454,416; Winfield S. Hancock, Democrat, 4,444,952: James B. Weaver, Greenback, 308,578; Neal Dow, Prohibition, 10,305. After the conclusion of the canvass General Hancock continued in the discharge of official duty. His last notable appearance in public was at General Grant s funeral, all the arrangements for which were carried out under his supervision. The esteem in which he was held as a citizen and a soldier was perhaps never greater than at the time of his death. He had outlived the political slanders to which his candidacy had given rise, and his achievements in the field during the Civil War had become historic. His place as a general is doubtless foremost among those who never fought an independent campaign. He was not only brave himself, but he had the ability to inspire masses of men with courage. He was quick to perceive opportunities amid the dust and smoke of battle, and was equally quick to seize them; and although impulsive, he was at the same time tenacious. He had the bravery that goes forward rapidly, and the bravery that gives way slowly. General Grant says: "Hancock stands the most conspicuous figure of all the general officers who did not exercise a separate command. He commanded a corps longer than any other one, and his name was never mentioned as having committed in battle a blunder for which he was responsible. He was a man of very conspicuous personal appearance. Tall, well-formed, and, at the time of which I now write, young and fresh-looking, he presented an appearance that would attract the attention of an army as he passed. His genial disposition made him friends, and his personal courage and his presence with his command in the thickest of the fight won him the confidence of troops serving under him." To a reporter in search of adverse criticism during the presidential canvass of 1880, General Sherman said: "If you will sit down and write the best thing that can be put in language about General Hancock as an officer and a gentleman, I will sign it without hesitation." See " Life of General W. S. Hancock." by Junkin and Norton (New York, 1880); "Addresses at a Meeting of the Military Service Institution in Memory of Hancock " (1886); Francis A. Walkers " History of the Second Corps" (1887); and "In Memoriam: Military Order of the Loyal Legion" (1887).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 72-74.

HAND, Daniel Whilldin, surgeon, born in Cape May Court-House, New Jersey, 18 August, 1834. He received an academic education, took a partial course at the University of Lewisburg. Pennsylvania, and then studied medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 1856. In 1857 he began practice in his profession at St. Paul, Minnesota. In July, 1861, he was appointed assistant surgeon of the 1st Minnesota Volunteers, and in the next month was commissioned brigade-surgeon with the rank of major. He accompanied the Army of the Potomac in the Peninsular Campaign; was slightly wounded at Fair Oaks; in August, 1862, was placed in charge of the General Hospital at Newport News; and in October made medical director of U. S. forces at Suffolk, Virginia While on duty near Suffolk, he was taken prisoner in May, 1863, confined in Libby Prison, and after his release, in July, 1863, was made medical director of North Carolina. In February, 1865, he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and in the next month to colonel. He was mustered out of service in November, 1865, and resumed practice in St. Paul. Since 1872 he has been president of the Minnesota Board of Health, in 1883 was appointed professor of surgery in the University of Minnesota, and is one of the founders of the State Medical Society. He has written largely for medical journals.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 74.

HANDY, Alexander Hamilton, jurist, born in Princess Anne, Somerset County, Maryland, 25 December, 1809; died in Canton, Mississippi, 12 September, 1883. After being admitted to the bar, he moved to Mississippi in 1836, and was a judge of the high court of errors from 1853 till 1867, when he resigned. He then moved to Baltimore, Maryland, and practised his profession there, also holding the chair of law in the University of Maryland till 1871, when he returned to Mississippi. Judge Handy was an active advocate of secession. In 1860 he was appointed a commissioner to Maryland by the governor of Mississippi, but failed to obtain a hearing from the legislature. On 19 December, 1860, in a speech in Baltimore, he declared that secession was only a temporary measure, and was " not intended to break up the present government, but to perpetuate it." Judge Handy's decisions form a large part of volumes 26-41 of the " Mississippi Reports." He published a pamphlet entitled "Secession Considered as a Right (1862), and a " Parallel between the Reign of James the Second, of England, and that of Abraham Lincoln."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 75.

HANSON, John Wesley, author, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 12 May, 1823. After attending the Lowell High-School, he entered a counting-room in that city, where he remained seven years, still continuing his studies. He was ordained to the ministry of the Universalist Church in Wentworth, New Hampshire, in 1845, held pastorates in Danvers, Massachusetts, in 1846-'8, and Gardiner, Maine, in 1850-4, and in 1848 edited the " Massachusetts Era," the first Republican paper in Lowell. He edited the " Gospel Banner" in Augusta, Maine, in 1854-'60, and was pastor in Haverhill, Massachusetts, till 1865, serving also in 1863-'4 as chaplain of the 6th Massachusetts Regiment and army correspondent of the Boston "Journal " and the New York "Tribune."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 76.

HARDEE, William J., soldier, born in Savannah, Georgia, about 1817; died in Wytheville, Virginia, 6 November, 1873. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1838, and after serving in the Florida War, in the 2d Dragoons, he was promoted to a 1st lieutenancy, 3 December 1839, and sent by the Secretary of War to the celebrated Military school of St. Maur, France. While there he was attached to the cavalry department of the French Army, he was stationed for a time on the western frontier, appointed captain of dragoons, 18 September, 1844, and accompanied General Taylor in 1846 across the Rio Grande. His company was the first to engage the enemy at Curricitos, where he was overwhelmed by superior numbers and made prisoner. He was exchanged in time to take part in the siege of Monterey, and was promoted to major for gallantry on 25 March, 1847. At the end of the war he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, and a little later was appointed major in the 2d U.S. Cavalry, of which Albert Sidney Johnston was colonel and Robert E. Lee lieutenant-colonel. About this time he received instructions from the War Department to prepare a system of tactics for the use of infantry. On the completion of this work, in 1856, he was ordered to West Point as commandant of cadets, with the local rank of lieutenant-colonel; and there he remained, with the exception of one year, during which he was absent in Europe, until the end of January, 1861. He then joined the Confederate Army with the rank of colonel, and was assigned to duty at Fort Morgan, Mobile. In June, 1861, he was made brigadier-general, and sent to Arkansas under General Polk. He was soon afterward transferred to Kentucky, where he gained a victory over a small National force at Mumfordsville, 17 December, 1861. Events were now shaping for more vigorous work in the southwest. At Shiloh, Hardee's Corps, the 3d, formed the first Confederate line, and made the first attack. He was promoted to major-general, and Beauregard, in his report, praised Hardee's skill and general ability. He commanded the left wing at Perryville, 8 October, 1862, and took a conspicuous part in all the movements at Murfreesboro. For his conduct at Perryville and throughout the campaign he was appointed lieutenant-general, ranking after Longstreet. After the fall of Vicksburg, Hardee had charge of a camp of paroled prisoners in Alabama. Later in the year he was put in command of the 2d Corps under Bragg, and, after the battle of Chattanooga, was temporarily appointed his successor. In May, General Joseph E. Johnston assumed the command, and Hardee resumed his subordinate position. Hardee was relieved at his own request in September, 1864, and appointed to the command of the Department of South Carolina. He finally surrendered at Durham Station, North Carolina, 26 April, 1865. At the close of the war General Hardee retired to his plantation in Alabama. Hardee's Tactics, or the "U. S. Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics," the work already referred to (New York, 1856), is eclectic rather than original, and is drawn mainly from French sources.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 77.

HARDIE, James Allen, soldier, born in New York City, 5 May, 1823; died in Washington, D. C, 5 May, 1876. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1843, and entered the artillery service. He was an assistant professor of geography, history, and ethics at West Point in 1844-'6, and served as company officer in garrison, frontier, and Indian service till 1861. During the Mexican War he commanded a New York regiment of volunteers, with the rank of major, and in 1857 he was appointed captain in the 3d U.S. Artillery. He was transferred to the 5th U.S. Artillery in 1861, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel and aide-de-camp, and served on General McClellan's staff during the Peninsular and Maryland Campaigns, and on that of General Burnside in the battles around Fredericksburg. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, assistant adjutant-general in 1863, assigned to special duty in the War Department, and was assistant secretary to Secretary Edwin M. Stanton while he held office. General Hardie was appointed inspector-general in 1864, and in 1865 was brevetted brigadier and major-general, U. S. Army, for his services during the war. In 1866 he was senior member of the commission to inspect ordnance and ordnance stores in forts and arsenals, and commissioner to audit the military claims of Kansas, Montana, Dakota, California, and Oregon. He edited numerous military reports.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 78.

HARDIN, Charles Henry, governor of Missouri, born in Trimble County, Kentucky, 15 July, 1820. His father moved to Missouri in the autumn of 1820, and in 1821 settled in Columbia, Boone County. The son was graduated at Miami University, Ohio, in 1841, and began the practice of law in Fulton, Missouri, in 1843. He was attorney of the 3d Judicial District in 1848-'52, and has been several times a member of each branch of the legislature. In 1855 he was one of a commission to revise and codify the statute laws of the state. He voted against the secession of the state, and in 1862 retired to his farm near Mexico, Missouri, where, after the war, he resumed the practice of law. In 1874 he was elected governor of Missouri. Governor Hardin endowed Hardin Female College, near Mexico, Missouri, in 1873, with property valued at over $60,000. He has since been president of its board of directors, and has given much of his attention, as a public man, to the cause of education.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 78.

HARDING, Abner Clark, soldier, born in East Hampton, Middlesex County, Connecticut, 10 February, 1807; died in Monmouth, Warren County. Illinois, 19 July, 1874. He was educated chiefly at Hamilton, N. Y., Academy, and after practising law in Oneida County for some time moved to Illinois. In that state he continued to practise law for fifteen years, and to manage farms for twenty-five years. In 1848 he was a member of the convention that framed the constitution under which Illinois was governed from 1848 till 1870. He also served in the legislature in 1848-'9 and 1850. During the ten years preceding the Civil War he was engaged in railway enterprises. In 1862 he enlisted as a private in the 83d Illinois Infantry, and rose to the rank of colonel. For bravery at Fort Donelson he was promoted to brigadier-general, and in 1863 had command at Murfreesboro, Tennessee. In 1864 he was elected a representative in Congress, and was reelected in 1866, serving from 4 December, 1865, till 3 March, 1869. General Harding early entered with zeal into the construction of railroads in central Illinois, and was one of the projectors and builders of the Peoria and Oquawka Railroad, now a part of the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy. He left a fortune of about $2,000,000, no small part of which he had amassed in railroad enterprises. Several years before his death he endowed a professorship in Monmouth College.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 79.

HARDING, Benjamin F., senator, born in Wyoming County, Pennsylvania, 4 January, 1823. He was educated at the public schools, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1847. He began practice in Illinois in 1848, and in 1849 moved to Oregon, where he was clerk of the territorial legislature in 1850-'l, and a member of that body and its speaker in 1852. He was U. S. District attorney for Oregon in 1853, and secretary of the territory in 1854-'9. After its admission to the Union he was a member of the state house of representatives in 1859-'62, being speaker during the last two years. He was then elected a U. S. Senator as a Republican, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Edward D. Baker, who was killed at Ball's Bluff, and served from 1 Dee., 1862, till 3 March, 1865.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 79.

HARGIS, Thomas F., jurist, born in Breathitt County, Kentucky, 24 June, 1842. He moved with his parents to Rowan County in 1856, and received a scanty education. In 1861 he entered the Confederate service as a private in the 5th Kentucky Infantry. He was promoted captain in 1863, and in November, 1864, was captured in Luray valley and held a prisoner until the termination of the war. Returning home penniless at the age of twenty-three, he devoted himself to the study and mastery of the English branches, and to the law. He was licensed to practise in 1866, and in 1868 moved to Carlisle, Kentucky The year following he was elected judge of Nicholas County, and he was re-elected in 1870. He was chosen to the state senate in 1871, elected judge of the criminal court in 1878, and raised to the appellate bench of Kentucky in 1879. After serving as chief justice during the vacancy caused by the death of an associate judge, he served two years longer by his own succession. Declining a re-election, he retired from the supreme bench in 1884, and moved to Louisville, Kentucky, where he is now (1887) engaged in practice.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 83.

HARKER, Charles G.. soldier, born in Swedesborough, New Jersey, 2 December 1837: killed at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, 27 June, 1864. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1858, entered the 2d U.S. Infantry, and became 1st lieutenant of the 15th U.S. Infantry, 14 May, 1861. He was promoted captain, 24 October, 1861, became lieutenant-colonel of the 60th Ohio Volunteers, and colonel on 11 November, 1861. He was engaged in the battle of Shiloh and the siege of Corinth and the battle of Stone River, and was recommended for promotion, but did not receive it until he had still further distinguished himself at Chickamauga and Chattanooga. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from 20 September. 1863, commanded a brigade under General Howard in the campaign in Georgia, and held the peak of Rocky Face Ridge, 7 May, 1864, against determined efforts of the enemy to dislodge him.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 82.

HARKNESS, William, astronomer, born in Ecclefechan, Scotland, 17 December, 1837, studied at Lafayette College, and was graduated in 1858 at Rochester University, where he also received the degree of LL. D. in 1874. He was graduated in medicine in 1862, was appointed aide at the U. S. Naval Observatory in August of that year, and also served as surgeon in the U. S. Army at the second battle of Bull Run, and during the attack on Washington in July, 1864. He was commissioned professor of mathematics in the U. S. Navy, with the relative rank of lieutenant-commander, in August, 1863, and stationed at the Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C. In 1865-'6, during a cruise on the " Monadnock." he made an extensive series of observations on terrestrial magnetism at the principal ports in South America. His results were published by the Smithsonian Institution (Washington, 1872). On his return he was attached to the U. S. Hydrographic Office during 1867, and from 1868 till 1874 to the Naval Observatory.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 83.

HARLAN, John Marshall, lawyer, born in Boyle County, Kentucky, 1 June, 1833, was graduated at Centre College in 1850, and at the law department of Transylvania University in 1853. In 1851 he was adjutant-general of Kentucky, and in 1858 became judge of Franklin County, Kentucky. He was afterward an unsuccessful Whig candidate for Congress, and at the beginning of the Civil War entered the Union Army as colonel of the 10th Kentucky Infantry. He was Attorney-General of Kentucky in 1863-'7, and was the unsuccessful Republican candidate for governor of the state in 1871 and 1875. He was a member of the Louisiana Commission that was appointed by President Hayes, I and on 29 November, 1877, became associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, as successor of David Davis.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 83.

HARLAN, James, 1820-1899, statesman.  Whig U.S. Senator, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery.  Elected senator in 1855 representing Iowa.  Re-elected, served until 1865, when appointed Secretary of the Interior by President Lincoln.  Re-elected to Senate in 1866, served until 1873.  (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 83-84; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 269; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 10, p. 94; Congressional Globe)

HARLAN, James, statesman, born in Clarke County, Illinois., 25 August, 1820. He was graduated at the Indiana Asbury University in 1845. held the office of superintendent of public instruction in Iowa in 1847, and was president of Iowa Wesleyan University in 1853. He was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1855 as a Whig, and served as chairman of the committee on public lands, but his seat was declared vacant on a technicality on 12 January, 1857. On the 17th of the same month he was re-elected for the term ending in 1861, and in the latter year was a delegate to the Peace Convention. He was re-elected to the Senate for the term ending in 1867, but resigned in 1865, having been appointed by President Lincoln Secretary of the Interior. He was again elected to the Senate in 1866, and was a delegate to the Philadelphia Loyalists' Convention of that year. He was chairman of the committee on the District of Columbia and Indian affairs, and also served on those on foreign relations, agriculture, and the Pacific Railroad. In 1869 he was appointed president of the Iowa University. After leaving the Senate in 1873 he became editor of the " Washington Chronicle." From 1882 till 1885 he was presiding judge of the court of commissioners of Alabama claims.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 83-84.

HARLAN, George Cuvier, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 28 January, 1835, was educated at Delaware College and in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 1858. He was appointed resident physician of Wills eye Hospital in 1857, of St. Joseph's Hospital in 1858, and of the Pennsylvania Hospital in 1859. For some time during the Civil War he served as medical officer on the gun-boat "Union," and for three years was surgeon of the 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry. He is now (1887) professor of diseases of the eye in the Philadelphia polyclinic, and has published numerous papers on his specialty. He is the author of "Diseases of the Orbit" in Wood's "Reference Hand-Book," and has revised parts of the American edition of Holmes's "System of Surgery."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 84.

HARMONY, David B., naval officer. born in Easton, Pennsylvania, 3 September, 1832. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman on 7 April, 1847, passed that grade in 1853, became lieutenant in 1855, lieutenant-commander in 1862, commander in 1866, captain in 1875, and commodore in 1885. He served on the "Iroquois" at the passage of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, and at the capture of New Orleans, and took part in many severe engagements with the batteries at Vicksburg and Grand Gulf. He was executive officer of the iron-clad "Nahant" in the first attack on Fort Sumter, 7 April, 1863, and in the engagement with the ram " Atlanta" on 17 June, and in all the attacks on defences at Charleston, from 4 July till 7 September. He held a command in the Eastern Gulf Squadron in 1863, and commanded the "Saratoga in the Western Gulf Squadron in 1864-'5, taking part in the capture of Mobile and its defences. He commanded a division of eight vessels in an expedition to Montgomery, Alabama, in April, 1865, and in 1867 commanded the "Frolic" in Europe, one of the vessels of Admiral Farragut's Squadron. He was honorably mentioned in the reports of Commodore De Camp, Commodore Palmer, and Commodore Downes. He made his last cruise in 1881, was a member of the examining and retiring boards in 1883-'5, and is now (1887) serving as chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, having held this office since 1885.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 84.

HARNEY, John Hopkins, journalist, born in Bourbon County, Kentucky, 20 February, 1800; died in Jefferson County, Kentucky, 27 January, 1867. Being left by the death of his parents in straitened circumstances, he was compelled to educate himself, and developed a talent for mathematics. At the age of seventeen he successfully solved a problem in surveying that had been referred to him by two rivals, which attracted so much attention that he was soon made principal of the Paris, Kentucky, academy. The money thus earned he devoted to the purchase of a scholarship in the University of Oxford, Ohio, where he was graduated in 1827 in belles-lettres and theology. He was appointed professor of mathematics in the University of Indiana in 1828, and in 1833 accepted the corresponding chair at Hanover College, Indiana, and began the preparation of his " Algebra." In 1839 he was made president of Louisville College. This office he retained until 1843, when the college was closed. The year following, Mr. Harney began the publication of the Louisville "Democrat, which he continued to edit until his death. He was elected trustee of the Louisville school-board in 1850, and afterward president, and established many reforms. In 1861-'2 he was elected to the legislature, and as chairman of the committee on Federal Relations, when Kentucky was invaded by the Confederate Army, he drafted the famous resolution, "Resolved, That Kentucky expects the Confederate, or Tennessee, troops to be withdrawn from the soil unconditionally. Mr. Harney declined a re-election and devoted himself to protesting in the "Democrat" against the arbitrary arrest and deportation of citizens, opposing the grant of " another man or another dollar" until the liberties of the citizen were assured. This led to his arrest, but General Burnside, after looking into the matter, disapproved the action of his subordinates, and the journalist was released. At the close of the war Mr. Harney urged the repeal of the severe laws against self-expatriated Confederates, and succeeded in carrying a measure of full restoration; but in 1868 he opposed the nomination of such rehabilitated citizens for high office, on the ground that it would provoke further arbitrary arrests. His "Algebra" (Louisville, 1840) ranks high as a text-book for advanced pupils.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 85.

HARNEY, William Selby, soldier, born near Haysboro, Davidson County, Tennessee, 27 August, 1800, was appointed from Louisiana 2d lieutenant in the 19th U. S. Infantry, 13 February, 1818, and promoted to be 1st lieutenant, 7 January, 1819. He was commissioned captain, 14 May, 1825; major and paymaster, 1 May, 1833; lieutenant-colonel, 2d Dragoons, 15 August, 1836; colonel, 30 June, 1846; and brigadier-general, 14 June, 1858. He took part in the Black Hawk War in 1833, and also in the Florida War, distinguishing himself in action at Fort Mellon and in the defence of a trading-house at Carloosahatchie, 23 July, 1839. He commanded several expeditions into the Everglades, and in December, 1840, was brevetted colonel "for gallant and meritorious conduct." He was also mentioned for his bravery at Medellin, Mexico, 25 March, 1847, and was brevetted brigadier-general for gallantry at Cerro Gordo. On 3 September, 1855, he completely defeated the Sioux Indians at Sand Hills, on the north fork of the Platte River. In June, 1858, he was placed in command of the Department of Oregon, and on 9 July, 1859, took possession of the island of San Juan, near Vancouver, which was claimed by the English government to be included within the boundaries of British Columbia. A dispute with Great Britain and the recall of Harney followed. He was subsequently assigned to the command of the Department of the West, and in April, 1861, while on his way from St. Louis to Washington, was arrested by the Confederates at Harper's Ferry and taken to Richmond, Virginia. Here he met with many old acquaintances, who urged him to join the south. On meeting General Lee, Harney said to him: "I am sorry to meet you in this way." Lee replied : " General Harney, I had no idea of taking any part in this matter; I wanted to stay at Arlington and raise potatoes for my family; but my friends forced me into it." General Harney also met General Joseph E. Johnston, who told him that he was opposed to the war, but that he would be execrated by his relatives, all of whom lived in Virginia, if he did not side with the south. Harney was speedily released, and departed for Washington. On his return to St. Louis he issued several proclamations warning the people of Missouri of the danger of secession, and the evil effects that would follow from a dissolution of the Union. On 21 May he entered into an agreement with General Sterling Price, commanding the Missouri militia, to make no military movement so long as peace was maintained by the state authorities. He was soon afterward relieved of his command, and was placed on the retired list, 1 August, 1863. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted major-general "for long and faithful service." General Harney now (1887) resides in St. Louis. See "The Life and Military Services of General William Selby Harney, by L. U. Reavis " (St, Louis, 1887).  into exile, where he died.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 86.

HARPER, Frances Ellen Watkins, 1825-1911, African American, poet, writer, abolitionist, political activist. Wrote antislavery poetry. (Hughes, Meltzer, & Lincoln, 1968, p. 105; Yellin, 1994, pp. 97, 148, 153, 155-157, 295; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 5, p. 372)

HARRINGTON, Theophilis, 1762-1813, jurist, political leader, abolitionist.  Ruled in court case against a slaveholder in June 1804.

HARPER, James, founder of a firm of printers and publishers, originally consisting of James, born 13 April, 1795, died in New York, 27 March, 1869; John, born 22 January, 1797, died 22 April, 1875; Joseph Wesley, born 25 December, 1801, died 14 February, 1870; and Fletcher, born 31 January, 1806. died 29 May, 1877. They were the sons of Joseph Harper, a farmer at Newtown, Long Island. James and John came to New York, and James was apprenticed to Paul and Thomas, while John served Jonathan Seymour, printers. Having concluded their apprenticeship, they established themselves in business, at first only printing for booksellers, but soon began to publish on their own account. The first book that the firm printed was "Seneca's Morals," in 1817, and by a strange coincidence a new edition of this work appeared on the day of the death of the last of the four brothers. The first book that they published on their own account was " Locke on the Human Understanding," in 1818. The old firm of J. and J. Harper issued about 200 works. Wesley and Fletcher Harper were apprenticed to their elder brothers, and as they became of age were admitted as partners; and the style of the firm was about 1833 changed to "Harper and Brothers," In 1853 their establishment occupied nine contiguous buildings in Cliff and Pearl streets, filled with costly machinery and books. On 10 December of that year the whole was burned to the ground, in consequence of a workman engaged in repairs having thrown a burning paper into a tank of benzine, which he mistook for water. Most of their stereotype plates were stored in vaults, and were saved; but the loss in buildings, machinery, and books amounted to $1,000,000, upon which there was only $250,000 insurance. The next day they hired temporary premises, and employed the principal printers and binders in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia in reproducing their books. Before the ruins of the fire could be cleared away the plans for their new edifice were prepared. It covers about half an acre of ground, extending from Cliff Street to Franklin square in Pearl street, and, including cellars, the structure is seven stories high. It is absolutely fire-proof, and constitutes probably the most complete publishing establishment in the world, all the operations in the preparation and publication of a book being carried on under a single roof, and the regular number of employes in the premises of both sexes being about 1,000. Besides the books published, they issue four illustrated periodicals: "Harper's Magazine," established in 1850, a monthly, devoted to literature and the arts; "Harper's Weekly," established in 1857, devoted to literature and topics of the day; "Harper's Bazar," established in 1867, devoted to the fashions, literature, and social life; and " Harper's Young People," a children's magazine, established in 1881. James Harper was in 1844 elected mayor of the city of New York for the succeeding year, and he was subsequently put forward for the governorship of the state; but he preferred to conduct the business of the firm rather than enter public life. In March, 1869, while driving in Fifth Avenue, his horses took fright, and he was thrown from his carriage; when aid reached him he was insensible, and died two days afterward. Wesley Harper, who for many years had charge of the literary department, died after a long illness, After the death of his two brothers, John Harper withdrew from active business; and the firm was reorganized by the admission of several of the sons of the original partners. These, after receiving a careful education, several of them at Columbia College, entered the house, each serving a regular apprenticeship in some branch of the business. The firm now (1887) consists of Philip J. A. Harper, son of James, born 21 October, 1824; Fletcher, Jr., born 7 October, 1828: Joseph Wesley, Jr., born 16 March, 1830; the two sons of John—John Wesley, born 6 May. 1831, and Joseph Abner, born 31 March, 1833; and Joseph Henry, grandson of Fletcher Harper. Fletcher, Jr.'s, wife established in 1878 a summer resort at north Long Branch, New Jersey, for the working-girls of New York, providing accommodations at actual cost, and since her death this charity has been continued by her daughter, Mrs. Hiram W. Sibley.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 87.

HARRIMAN, Walter, governor of New Hampshire, born in Warner, New Hampshire, 8 April, 1817; died in Concord, New Hampshire, 25 July, 1884. He received an academical education and began teaching, but became a Universalist clergyman, and in 1841 took charge of a Society at Harvard, Massachusetts After a few years he became pastor of a new Universalist Church in his native town. In 1851, having meantime engaged in trade, he decided, against the earnest solicitation of friends, to abandon the ministry. In 1849, and again in 1850, he had already been chosen representative of his town to the general court, and in 1853 and 1854 was elected state treasurer. In August, 1855, he was appointed to a clerkship in the Pension-Office at Washington, but resigned the following January to take part in the political canvass of that winter, which resulted in "no choice" by the people. In the spring of 1856 he was appointed by President Pierce on a commission to classify and appraise the Indian lands of Kansas, he was again in the legislature in 1858, and in 1859 and 1860 was elected to the state senate, his Republican opponent being on each occasion his own brother. He made speeches to sustain the Know-Nothing movement in 1855-'6, canvassed Michigan for Buchanan in company with General Lewis Cass, and was an earnest supporter of Stephen A. Douglas in 1860. In May, 1861, Mr. Harriman became editor of the " Union Democrat," published at Manchester, New Hampshire, in which he advocated forcible and immediate action against the seceding states. He became colonel of the 11th New Hampshire Regiment, was taken prisoner at the battle of the Wilderness, 6 May, 1864, sent to Macon, Georgia, and moved thence to Charleston, where he was placed, with forty-nine other northern officers, under the fire of the National batteries on Morris Island. There he was for fifty-two days, until General Foster, in retaliation, placed fifty Confederate officers of the same rank under fire of the guns on Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie. This led to an exchange on 4 August, 1864. After returning home and engaging actively in the campaign of that year in favor of Lincoln and Johnson, Colonel Harriman rejoined his regiment, and commanded a brigade at Petersburg. In March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general. He was elected Secretary of State of New Hampshire in 1865 and 1860, and governor in 1867 and 1868. In the last year he made a tour in the middle and western states, advocating the election of General Grant. As a political speaker he had few superiors. He was naval officer at the Port of Boston throughout Grant's entire administration, moved to Concord, New Hampshire, in 1872, and in 1881 was again chosen to the legislature. Governor Harriman published a " History of Warner, New Hampshire" (1879), and "In the Orient," a record of a tour through Europe and the east in 1882 (Boston, 1883).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 89.

HARRIS, David Bullock, soldier, born at Frederick's Hall, Louisa County, Virginia, 28 September, 1814; died near Petersburg, Virginia, 10 October, 1864. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1833, entered the 1st U.S. Artillery, and, after serving a year, became assistant professor of engineering at West Point. He resigned from the army in 1835, and during several years thereafter was employed as a civil engineer on the James River and Kanawha Canal and other important works, but subsequently was a large exporter of tobacco and flour. When Virginia seceded from the Union in April, 1861, he became a captain of engineers in the state forces. He was the first to reconnoiter the line of Bull Run, and when the position at Manassas Junction was occupied in force toward the end of May, 1861, he planned and constructed the works for its defence. He was attached to the staff of General Philip St. George Cooke at the battle of Bull Run, accompanied Beauregard to the west early in 1862, and there planned and constructed the works at Island No. 10 and Fort Pillow, and the river-defences at Vicksburg. In October, 1862, he was transferred to Charleston, and took charge of the defensive engineering operations at that place. In 1864, as colonel of engineers, he went with General Beauregard to Virginia, and was employed on the defences of Petersburg. A short time before his death he was commissioned a brigadier-general.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 90-91.

HARRIS, Elisha, physician, born in Westminster, Vermont, 4 March, 1824: died in Albany, New York, 31 January, 1884. He was graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York in 1849, and entered on the practice of his profession in that city. In 1855 he was appointed superintendent and physician-in-chief of the quarantine hospital on Staten Island, and at that time constructed a floating hospital for the lower quarantine station. During the Civil War he was instrumental in the organization of the U. S. Sanitary Commission in New York City, and was actively concerned in its work. On the organization of the Metropolitan Board of Health in 1866 he was made registrar of vital statistics, and also corresponding secretary, and in 1868 he was appointed sanitary superintendent of New York City. While holding this office he made a systematic inspection of tenement-houses, and so vigorously enforced the law providing for their ventilation and lighting that he secured, among other reforms, the putting in of nearly 40,000 windows and about 2,000 roof-ventilators during the year 1869. He also organized the first free public vaccination service, and the system of house-to-house visitation. In 1873 he was again made registrar of vital statistics, and held that office until the reorganization of this bureau in 1876. When the New York state board of health was created in 1880, Dr. Harris was appointed one of its members, and then became its secretary, which place he continued to hold until his death. The railway ambulance that has been adopted and used by the Prussian Army was invented by him. Dr. Harris was connected with many medical and sanitary associations in the United States, was a delegate in 1876 to the International Medical Congress of the American Public Health Association, and in 1878 was elected president of that association. He was the author of numerous articles on sanitary topics, and edited several valuable reports on these subjects.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p.91

HARRIS, Ira, 1802-1875, jurist.  Republican U.S. Senator from New York.  Served as U.S. Senator from 1861-1867.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery.  (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 91; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 310; Congressional Globe)

HARRIS, Ira, jurist, born in Charleston, Montgomery County, New York, 31 May, 1802; died in Albany, New York, 2 December, 1875. He was brought up on a farm, was graduated at Union College in 1824, studied law in Albany, and was admitted to the bar in 1828. During the succeeding seventeen years he attained a high rank in his profession. He was a member of the assembly in 1844 and 1845, having been chosen as a Whig, and in 1846 was state senator and a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. In 1848 he became judge of the U.S. Supreme Court, and held that office for twelve years. In February, 1861, Judge Harris was elected U. S. Senator from New York, as a Republican, serving from 4 July, 1861, to 3 March, 1867. In the Senate Mr. Harris served on the committee on Foreign Relations and Judiciary, and the select Joint Committee on the Southern States. Although he supported the administration in the main, he did not fear to express his opposition to all measures, however popular at the time, that did not appear to him either wise or just. Judge Harris was for more than twenty years professor of equity, jurisprudence, and practice in the Albany Law School, and during his senatorial term delivered a course of lectures at the law-school of Columbian University, Washington, D. C. He was for many years president of the board of trustees of Union College, was one of the founders of Rochester University, of which he was the chancellor, and was president of the American Baptist Missionary Union and other religious bodies. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 91

HARRIS, Isham Green, senator, born near Tullahoma, Tennessee, 10 February, 1818. His father, of the same name, was the owner of a sterile farm and ten or twelve Negroes, and his family grew up without discipline. At fourteen years of age Isham went to Paris, Tennessee, and took employment as a shop-boy. In the following year he went to school, and before he was nineteen years old moved to Tippah County. Mississippi, where he became a successful merchant. He studied law for two years at night, attending to his business during the day, and had accumulated about $7,000 and also established a home for his father near Paris, Tennessee, when, through the failure of a bank, he was left penniless. He resumed his business at Paris with a rich partner, and in two years had repaired his losses. His nights meanwhile had been given to the study of the law, and he was admitted to the bar in 1841. His legislative district had a small Democratic majority. Two obstinate Democrats insisted on running, and the leaders in caucus nominated Harris as a ruse to effect the withdrawal of one or the other. Neither would yield. He defeated them, and his Whig competitor also. Harris was elected to Congress in 1848, and served two terms. He refused a renomination in 1853, and settled in Memphis as a lawyer. In 1856 he canvassed the state as presidential elector, and the success of his ticket was largely attributed to him. He was elected governor of Tennessee in 1857, re-elected in 1859, and again in 1861, after the Civil War had actually begun. Until he was driven from the state by the success of the National arms, Governor Harris exhibited ability and resource. He acted as volunteer aide on the staff of General Albert Sidney Johnston, and was with him when mortally wounded at Shiloh. He continued at the headquarters of the Army of the West during the remainder of the war, shared its hardships, and took part in all its important battles except Perryville. When the war began he was worth $150,000; when it closed he had nothing. He evaded capture on parole, went into exile in Mexico, where he lived eighteen months, and thence to England, where he remained a year. In 1867 he returned, and resumed the practice of law in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1870 he announced himself as a candidate for the U. S. Senate, and canvassed the state, challenging all comers to meet him in public discussion. He was successful, took his seat, 5 March, 1877, and was re-elected for the term ending in 1889. In the Senate he has been an advocate of an honest and economical administration of the government, and an opponent of all class legislation. He was a member of the Committee on Claims, of the select committee on the Levees of the Mississippi River, and chairman of the committee on the District of Columbia, while his party was in power in the Senate.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 92.

HARRIS, Joel Chandler, author, born in Eatonton, Georgia, 8 December, 1848. He served an apprenticeship at the printing trade, subsequently studied law, and practised at Forsyth, Georgia. He is now (1887) one of the editors of the Atlanta, Georgia, " Constitution." He has contributed, in both prose and verse, to current literature, and is the author of "Uncle Remus, His Songs and his Savings: the Folk-Lore of the Old Plantation" (New York, 1880): "Nights with Uncle Remus " (Boston, 1883); and " Mingo and Other Sketches" (1883).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 92.

HARRIS, Thomas Cadwalader, naval officer, born in Philadelphia, 18 November, 1825; died there, 24 January, 1875. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman in 1841, became lieutenant in 1855, lieutenant-commander in 1862, commander in 1860, and captain in 1872. During the Civil War he commanded the "Chippewa" and the "Yantic." With the "Chippewa he participated in several attacks on Fort Wagner, Morris Island, in July, 1863, and in December, 1864, and January, 1865, attacked Fort Fisher. In 1865 he was recommended for promotion by Admiral Porter "in consideration of his cool performance of duty in these actions."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 94.

HARRIS, Thomas Mealey, soldier, born in Wood County, Virginia, 17 June, 1817. He studied medicine, and practised at Harrisville and Glenville, Virginia In May, 1862, he was appointed colonel of the 10th West Virginia Infantry. He was promoted brigadier-general on 29 March, 1865, sent out the detachment that silenced the last Confederate guns at Appomattox, and was mustered out on 30 April, 1866. He applied himself after the war to scientific farming, served a term in the legislature of West Virginia in 1867, was adjutant-general of the state in 1809-'70, and was pension-agent at Wheeling in 1871—'7. He is the author of medical essays and of a tract entitled "Calvinism Vindicated."
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 94

HARRIS, Townsend, merchant, born in Sandy Hill, Washington County, New York. in 1803; died in New York City, 25 February, 1878. At the age of fourteen he came to New York, entered a drug-store as clerk, and by perseverance and industry rose to be partner in a large importing and jobbing house. With slight opportunities of early education, he became a man of culture, with a warm interest in popular education. He was made school-trustee of the 9th ward, and later a member and then president of the board of education. Despite long opposition, he succeeded in establishing the Free academy, now the College of the city of New York. He was also one of the founders of the Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals and of the Central park museum of natural history. In 1848 he planned and carried out a voyage in the South Pacific, meeting with many strange experiences among the islanders and cannibals. He was U. S. consul at Ningpo in 1854, in 1856 made a new treaty for the United States with Siam, and, on the opening of Japan by Commodore Matthew C. Perry, was selected as a fit person to follow up the work that had been begun by American diplomacy. He lived nearly two years at Kakisaki, near Shimoda, and went to Yedo to press his claims. His interpreter, Mr. Heusken, was assassinated in the street in daylight, but, with imperturbable faith in the Japanese, Mr. Harris remained in Yedo when the other diplomatists had moved, and secured in 1858 the first treaty of trade and commerce, and on 1 January, 1859, the opening of three ports to foreign residents. He resigned his post on the change of administration, and resided in New York until his death.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 94-95.

HARRISON, William Henry, ninth president of the United States, born in Berkeley, Charles City County, Virginia, 9 February, 1773; died in Washington, D. C., 4 April, 1841, was educated at Hampden Sidney College, Virginia, and began the study of medicine, but before he had finished it accounts of the Indian outrages that had been committed on the western frontier raised in him a desire to enter the army for its defence. Robert Morris, who had been appointed his guardian on the death of his father in 1791, endeavored to dissuade him, but his purpose was approved by Washington, who had been his father's friend, and he was commissioned ensign in the 1st U.S. Infantry on 16 August, 1791. He joined his regiment at Fort Washington, Ohio, was appointed lieutenant of the 1st sub-legion, to rank from June, 1792, and afterward joined the new army under General Anthony Wayne. He was made aide-de-camp to the commanding officer, took part, in December, 1793, in the expedition that erected Fort Recovery on the battlefield where St. Clair had been defeated two years before, and, with others, was thanked by name in general orders for his services. He participated in the engagements with the Indians that began on 30 June, 1794, and on 19 August, at a council of war, submitted a plan of march, which was adopted and led to the victory on the Miami on the following day. Lieutenant Harrison was specially complimented by General Wayne, in his despatch to the Secretary of War, for gallantry in this fight, and in May, 1797, was made captain, and given command of Fort Washington. Here he was intrusted with the duty of receiving and forwarding troops, arms, and provisions to the forts in the northwest that had been evacuated by the British in obedience to the Jay treaty of 1794, and was also instructed to report to the commanding general on all movements in the south, and to prevent the passage of French agents with military stores intended for an invasion of Louisiana. While in command of this fort he formed an attachment for Anna, daughter of John Cleves Symmes. Her father refused his consent to the match, but the young couple were married in his house during his temporary absence, and Symmes soon became reconciled to his son-in-law. Peace having been made with the Indians, Captain Harrison resigned his commission on 1 June, 1798, and was immediately appointed by President John Adams secretary of the northwest territory, under General Arthur St. Clair as governor, but in October, 1799, resigned to take his seat as territorial delegate in Congress. In his one year of service, though he was opposed by speculators, he secured the subdivision of the public lands into small tracts, and the passage of other measures for the welfare of the settlers. During the session, part of the northwest territory was formed into the territory of Indiana, including the present states of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and Harrison was made its governor and superintendent of Indian affairs. Resigning his seat in Congress, he entered on the duties of his office, which included the confirmation of land-grants, the defining of townships, and others that were equally important. Governor Harrison was reappointed successively by President Jefferson and President Madison. He organized the legislature at Vincennes in 1805, and applied himself especially to improving the condition of the Indians, trying to prevent the sale of intoxicating liquors among them, and to introduce inoculation for the small-pox. He frequently held councils with them, and, although his life was sometimes endangered, succeeded by his calmness and courage in averting many outbreaks. On 30 September, 1809, he concluded a treaty with several tribes by which they sold to the United States about 3,000,000 acres of land on Wabash and White Rivers. This, and the former treaties of cession that had been made, were condemned by Tecumseh (q. v.) and other chiefs on the ground that the consent of all the tribes was necessary to a legal sale. The discontent was increased by the action of speculators in ejecting Indians from the lands, by agents of the British government, and by the preaching of Tecumseh's brother, the “prophet” (see Ellskwatawa), and it was evident that an outbreak was at hand. The governor pursued a conciliatory course, gave to needy Indians provisions from the public stores, and in July, 1810, invited Tecumseh and his brother, the prophet, to a council at Vincennes, requesting them to bring with them not more than thirty men. In response, the chief, accompanied by 400 fully armed warriors, arrived at Vincennes on 12 August The council, which was held under the trees in front of the governor's house, was nearly terminated by bloodshed on the first day, but Harrison, who foresaw the importance of conciliating Tecumseh, prevented, by his coolness, a conflict that almost had been precipitated by the latter. The discussion was resumed on the next day, but with no result, the Indians insisting on the return of all the lands that had recently been acquired by treaty. On the day after the council Harrison visited Tecumseh at his camp, accompanied only by an interpreter, but without success. In the following spring depredations by the savages were frequent, and the governor sent word to Tecumseh that, unless they should cease, the Indians would be punished. The chief promised another interview, and appeared at Vincennes on 27 July, 1811, with 300 followers, but, awed probably by the presence of 750 militia, professed to be friendly. Soon afterward. Harrison, convinced of the chief's insincerity, but not approving the plan of the government to seize him as a hostage, proposed, instead, the establishment of a military post near Tippecanoe, a town that had been established by the prophet on the upper Wabash. The news that the government had given assent to this scheme was received with joy, and volunteers flocked to Vincennes. Harrison marched from that town on 26 September, with about 900 men, including 850 regular infantry, completed Fort Harrison, near the site of Terre Haute, Indiana, on 28 October, and, leaving a garrison there, pressed forward toward Tippecanoe. On 6 November, when the army had reached a point a mile and a half distant from the town, it was met by messengers demanding a parley. A council was proposed for the next day, and Harrison at once went into camp, taking, however, every precaution against a surprise. At four o'clock on the following morning a fierce attack was made on the camp by the savages, and the fighting continued till daylight, when the Indians were driven from the field by a cavalry charge. During the battle, in which the American loss was 108 killed and wounded, the governor directed the movements of the troops. He was highly complimented by President Madison in his message of 18 December, 1811, and was also thanked by the legislatures of Kentucky and Indiana.

On 18 June, 1812, war was declared between Great Britain and the United States. On 25 August, Governor Harrison, although not a citizen of Kentucky, was commissioned major-general of the militia of that state, and given command of a detachment that was sent to re-enforce General Hull, the news of whose surrender had not yet reached Kentucky. On 2 September, while on the march, he received a brigadier-general's commission in the regular army, but withheld his acceptance till he could learn whether or not he was to be subordinate to General James Winchester, who had been appointed to the command of the northwestern army. After relieving Fort Wayne, which had been invested by the Indians, he turned over his force to General Winchester, and was returning to his home in Indiana when he met an express with a letter from the Secretary of War, appointing him to the chief command in the northwest. “You will exercise,” said the letter, “your own discretion, and act in all cases according to your own judgment.” No latitude as great as this had been given to any commander since Washington. Harrison now prepared to concentrate his force on the rapids of the Maumee, and thence to move on Malden and Detroit. Various difficulties, however, prevented him from carrying out his design immediately. Forts were erected and supplies forwarded, but, with the exception of a few minor engagements with Indians, the remainder of the year was occupied merely in preparation for the coming campaign. Winchester had been ordered by Harrison to advance to the Rapids, but the order was countermanded on receipt of information that Tecumseh, with a large force, was at the head-waters of the Wabash. Through a misunderstanding, however, Winchester continued, and on 18 January captured Frenchtown (now Monroe, Michigan), but three days later met with a bloody repulse on the River Raisin from Colonel Henry Proctor. Harrison hastened to his aid, but was too late. After establishing a fortified camp, which he named Fort Meigs, after the governor of Ohio, the commander visited Cincinnati to obtain supplies, and while there urged the construction of a fleet on Lake Erie. On 2 March, 1813, he was given a major-general's commission. Shortly afterward, having heard that the British were preparing to attack Fort Meigs, he hastened thither, arriving on 12 April. On 28 April it was ascertained that the enemy under Proctor was advancing in force, and on 1 May siege was laid to the fort. While a heavy fire was kept up on both sides for five days, re-enforcements under General Green Clay were hurried forward and came to the relief of the Americans in two bodies, one on each side of Maumee River. Those on the opposite side from the fort put the enemy to flight, but, disregarding Harrison's signals, allowed themselves to be drawn into the woods, and were finally dispersed or captured. The other detachment fought their way to the fort, and at the same time the garrison made a sortie and spiked the enemy's guns. Three days later Proctor raised the siege. He renewed his attack in July with 5,000 men, but after a few days again withdrew. On 10 September Commodore Perry gained his victory on Lake Erie, and on 16 September Harrison embarked his artillery and supplies for a descent on Canada. The troops followed between the 20th and 24th, and on the 27th the army landed on the enemy's territory. Proctor burned the fort and U.S. Navy-yard at Malden and retreated, and Harrison followed on the next day. Proctor was overtaken on 5 October, and took position with his left flanked by the Thames, and a swamp covering his right, which was still further protected by Tecumseh and his Indians. He had made the mistake of forming his men in open order, which was the plan that was adopted in Indian fighting, and Harrison, taking advantage of the error, ordered Colonel Richard M. Johnson to lead a cavalry charge, which broke through the British lines, and virtually ended the battle. Within five minutes almost the entire British force was captured, and Proctor escaped only by abandoning his carriage and taking to the woods. Another band of cavalry charged the Indians, who lost their leader, Tecumseh, in the beginning of the fight, and afterward made no great resistance. This battle, which, if mere numbers alone be considered, was insignificant, was most important in its results. Together with Perry's victory it gave the United States possession of the chain of lakes above Erie, and put an end to the war in uppermost Canada. Harrison's praises were sung in the president's message, in Congress, and in the legislatures of the different states. Celebrations in honor of his victory were held in the principal cities of the Union, and he was one of the heroes of the hour. He now sent his troops to Niagara, and proceeded to Washington, where he was ordered by the president to Cincinnati to devise means of protection for the Indiana border. General John Armstrong, who was at this time Secretary of War, in planning the campaign of 1814 assigned Harrison to the 8th Military District, including only western states, where he could see no active service, and on 25 April issued an order to Major Holmes, one of Harrison's subordinates, without consulting the latter. Harrison thereupon tendered his resignation, which, President Madison being absent, was accepted by Armstrong. This terminated Harrison's military career. In 1814, and again in 1815 he was appointed on commissions that concluded satisfactory Indian treaties, and in 1816 he was chosen to Congress to fill a vacancy, serving till 1819. While he was in Congress he was charged by a dissatisfied contractor with misuse of the public money while in command of the northwestern army, but was completely exonerated by an investigating committee of the house. At this time his opponents succeeded, by a vote of 13 to 11 in the Senate, in striking his name from a resolution that had already passed the house, directing gold medals to be struck in honor of Governor Shelby, of Kentucky, and himself, for the victory of the Thames. The resolution was passed unanimously two years later, on 24 March, 1818, and Harrison received the medal. Among the charges that were made against him was that he would not have pursued Proctor at all, after the latter's abandonment of Malden, had it not been for Governor Shelby; but the latter denied this in a letter that was read before the Senate, and gave General Harrison the highest praise for his promptitude and vigilance. While in Congress, Harrison drew up and advocated a general militia bill, which was not successful, and also proposed a measure for the relief of soldiers, which was passed.

In 1819 General Harrison was chosen to the senate of Ohio, and in 1822 was a candidate for Congress, but was defeated on account of his vote against the admission of Missouri to the Union with the restriction that slavery was to be prohibited there. In 1824 he was a presidential elector, voting for Henry Clay, and in the same year he was sent to the U. S. Senate, where he succeeded Andrew Jackson as chairman of the committee on military affairs, introduced a bill to prevent desertions, and exerted himself to obtain pensions for old soldiers. He resigned in 1828, having been appointed by President John Quincy Adams U. S. minister to the United States of Colombia. While there he wrote a letter to General Simon Bolivar urging him not to accept dictatorial powers. He was recalled at the outset of Jackson's administration, as is asserted by some, at the demand of General Bolivar, and retired to his farm at North Bend, near Cincinnati, Ohio, where he lived quietly, filling the offices of clerk of the county court and president of the county agricultural society. In 1835 General Harrison was nominated for the presidency by meetings in Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, and other states; but the opposition to Van Buren was not united on him, and he received only 73 electoral votes to the former's 170. Four years later the National Whig Convention, which was called at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, for 4 December, 1839, to decide between the claims of several rival candidates, nominated him for the same office, with John Tyler, of Virginia, for vice-president. The Democrats renominated President Van Buren. The canvass that followed has been often called the “log-cabin and hard-cider campaign.” The eastern end of General Harrison's house at North Bend consisted of a log-cabin that had been built by one of the first settlers of Ohio, but which had long since been covered with clapboards. The republican simplicity of his home was extolled by his admirers, and a political biography of that time says that “his table, instead of being covered with exciting wines, is well supplied with the best cider.” Log-cabins and hard cider, then, became the party emblems, and both were features of all the political demonstrations of the canvass, which witnessed the introduction of the enormous mass-meetings and processions that have since been common just before presidential elections. The result of the contest was the choice of Harrison, who received 234 electoral votes to Van Buren's 60. He was inaugurated at Washington on 4 March, 1841. and immediately sent to the Senate his nominations for cabinet officers, which were confirmed. They were Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, Secretary of State; Thomas Ewing, of Ohio, secretary of the treasury; John Bell, of Tennessee, Secretary of War; George E. Badger, of North Carolina, Secretary of the Navy; Francis Granger, of New York, postmaster-general; and John J. Crittenden, of Kentucky, Attorney-General. The Senate adjourned on 15 March, and two days afterward the president called Congress together in extra session to consider financial measures. On 27 March, after several days of indisposition, he was prostrated by a chill, which was followed by bilious pneumonia, and on Sunday morning, 4 April, he died. The end came so suddenly that his wife, who had remained at North Bend on account of illness, was unable to be present at his death-bed. The event was a shock to the country, the more so that a chief magistrate had never before died in office, and especially to the Whig Party, who had formed high hopes of his administration. His body was interred in the Congressional cemetery at Washington; but a few years later, at the request of his family, it was moved to North Bend, where it was placed in a tomb overlooking the Ohio River. This was subsequently allowed to fall into neglect, but afterward General Harrison's son, John Scott, deeded it and the surrounding land to the state of Ohio, on condition that it should be kept in repair. In 1887 the legislature of the state voted to raise money by taxation for the purpose of erecting a monument to General Harrison's memory. He was the author of a “Discourse on the Aborigines of the Valley of the Ohio” (Cincinnati, 1838). His life has been written by Moses Dawson (Cincinnati, 1834); by James Hall (Philadelphia, 1836); by Richard Hildreth (1839); by Samuel J. Burr (New York, 1840); by Isaac R. Jackson; and by H. Montgomery (New York, 1853). —

His wife, Anna, born near Morristown, New Jersey, 25 July, 1775; died near North Bend, Ohio, 25 February, 1864, was a daughter of John Cleves Symmes, and married General Harrison 22 November, 1795. After her husband's death she lived at North Bend till 1855, when she went to the house of her son, John Scott Harrison, a few miles distant. Her funeral sermon was preached by Horace Bushnell, and her body lies by the side of her husband at North Bend. — Their son, John Scott, born in Vincennes, Indiana, 4 October, 1804; died near North Bend, Ohio, 26 May, 1878, received a liberal education, and was elected to Congress as a Whig, serving from 5 December, 1853, till 3 March, 1857. — A daughter, Lucy, born in Richmond, Virginia; died in Cincinnati, Ohio, 7 April, 1826, became the wife of David K. Este, of the latter city, and was noted for her piety and benevolence. [Appleton’s 1892 pp. 96-98.

HARRISON, Benjamin, son of John Scott, senator, born in North Bend, Ohio, 20 August, 1833, was graduated at Miami University, Ohio, in 1852, studied law in Cincinnati, and in 1854 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he has since resided. He was elected reporter of the state supreme court in 1860, and in 1862 entered the army as a 2d lieutenant of Indiana volunteers. After a short service he organized a company of the 70th Indiana Regiment, was commissioned colonel on the completion of the regiment, and served through the war, receiving the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers on 23 January. 1865. He then returned to Indianapolis, and resumed his office of supreme court reporter, to which he had been re-elected during his absence in 1864. In 1876 he was the republican candidate for governor of Indiana, but was defeated by a small plurality. He was a member of the Mississippi River commission in 1879, and in 1880 he was elected U. S. Senator, taking his seat on 4 March, 1881. (See Supplement.) Appleton’s 1892 p.99.

HARRISON, James Thomas, lawyer, born near Pendleton, South Carolina, 30 November, 1811; died in Columbus, Mississippi, 22 May, 1879. His father, Thomas, a descendant of Benjamin Harrison, served as captain of a battery in the war of 1812, after which he was comptroller-general of the state. The son was graduated at the University of South Carolina in 1829, and studied law under James L. Pettigru. He moved to Macon, Mississippi, in 1834, and in 1836 settled permanently in Columbus. In 1861 he was a delegate to the Convention of southern states in Montgomery, and served also in the Confederate Congress during the entire period of its existence. On the reconstruction of Mississippi he was elected to Congress, but was refused admission, and returned to his practice.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 100.

HARRISON, Napoleon Bonaparte, naval officer, born in Virginia, 19 February, 1823; died in Key West, Florida. 27 October. 1870. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman on 26 September, 1838, served in the Pacific Squadron in 1847-8, and was in California during the Mexican war, serving as a volunteer in the expedition that rescued General Kearny's command. In 1850 he was in the observatory in Washington, D. C, and in 1851-'2 was engaged in the Coast Survey. He was made lieutenant, 6 January, 1853, and appointed to the East Indian Squadron. In 1862 he commanded the "Cayuga, the flag-ship of Captain Bailey, of the West Gulf Blockading Squadron, and led the fleet in the passage of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, for which action he was commended in the official reports. He became commander on 16 July, 1862, and had charge of the "Mahaska," of the James River Flotilla, during the operations of General McClellan before Richmond, and his retreat to Harrison's landing. In 1862-'3 he held command of the flag-ship "Minnesota," of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and subsequently was attached to the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, taking part in the attacks on the South Carolina Coast until the fall of Charleston. From 1866 till 1868 he was stationed in the U.S. Navy-yard at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He was made captain on 28 April, 1868, and in 1868-'9 was commandant of cadets in the U. S. Naval Academy. At the time of his death he commanded the "Congress," of the North Atlantic Fleet.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 100.

HARROW, William, soldier, born in Indiana about 1820. He was engaged, as colonel of the 14th Indiana Infantry, at the battle of Antietam, where more than half of his regiment were killed or wounded. He was commissioned as brigadier-general of volunteers on 29 November, 1862, and resigned on 20 April, 1865.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 101.

HARTRANFT, John Frederick, soldier, born in New Hanover, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 16 December, 1830. He was educated at Marshall and Union Colleges, and was graduated at the latter in 1853, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1859. At the beginning of the Civil War he raised the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment, and commanded it during the three months of its enlistment, which expired the day before the first battle of Bull Run. As his regiment had been ordered to Harrisburg to be mustered out, he asked and obtained leave to serve as a volunteer on General William B. Franklin's staff in that battle. He then organized the 51st Pennsylvania Regiment, was commissioned its colonel, 27 July, 1861, and with it accompanied General Burnside in his expedition to North Carolina in March, 1862. He took part in all the engagements of the 9th Corps, led the charge that carried the stone bridge at Antietam, and commanded his regiment at Fredericksburg. He was then ordered to Kentucky, and was engaged in the battle of Campbell's Station and the successful defence of Knoxville. He was with the 9th Corps in June, 1863, as covering army to the troops besieging Vicksburg, and after the fall of that place with General William T. Sherman in his advance to Jackson, Mississippi. He commanded a brigade in the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 12 May, 1864, and took part in all the movements before Petersburg. He was assigned to the command of a division in August, 1864, and brevetted major-general for his services in re-capturing Fort Steadman on 25 March, 1865. He was elected auditor-general of Pennsylvania in October, 1865, and on 29 August, 1866, the president offered him a colonelcy in the regular army, which he declined. General Hartranft was re-elected auditor-general in 1868, and in 1872-'8 was governor of Pennsylvania. The militia of Pennsylvania was entirely reorganized on a military basis during his two terms as governor. The plan of municipal reform that was suggested by him in 1876 was adopted in 1885, the mayor of Philadelphia being elected under its provisions in 1887. Immediately after the close of his second term as governor he moved to Philadelphia. He was appointed postmaster of that city in June, 1879, and collector of the port in August, 1880. He is now (1887) major-general commanding the National Guard of Pennsylvania, which post he has held by appointment since 1879. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 105.

HARTSUFP, George Lucas, soldier, born in Tyre, Seneca County, New York, 28 May, 1830; died in New York City, 10 May, 1874. When he was a child his parents moved to Michigan and he entered the U. S. Military Academy from that state, being graduated in 1853, and assigned to the 4th U.S. Artillery, he served in Texas and in Florida, where he was wounded, and was then appointed instructor in artillery and infantry tactics at the U. S. Military Academy in 1856. He became assistant adjutant-general, with the rank of captain, on 22 March, 1861, and major, 17 July, 1862. He served at Fort Pickens, Florida, from" April till 16 July, 1861; then in West Virginia under General Rosecrans, and became a brigadier-general of volunteers, 15 April. 1862, soon afterward taking charge of Abercrombie's brigade, which he commanded at Cedar Mountain and Antietam, where he was severely wounded. He was appointed major-general of volunteers. 29 November, 1862, served as a member of the board to revise rules and articles of war and to prepare a code for the government of the armies in the field, and on 27 April, 1863, was ordered to Kentucky, where he was assigned to command the 23d Corps. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel and assistant adjutant-general, U. S. Army, 1 June, 1864, was in command of works in the siege of Petersburg in March and April, 1865, and was brevet ted brigadier-general and major-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865. After the war he was adjutant-general of the 5th Military Division, comprising Louisiana and Texas, in 1867-'8, and of the Division of the Missouri from 1869 till 29 June, 1871, when he was retired for disability from wounds received in battle.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 106.

HARVEY, James Madison, governor of Kansas, born in Monroe County, Virginia, 21 September, 1833. He was educated in the public schools of Indiana, Iowa, and Illinois, and practised surveying and civil engineering until he moved to Kansas in 1859, when he became a farmer. He was captain in the 4th and 10th Regiments of Kansas Infantry from 1861 till 1864, a member of the lower house of the legislature in 1865-'6, and of the state senate in 1867-8. In 1869-71 he was governor of Kansas, and in 1874-'7 was a U. S. Senator, having been chosen as a Republican to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Alexander Caldwell.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 107.

HARVEY, Louis Powell, governor of Wisconsin, born in East Haddam, Connecticut, 22 July, 1820; died in Savannah, Tennessee, 19 April, 1862. In l828 he moved with his parents to Ohio, where he was educated in the Western Reserve College. He went to Kenosha, Wisconsin, in 1840, taught there, and edited a Whig newspaper, but moved to Shopiere, Rock County, in 1850, and engaged in manufacturing. He was a member of the first state constitutional Convention, and served in the state senate from 1855 till 1857. Soon afterward he was elected secretary of state, and in 1861 became governor. He was drowned while on his way to Pittsburg Landing, with supplies for the relief of wounded soldiers, after the battle of Shiloh.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 108.

HARWOOD, Andrew Allen, naval officer, born in Settle, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in 1802; died in Marion, Massachusetts, 28 August, 1884, was appointed midshipman, 1 January, 1818, and from 1819 till 1821 served in the sloop-of-war " Hornet" in the suppression of the African slave-trade. He was commissioned lieutenant in 1827, and in the following year was appointed to the receiving-ship " Philadelphia." He was detached as special messenger to bring home the ratified treaty with Naples, and from 1835 till 1837 served in the Mediterranean Squadron. He was assistant inspector of ordnance in 1843-'52, member of a commission to visit dock-yards and foundries in England and France in 1844, and in 1848 was promoted to commander. In 1851 he became member of a board appointed to prepare ordnance instructions for the U.S. Navy, and to make investigations and experiments. He commanded the frigate "Cumberland," of the Mediterranean Squadron, from 1853 till 1855, when he was appointed captain. He was inspector of ordnance from 1858 till 1861, and in the latter year was commissioned chief of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography. In the following year he became commodore, and was appointed commandant of the U.S. Navy-yard at Washington, and of the Potomac Flotilla. He was retired in 1864, but served as secretary of the Light-house Board, and a member of the examining board from 1864 till 1869, when he was made rear-admiral on the retired list. During the Civil War he prepared a work on " Summary Courts-Martial," and published the "Law and Practice of U. S. Navy Courts-Martial" (1867).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 109.