American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
Conscience of the Nation

Updated April 4, 2021

l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Lad-Loc


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                      Bab-Bee         Cab-Che         Dab-Dev                               Fai-Fle
                      Bel-Bon          Chi-Cle          Dib-Dye                                Flo-Fur
                      Boo-Bro         Cli-Cox
                      Bru-Byr          Cra-Cuy

G                    H                    I                     J                     K                    L

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Gih-Gra         Has-Hil                                                                               Log-Lyt
Gre-Gru         Hin-Hyd

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McA-McW                                                   Pac-Pie                                 Rad-Riv
Mad-Mid                                                      Pik-Put                                  Roa-Rya

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Sac-Sha          Tab-Tho                                                       Wad-Way
She-Smi         Thr-Tyn                                                        Wea-Whe
Sno-Sti                                                                                Whi-Wil 
Sto-Sza                                                                                Wim-Wyt



Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Lad-Loc

LADD, William, Minot, Maine, peace advocate, philanthropist, opponent of slavery.  Organized an auxiliary of the American Colonization Society (ACS) in Maine.  Defended colonization to those who opposed it.  Ladd stated that the ACS “deserves the patronage of all who are, from principle, opposed to slavery.”  (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 585; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 527; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 131, 210)

LADD, William, philanthropist ,born in Exeter, New Hampshire, 10 May, 1778; died in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 9 April, 1841. He was graduated at Harvard in 1797, and on leaving college embarked as a sailor on one of his father’s vessels, became a skilful navigator, and was captain of some of the finest ships that sailed from New England ports until he left the ocean at the beginning of the war of 1812. He resided at Minot, Maine, and took an active part in organizing the American peace Society, of which he was for many years president. The society was founded in 1828, and for a long period he was the only active and responsible officer. He gave his main attention to this society and the object it represented until the end of his life. In its interests he edited the “Friend of Peace,” established by Dr. Noah Worcester, and the “Harbinger of Peace,” which succeeded it as the organ of the society, and published a number of essays and occasional addresses on the subject of peace, including an “Address to the Peace Society of Maine” (1824), one to that of Massachusetts (1825), and “An Essay on the Congress of Nations” (Boston, 1840). He carried his views to the extent of denying the right of defensive war and caused this principle to be incorporated into the constitution of the society. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 585

LAIDLEY, Theodore Thaddens Sobleski, soldier, born in Guyandotte, Virginia, 14 April, 1822; died in Palatka, Florida, 4 April, 1886. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1842, and was appointed 2d lieutenant in the Ordnance Corps. From 1842 till 1846 he served as assistant in various arsenals, and then in the war with Mexico, where he participated in the siege of Vera Cruz, battle of Cerro Gordo, and the siege of Pueblo. Just before the battle of Cerro Gordo, Lieutenant Laidley and Lieutenant Roswell S. Ripley were charged with the placing of an eight-inch howitzer on the summit of a hill on the south side of the Rio del Plan in such a manner as to enfilade the enemy's line of batteries from the right. The work was accomplished at night, over an almost impracticable route that was obstructed by rocks and tropical shrubbery. The gun was placed, and in the morning an effective fire was at once opened, and the enemy driven out of his works. The appearance of a gun of such calibre, with sufficient supports, in such a place, discouraged the Mexicans, and their forces surrendered. Laidley received the brevets of captain and major, and at the close of the war returned to Watervliet Arsenal as assistant ordnance officer. Subsequently for ten years he was engaged on ordnance duty at various stations, becoming captain in July, 1856. In 1858 he was assigned the duty of compiling a new ordnance manual, which became known as the "Ordnance Manual of 1861" and remained a standard for many years. During the Civil War he was inspector of powder in 1861-'2, and then was in command of Frankford Arsenal until 1864, when he became inspector of ordnance, and was given charge of the Springfield Armory until 1866. Afterward he had command of the New York Arsenal on Governor's Island, and later of that at Watertown, N. Y., becoming colonel in April, 1875. He served on several boards for making scientific tests and experiments, and was president of the commission to test the strength and value of all kinds of iron, steel, and other metals at the Watertown Arsenal in 1875-'81. Colonel Laidley was retired, at, his own request, in December, 1882, after over forty years of active service, being at the time of his retirement senior colonel in the Ordnance Department. He invented several valuable appliances that are now used in the department, including an igniter, a laboratory forge, an artillery forge, and a cavalry forge. Besides important government reports, he was the author of " Instructions in Rifle Practice" (Philadelphia, 1879).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 595.

LA GRANGE, Oscar Hugh, 1837-1915, abolitionist, soldier.  LaGrange was active in the Bleeding Kansas conflict.  He helped to free Sherman Booth from incarceration.  He was a Union Army officer, serving in the Army of the Cumberland under General W. T. Sherman.  (Eicher, 2001, p. 750)

LAMAR, Gazaway B., banker, born in Georgia in 1798; died in New York City, 5 October, 1874. He was engaged in business for many years in Savannah, and was at one time a large slave-holder. In 1845 he moved to Brooklyn, was successful in business, and for several years president of the Bank of the Republic, New York. In anticipation of the Civil War in the winter of 1860-'l, he shipped large quantities of arms to Georgia. He also acted as financial agent of the Confederacy, and in that capacity procured the printing of its notes and bonds in New York. Soon after the beginning of the war he went to Georgia, and was largely concerned in cotton-speculations and blockade-running. After the occupation of Savannah he was arrested by order of the Secretary of War and confined in the old capital prison at Washington. A few months after his release he was tried by a military commission for attempted bribery of government officers, and was sentenced to several years' imprisonment and a large fine, but the sentence was remitted by President Johnson. This prosecution led to counter-suits by him against the government in the New York District.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 597-98.

LAMAR, Lucius Quintus Cincililiatus, statesman, born in Putnam County, Georgia, 1 September, 1825, was taken after his father's death to Oxford, Mississippi, where he received part of his education. He was graduated at Emory College, Gain 1845, studied law in Macon, Georgia, and was admitted to the bar in 1847. In 1849 he returned to Oxford, Mississippi, and held the place of adjunct professor of mathematics in the University of Mississippi for a year, when he resigned, and resumed the practice of the law in Covington, Georgia. He was elected to the legislature in 1853, and in 1854 again returned to Mississippi and settled on his plantation in Lafayette. Lamar was shortly afterward elected to Congress as a Democrat, and served from 1857 till 1860, when he resigned to take a seat in the Secession Convention of his state. He then entered the Confederate Army as lieutenant-colonel of the 19th Mississippi Regiment, of which he afterward became colonel. He shared in many of the engagements of the Army of Northern Virginia, but was compelled to leave active service on account of his health, and was sent as commissioner to Russia; but when he reached Europe, in 1863, circumstances had changed, and a successful mission was no longer possible. After the close of the war Colonel Lamar returned to Mississippi. He was elected professor of political economy and social science in the University of Mississippi in 1866, and in 1867 was transferred to the chair of law, but afterward returned again to the bar. He was elected again to Congress in 1872, when for the first time in many years a Democratic House of Representatives assembled, and he was selected to preside over the Democratic caucus, where he made a noteworthy address, outlining the policy of his party. He was re-elected in 1874, and then chosen to the U. S. Senate, taking his seat, 5 March, 1877. In both the house and senate Colonel Lamar spoke rarely, and not often at great length, but when he did it was usually on critical occasions, and with much power and effectiveness. He has insisted that, as integral members of the Federal Union, the southern states have equal rights with the other states, and hence that they were bound both by duty and interest to look to the general welfare, and support the honor and credit of a common country, he was also a zealous friend of public improvements, especially the Mississippi River improvement and the Texas Pacific Railroad. He has great independence of thought and action, and at one time, when he was instructed by the legislature of his state to vote on the currency question against his convictions, he refused to obey, appealed to the people, and was sustained. On 5 March, 1885, Mr. Lamar became Secretary of the Interior in President Cleveland's cabinet. His course since has been consistent with his previous career.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 598.

LANDER, Frederick West, soldier, born in Salem, Massachusetts, 17 December, 1822; died in Paw Paw, Virginia, 2 March, 1862. He was educated at Dummer Academy, Byfield, and studied civil engineering at the Military Academy at Norwich, Vermont He practised that profession a few years in Massachusetts, and was then employed by the U. S. government in conducting important explorations across the continent. He made two surveys to determine the practicability of a railroad-route to the Pacific, and from the second, which was undertaken at his own expense, he alone, of all the party, returned alive. He afterward surveyed and constructed the great overland wagon-route. While engaged in 1858 on this work, his party of seventy men were attacked by the Pah Ute Indians, over whom they gained a decisive victory. He made five trans-continental explorations altogether, as engineer, chief engineer, or superintendent, and for his efficiency received praise in the official reports of the Secretary of the Interior. When the Civil War began in 1861 he was employed on important secret missions in the southern states, served as a volunteer aide on General McClellan's staff, and participated with great credit in the capture of Philippi and the battle of Rich Mountain. He led one of the two columns that set out, 3 June, 1861, to surprise the enemy at Philippi, and, after marching all night, opened the attack with an effective artillery fire, and soon put the Confederates to flight. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 17 May, and in July took an important command on the upper Potomac. Hearing of the disaster at Ball's Bluff, he hastened to Edward's Ferry, which he held with a single company of sharp-shooters, but was severely wounded in the leg. Before the wound was healed he reported for duty, and at Hancock, 5 January, 1862, he repelled a greatly superior Confederate force that besieged the town. Though much debilitated by his wound, he made a brilliant dash upon the enemy at Blooming Gap, 14 February, 1862, for which he received a special letter of thanks from the Secretary of War. The enemy retreated before the Union cavalry, but checked their pursuers in the pass, until General Lander called for volunteers and swept down on the Confederate infantry. Increasing ill health compelled him to apply for temporary relief from military duty; but, while preparing an attack on the enemy, he died of congestion of the brain. His death was announced in a special order issued by General McClellan on 3 March. General Lander wrote many stirring patriotic poems on incidents of the campaign.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 604.

LANDRAM, John James, soldier, born in Warsaw, Kentucky, 16 November, 1826. He obtained an English education, and at nineteen years of age enlisted in the 1st Kentucky Cavalry, under Colonel Humphrey Marshall, and led his company in the battle of Buena Vista. He was elected to the legislature in 1851, and was afterward circuit, clerk until 1858, being master-commissioner at the same time. He was then graduated at the law-school in Louisville, and settled in Warsaw, Kentucky, where he has since practised his profession. At the opening of the Civil War he aided in recruiting and organizing for the National government the 18th Kentucky Regiment, of which he became lieutenant-colonel. He was afterward transferred to the command of the post at Cynthiana, Kentucky, where large army supplies were stored. The garrison of several hundred home guards and recruits, and a squadron of artillery, was attacked by General John H. Morgan's cavalry, 23 July, 1862, and after a desperate struggle, with severe losses on both sides, was compelled to surrender. Colonel Landram escaped, with a slight wound, to Paris, where, on the next day, he rallied and united several detachments of National troops, and harassed Morgan on his retirement from Kentucky. On 30 August, 1862, he led his regiment in the battle of Richmond, Kentucky, where several horses were shot under him, and he received a serious wound in the head, which partially blinded him for life and compelled him to retire from the service. He had been recommended for promotion to the rank of brigadier-general. Colonel Landram was elected to the state senate in 1863, and served as chairman of the committee on military affairs through the remainder of the war. He was defeated as a Republican candidate for Congress in 1876 and 1884, and was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in the former year.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 605.

LANE, Charles, 1800-1870, transcendentalist, voluntarist, abolitionist, reformer, vegetarian advocate.  Co-founded the utopian community of Fruitlands in Harvard, Massachusetts.  Contributed letter to the abolitionist newspapers Liberator and Herald of Freedom.  (Watner, 1982.)

LANE, James Henry, 1814-1866, lawyer, soldier,  Union General,  U.S. Senator from Kansas, 1861-1866.  Elected Senator in 1861 and in 1865.  Active in the abolitionist movement in Kansas in the 1850’s.  A leader in the Jay Hawkers and Free Soil militant groups.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 606; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 576; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 13, p. 121; Congressional Globe)

LANE, James Henry, soldier, born in Lawrenceburg, Indiana, 22 June, 1814; died near Leavenworth, Kansas, 1 July, 1866, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1840, and elected to the city council of Lawrenceburg. In May, 1846, he enlisted as a private in the 3d Indiana Volunteer Regiment, organizing for the Mexican War, was chosen colonel, and commanded a brigade at Buena Vista. He became colonel of the 5th Indiana Regiment in 1847, and in 1848 was chosen lieutenant-governor of Indiana. From 1853 till 1855 he was a representative in Congress, having been chosen as a Democrat, and voted for the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. In 1855 he went to Kansas, where he took an active part in polities as a leader of the Free-state Party, and was made chairman of the executive committee of the Topeka constitutional Convention. He was elected by the people major-general of the free state troops, and was active in driving out the Missouri invaders. In 1856 he was elected to the U. S. Senate by the legislature that met under the Topeka Constitution: but the election was not recognized by Congress, and he was indicted in Douglas County for high treason and forced to flee from the territory. In 1857 he was president of the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention, and again made major-general of the territorial troops. In 1858 he shot a neighbor named Jenkins in a quarrel about a well, for which he was tried and acquitted. On the admission of Kansas to the Union in 1861, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, serving on the committees of Indian Affairs and Agriculture. In May, 1861, he commanded the frontier guards that were organized for the defence of Washington, and on 18 December he was made brigadier-general of volunteers; but the appointment was cancelled, 21 March, 1862. He commanded the Kansas brigade in the field for four months, rendering good service in western Missouri. He narrowly escaped from the Lawrence massacre in August, 1863, and was an aide to General Curtis during General Sterling Price's raid in October, 1864. He was a delegate to the Baltimore Convention of 1864. He was re-elected to the United States Senate in 1865, but in the following year, while on his way home, he was attacked with paralysis, his mind became unsettled, and he committed suicide.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 606.

LANE, Ebenezer, jurist, born in Northampton, Massachusetts, 17 December, 1793: died in Sandusky, Ohio, 13 June, 1866. He was graduated at Harvard in 1811, studied law under his uncle, Matthew Griswold, of Lyme, Connecticut, in 1814 was admitted to the bar, and, after practising for three years in Connecticut, moved to Ohio and settled in Norwalk, Huron County. He became judge of the court of common pleas in 1824, and from 1837 till 1845 was judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio. After his retirement from the bench he resumed his profession, and was afterward engaged in various relations with the western railroads, withdrawing from active employment in 1859.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 606.

LANE, Joseph, soldier, born in Buncombe County, North Carolina, 14 December, 1801; died in Oregon, 19 April, 1881, moved with his parents to Henderson County, Kentucky, in 1804, and in 1816 he went to Warwick County, Indiana, where for several years he was a clerk in a mercantile house. He was elected to the legislature in 1822, continued in office till 1846, when he enlisted as a private in the 2d Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, was in a few weeks commissioned its colonel, and in June received from President Polk the appointment of brigadier-general. He was wounded at the battle of Buena Vista, was brevetted major-general for gallantry at Huamantla, commanded at Atlixco, took Matamoras, 22 November, 1847, captured Orizaba in January, 1848, and the next month fought the robber-chief Jaranta at Tchualtaplan. He was known as the " Marion of the Mexican Army." At the conclusion of the war he was appointed governor of Oregon by President Polk, was its delegate to Congress, being elected as a Democrat in 1851-'7, and in 1853 commanded the settlers in the campaign against the Rogue Indians, whom he defeated at the battle near Table Rock, in which he was severely wounded. On the admission of Oregon as a state he was elected U. S. Senator, served from 1859 till 1861. and in 1860 was nominated for vice-president on the John C. Breckinridge ticket. His defeat ended his political career, and he passed his old age in obscurity and poverty in a remote part of Oregon. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 606-607.

LANE, Henry Smith, 1811-1881, U.S. Senator.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 607; Congressional Globe; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 574)

LANE, Henry Smith, senator, born in Montgomery County, Kentucky, 24 February, 1811; died in Crawfordsville, Indiana, 11 June, 1881, worked on a farm and attended school at intervals till he was sixteen years old. He began the study of law at eighteen, was admitted to the bar at twenty-one, and, removing to Indiana, practised his profession till 1854. He was in the legislature in 1837, and the next year was elected to Congress as a Republican, serving till 1843. The defeat of Henry Clay for the presidency retired Mr. Lane from political life for sixteen years. At the first National Republican Convention he made so effective a speech that, in June, 1856, he was elected permanent president of that body, and for several years he led the Republican Party in the state. The election of 1858 gave the Republicans the majority of both houses of the Indiana Legislature. In 1859, with the aid of the " Americans," they elected Mr. Lane to the U. S. Senate, hoping to annul the informal election of 1858 that gave the seat to Jesse D. Bright. The case was referred to the Congressional committee on elections, which reported in favor of the validity of the former election, and sustained Mr. Bright. Mr. Lane became governor of Indiana in 1860, and in February of that year was elected to the U. S. Senate, serving till 1867. He retired from politics at the end of his term, and, except as Indian peace-commissioner under General Grant, undertook no regular public service. He was a delegate to the Loyalists' Convention in 1866, to the Chicago National Republican Convention in 1868, and to that of Cincinnati in 1876.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 607.

LANE, Lunsford, 1803-1870, North Carolina, author, fugitive slave, abolitionist.  Lunsford Lane was born a slave near Raleigh, North Carolina.  He purchased his freedom for $1,000 and later purchased the freedom of his family.  He went to New York in 1835.  He was active in giving speeches on slavery and abolition.  He was arrested and nearly lynched when he travelled to Raleigh to purchase the freedom of enslaved members of his family.  He was saved by local sympathetic White residents.  He then settled in Philadelphia.  Published The Narrative of Lunsford Lane, Formerly of Raleigh, N.C., Embracing an Account of his Early Life, the Redemption by Purchase of Himself and Family from Slavery, and his Banishment from his Place of Birth for the Crime of Wearing a Colored Skin. 1842.  His book was widely distributed and was used to promote the abolitionist cause.  (Dumond, 1961, p. 330; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 30; Sinha, 2016, p. 468; Minutes, Convention of the Liberty Party, June 14, 15, 1848, Buffalo, New York)

LANGSTON, Charles Henry, 1817-1892, Ohio, African American (Black mother, White father), abolitionist leader.  He and his brother, Gideon, were the first African Americans to attend Oberlin College.  Active in Ohio Negro Convention Movement.  Helped found the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society in 1858.  Active in Liberty, Free Soil and Republican parties.  Involved in slave rescue in violation of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.  Recruited Black troops for the Union Army. (Blue, 2005, pp. 5-6, 13, 65-67, 66-78, 83-84, 86-88, 118, 120, 156, 266-267; Sinha, 2016, p. 467; Minutes, Convention of the Liberty Party, June 14, 15, 1848, Buffalo, New York)

LANGSTON, Gideon, abolitionist, brother of Charles Henry Langston.  He and his brother, Charles, were the first African Americans to attend Oberlin College.   (Blue, 2005, pp. 65-67)

LANGSTON, John Mercer, 1829-1897, Ohio, free African American, lawyer, diplomat, educator, abolitionist, political leader.  Brother of Charles Henry Langston.  Graduate of Oberlin College.  Langston aided fugitive slaves as a member of the Underground Railroad.  Helped found the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society with his brother Charles in 1858.  Recruited soldiers for the U.S. Colored Troops for the Union Army, enlisting soldiers for the 54th and 55th Regiments from Boston, Massachusetts.  After the war, he was appointed Inspector General for the Freedman’s Bureau.  Also worked for African American suffrage.  First African American elected to Congress from Virginia.  U. S. Congressman, Virginia, 4th District, 1890-1891.  First Dean of Howard University law school, Washington, DC.

(Sinha, 2016, p. 467; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 612; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 597; Blue, 2005, pp. 5-6, 65-66, 69, 72-76, 78, 79, 81, 85-88; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 13, p. 164; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 7, p. 162; Minutes, Convention of the Liberty Party, June 14, 15, 1848, Buffalo, New York)

LANGSTON, John Mercer, educator, born in Louisa County, Virginia, 14 December, 1829. He was by birth a slave, but was emancipated at the age of six years. He was graduated at Oberlin in 1849, and at the theological department in 1853. After studying law he was admitted to the bar of Ohio in 1854, and practised his profession there until 1869, during which time he was clerk of several townships in Ohio, being the first colored man that was elected to an office of any sort by popular vote. He was also a member of the board of education of Oberlin. In 1869 he was called to a professorship of law in Howard University, Washington, D. C, and became dean of the faculty of the law department and active in its organization, remaining there seven years. He was appointed by President Grant a member of the board of health of the District of Columbia, and was elected its secretary in 1875. In 1877-'85 he was U. S. minister and consul-general in Hayti. On his return to this country in 1885 he was appointed president of the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute in Petersburg, which office he now (1887) holds. In addition to various addresses and papers on political, biographical, literary, and scientific subjects, Mr. Langston is the author of a volume of selected addresses entitled " Freedom and Citizenship" (Washington, 1883).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 612.

LANIER, Sidney, poet, born in Macon, Georgia, 3 February, 1842; died in Lynn, North Carolina, 7 September, 1881. When a child he learned to play many instruments almost without instruction, devoting himself especially to the flute. He was graduated at Oglethorpe College, Midway, Georgia, in 1860. He enlisted in the Confederate Army in April, 1861, and participated in the Seven Days' fighting near Richmond. Afterward he was transferred to the signal service, with headquarters at Petersburg. In 1863 his detachment served in Virginia and North Carolina, and afterward, while in command of a blockade-runner, he was captured, and for five months imprisoned in Point Lookout, Florida His experience is pictured in a novel that he wrote in three weeks entitled "Tiger-Lilies" (New York, 1867). He was a clerk in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1865-'7, afterward principal of an academy in Prattville, Alabama, and in 1868-'72 practised law with his father, Robert S. Lanier, in Macon. At the suggestion of his friend Bayard Taylor he was chosen to write the words of the cantata for the opening of the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. In October, 1877, he settled in Baltimore and delivered lectures on English literature. In 1879 he was appointed lecturer on this subject at Johns Hopkins University. In December, 1880, he wrote his poem "Sunrise," one of a projected series entitled " Hymns of the Marshes." In the following summer he encamped in the mountains of North Carolina, where he died of consumption. His scholarship was wide and accurate, and his investigations in the scientific construction of verse are formulated in his "Science of English Verse" (New York, 1880). His other works are "Florida: Its Scenery, Climate, and History" (Philadelphia, 1876); "Poems" (1877); "The Boy's Froissart" (New York, 1878); "The Boy's King Arthur" (1880); "The Boy's Mabinogion" (1881); "The Boy's Percy" (1882); and "The English Novel and the Principles of its Development (1883). A collection of his poems, with a memorial by William Hayes Ward, was edited by his wife, Mary Day Lanier (1884).—His brother, Clifford Anderson, author, born in Griffin, Georgia, was educated at Oglethorpe College, but his studies were interrupted by the Civil War. He served in the Confederate Army, and was afterward signal officer on the steamer " Talisman," manning the blockade between Wilmington, North Carolina, and Bermuda until the vessel was wrecked in December, 1864. In 1885-'6 Mr. Lanier was superintendent of the city schools, Montgomery, Alabama He is the author of occasional poems and essays and of a novel entitled "Thorn-Fruit" (New York. 1867).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 613.

LANMAN, Joseph, naval officer, born in Norwich, Connecticut, 11 July, 1811; died there. 13 March, 1874. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 1 January. 1825, and passed that grade on 4 June, 1881. His first years of service were spent on the Brazil, West India, and Pacific Squadrons. He was commissioned lieutenant, 3 March. 1835, and served in the West India Squadron in 1840, on ordnance duty in 1845-'6, and in the Pacific Squadron in 1847-'8. He was on special duty from 1849 till 1851, and in 1852 in the sloop-of-war " San Jacinto," of the Mediterranean Squadron. He was commissioned commander, 14 September. 1855. and stationed in the Washington U.S. Navy-yard in 1855-'6, after which he commanded the steamer " Michigan " in the great lakes from 1859 till 1861, when he became captain. He commanded the steam-sloop " Saranac." of the Pacific Squadron, in 1862. On 29 August of that year he was made commodore and assigned to the steam-sloop "Lancaster," of the Pacific Squadron, in 1863, and the frigate "Minnesota," of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, in 1864-"5. Commodore Lanman commanded the 2d Division of Admiral Porter's squadron at the two attacks on Fort Fisher, and was commended in the admiral's official report. He became rear-admiral, 8 December, 1867, and was made commandant of the Portsmouth U.S. Navy-yard, after which he commanded the South Atlantic Squadron on the coast of Brazil. On his return to the United States in May, 1872, he was retired, and resided in Norwich until his death.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 614.

LANSING, Dirck Cornelius, 1758-1857, New York, clergyman, abolitionist.  Vice president, 1833-1835, and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society, December 1833.  Executive Committee, American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1851-1855.  (Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 615)

LANSING, Dirck Cornelius,
clergyman, born in Lansingburg, Rensselaer County, New York, 3 March, 1785; died in Walnut Hills, Ohio, 19 March, 1857. He was graduated at Yale in 1804, became a Presbyterian clergyman, and was a trustee of Auburn seminary from 1820 till 1830, its vice-president from 1820 till 1824, and professor of sacred rhetoric and pastoral theology from 1821 till 1826, serving without salary and raising large sums for the seminary. Williams gave him the degree of D. D. in 1826. He published “Sermons on Important Subjects” (Auburn, 1825).  Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III. p. 615.

LARCOM, Lucy, poet, born in Beverly, Massachusetts, in 1826. As a child of seven years she wrote stories and poems for her own amusement. When she was ten years old her father died, and her mother established a factory boarding-house at Lowell, where, after spending two or three years in school, Lucy entered the mills. While working as a cotton-operative she contributed largely to the "Lowell Offering," writing for the first volumes a series of parables that attracted attention.   John G. Whittier  then conducting a Free-Soil paper in Lowell, encouraged her literary efforts. When about twenty years of age she went to Illinois with a married sister, taught there for some time, and was for three years a pupil in Monticello Female Seminary. On her return to Massachusetts she was employed for six years in a seminary at Norton, but desisted on the failure of her health, only taking classes occasionally in Boston schools. During the Civil War she wrote many patriotic poems. When " Our Young Folks" was established in Boston in 1865, she became an assistant and in the following year chief editor, conducting the magazine till 1874. Miss Larcom has subsequently resided at Beverly, Massachusetts. Her published works are "Ships in the Mist, and other Stories" (Boston, 1859); "Poems" (1868): "An Idyl of Work, a Story in Verse " (1875); "Childhood Songs " (1877); and "Wild Roses of Cape Ann. and other Poems (1880). A complete collection of her "Poetical Works" appeared in 1884. She has edited several collections of poetry, including " Breathings of a Better Life" (Boston, 1867); "Hillside and Seaside in Poetry" (1876); and "Roadside Poems for Summer Travellers" (1877).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 617.

LARDNER, James L. naval officer, born in Pennsylvania in 1802; died in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania, 13 April, 1881. He entered the U. S. Navy as a midshipman on 10 May, 1820, and was commissioned as lieutenant on 17 May, 1828, while serving as navigating officer of the "Vincennes" in a cruise around the world. From 1845 till 1848 he commanded the receiving-ship at Philadelphia, and in May, 1850, sailed in command of the brig ''Porpoise " for the coast of Africa, where he remained three years. He was commissioned commander on 17 May, 1851, and captain on 19 May, 1861, assigned to the steam frigate " Susquehanna," of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and was present at the capture of Port Royal. For his services on that occasion, and in the blockade of South Carolina and Georgia, a vote of thanks was carried in the House of Representatives at the recommendation of President Lincoln, but it was lost in the senate. He commanded the Eastern Gulf Blockading Squadron from May, 1862, till the December following, when he was prostrated by yellow fever at Key West. In Mav, 1863, he took command of the West India Squadron, which was withdrawn in October, 1864. He was promoted to the rank of commodore on 16 July, 1862, and rear-admiral on 25 July, 1866, when he was retired from active service.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 618.

LARIMER, William, politician, born in Westmoreland County. Pennsylvania. 24 October, 1809; died near Leavenworth, Kansas, 16 May, 1875. He moved to Pittsburg in 1834, and became a banker and merchant, treasurer of the Ohio and Pennsylvania, and afterward president of the Pittsburg and Connellsville, Railroad. He took an active part in the antislavery movement, assisted in the organization of the Liberty Party, and supported James G. Birney for president in 1840. After that he acted with the Whigs and was a political leader in Pennsylvania. In 1855 he went to Nebraska, was a zealous Republican, and served in the territorial legislature in 1856. He moved to Kansas in 1858, but in October of that year led a party of gold-seekers to the Pike's Peak Country. He built the first house in Denver, Colonel, and was U. S. commissioner and judge of probate. In the beginning of the Civil War he raised a regiment of volunteers in Colorado and was commissioned colonel, but resigned and returned to Kansas, where he re-entered the army as a captain of cavalry in 1863. He served in Kansas, Indian Territory, and Arkansas, and was mustered out in August. 1865. The remainder of his life was passed on a farm in the vicinity of Leavenworth. In 1872 he earnestly supported his friend Horace Greeley for the presidency.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 618.

LARNED, Edwin Channing, lawyer, born in Providence, Rhode Island.. 14 July, 1820; died in Lake Forest, Illinois., 18 September, 1884. His father was a merchant of Providence, and his grandfather. William Lamed, served in the war of the Revolution. Edwin was graduated at Brown in 1840. After graduation he was professor of mathematics for one year in Kemper college, Wis. He then studied law with Albert C. Greene, marrying one of the daughters of his preceptor, and in 1847 removing to Chicago. He was an enthusiastic anti-slavery man, and gained his first celebrity by a speech in 1851, in answer to one by Stephen A. Douglas, on the fugitive-slave law. It was published in pamphlet form, and was called by Mr. Douglas the best that had been made on that side of the question. In Chicago he was identified with many works of public interest. He was a warm friend of Abraham Lincoln, and in 1860 made speeches in his support. Afterward he was an active member of the Union Defence Committee, and by his writings and speeches did much to promote its objects. Mr. Lincoln appointed Mr. Larned U. S. District attorney for the northern District of Illinois in 1861, but he lost his health and was obliged to go to Europe for rest. After the war he continued his practice as a lawyer for a time, and then went to Cambridge, Massachusetts, to live while his son was in Harvard. Immediately after the Chicago fire in 1871 he returned to Chicago and devoted himself to the work of the Relief and Aid Society. In 1872-'3 he again visited Europe with his family. He wrote many letters from abroad for the press, and his published speeches and writings would fill a large volume. Failing health again obliged him to retire from active practice, but he continued to write, and produced a " Life of Swedenborg," not yet published, and many articles for the press. See " Memorial of Edwin Channing Larned (Chicago, 1886).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 619

LARNED, Benjamin Franklin, soldier, born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, 6 September, 1794; died in Washington, D. C, 6 September, 1862, entered the U. S. Army as ensign on 21 October, 1813, was promoted to a first lieutenancy in the summer of 1814, and took part in the defence of Fort Erie, receiving the brevet rank of captain for gallant conduct. In January, 1815, he was appointed regimental paymaster, and on the reduction of the army retained as paymaster of the 5th U.S. Infantry, with rank and pay of major. In 1847, when two deputy paymaster-generalships were created, Major Larned was appointed to one of them with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and on the death of General Nathan Towson, in 1854, he succeeded to the paymaster-generalship by right of seniority, with the rank of colonel. At the beginning of the Civil War he thoroughly reorganized his department; but his health, which was already impaired, gave way under the strain.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 619

LARNED, Joseph Gay Eaton, lawyer, born in Thompson, Connecticut. 29 April, 1819; died in New York City, 3 June, 1870, was graduated at Yale in 1839, taught in Savannah, Georgia and Charleston, South Carolina, for a year and a half, studied law, taught in Waterloo, New York, and in 1842 became a tutor at Yale. In 1847 he resigned the tutorship, was admitted to the bar, and began practice in New Haven. In 1852 he moved to New York City. He was especially familiar with the law of patents, and became interested in the development of certain inventions. In 1855 he engaged in the manufacture of steam fire-engines of a design that was invented mainly by himself, and was the first used in New York City. In introducing them he overcame strong opposition. In 1863 he was appointed by the U. S. government assistant inspector of iron-clads, and until the end of the war supervised the work in the Brooklyn U.S. Navy yard. He subsequently resumed legal practice. He was one of the founders of the Free-Soil Party in Connecticut, and in 1845 contributed to the ' New Englander" a series of articles on "Massachusetts vs. South Carolina." During the later years of his life he interested himself in genealogical subjects, and compiled records of his ancestors which formed the basis of "The Learned Family," by William L. Learned (Albany, 1882).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 620.

LARRABEE, Charles Hathaway, jurist, born in Rome, New York, 9 November, 1820; died in Tehachapi Pass, California. 20 January, 1883. He was taken to Ohio when a child, educated at Granville College (now Denison University), read law, then engaged in civil engineering, aiding in the construction of the Little Miami Railroad, the earliest work of the kind in Ohio, moved to Pontotoc, Mississippi, was there admitted to the bar, and was an unsuccessful candidate for the legislature. Moving to Chicago, Illinois, in 1844, he edited the " Democratic Advocate," was city attorney in 1846, and in 1847 founded Horicon, Wisconsin, where he erected mills for utilizing the water-power at that place. He was a delegate to the state constitutional convention in 1847, in which body he effectively advocated the homestead exemption clause, and judge of the Wisconsin Supreme Court from 1848 till 1858, when he resigned, and was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 5 December, 1859, till 3 March, 1861. His prompt and energetic support of the National government did much to promote the enrolment of volunteers among the Democrats of Wisconsin. In April, 1861, he raised a company in the 1st Wisconsin Regiment, was commissioned lieutenant, and in the following month appointed major of the 5th Wisconsin Infantry. He served through the Peninsular Campaign, and was in General Winfield S. Hancock's brigade at Lewinsville, Lee's Mills, and Williamsburg, where he took part in a brilliant bayonet charge. He was appointed colonel of the 24th Wisconsin in August, 1862, fought with credit in General Philip Sheridan's division at Perryville, and served in the Army of the Tennessee and that of the Cumberland till 27 August, 1863, when he resigned on account of failing health and entered the invalid corps. He moved to California in the spring of 1864, practised law at Salem, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington territory, and finally settled at San Bernardino, California  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 620.

LATROBE, John Hazlehurst Boneval, 1803-1891, Baltimore, Maryland, lawyer.  Manager, American Colonization Society (ACS), 1833-1834.  President of the ACS, appointed in 1853.  Manager, Maryland State Colonization Society.  Son of U.S. Capitol architect Benjamin Latrobe.  (Campbell, 1971, pp. 12, 18, 20-21, 54, 73, 135, 139, 141, 144, 148, 155, 165, 174, 192, 203-207, 212, 239, 241-242; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 27; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 110-111, 112, 157-161, passim 189, 190-191, 232-233, 308)

LAUMAN, Jacob Gartner, soldier, born in Taneytown, Maryland, 20 January, 1813; died in Burlington, Iowa, in February, 1867. His early days were spent in York County, Pennsylvania, and he was educated at the academy there. In 1844 he moved to Burlington, Iowa, where he engaged in commerce. He was commissioned colonel of the 7th Iowa Regiment in July, 1861, served under General Grant in Missouri, and was severely wounded at Belmont, 7 November, 1861. At Fort Donelson, where he commanded a brigade, he was one of the first to storm and enter the enemy's works. For his services on this occasion he was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 21 March, 1862. General Lauman commanded a brigade in General Hurlbut's division at the battle of Shiloh, 6 and 7 April, 1862, and a division at the siege of Vicksburg. He was relieved by General William T. Sherman after the capture of Jackson, Mississippi, 16 July, 1863, and returned to Iowa.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 630.

LA VALETTE, Elie A. F., naval officer, born in Virginia about 1790; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 18 November, 1862. He entered the U.S. Navy as a sailing-master on 25 June, 1812, was commissioned as a lieutenant on 9 December, 1814, promoted commander on 3 March, 1831, and became a captain on 23 February, 1840. He was a favorite with Commodore Isaac Hull, and accompanied that officer when he took command of the Mediterranean Squadron in 1837. In accordance with the recommendation of the retiring-board he was made a rear-admiral on the retired list on 16 July, 1862.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 634.

LAWLER, Michael K., soldier, born in Illinois about 1820. He raised an independent company of volunteers at Shawneetown, IIIinois, in August, 1846, and served as its captain during the remainder of the Mexican War. At the beginning of the Civil War he joined the Union Army, and was commissioned colonel of the 18th Illinois Infantry on 20 May, 1861. He was promoted brigadier-general on l4 April, 1863.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 638.

LAWRENCE, Amos Adams, 1814-1886, merchant, philanthropist, anti-slavery activist.  Principal manager and treasurer of the Kansas Emigrant Aid Society.  Worked to keep Kansas a free state.  Lawrence, Kansas, was named in his honor. (Lawrence, William, Life of Amos A. Adams, with Extracts from his Diary and Correspondence, 1888; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 639; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 47)

LAURENCE, Amos Adams, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 31 July, 1814; died in Nahant, Massachusetts, 22 August, 1886, was graduated at Harvard in 1835, entered mercantile life, invested capital in cotton-manufactories, and became president or director of many banks and industrial corporations in Massachusetts; also an officer in numerous charitable institutions. In 1853-'4 he associated himself with Eli Thayer and others in the colonization of Kansas and its development into a free state, and was the treasurer and principal manager of the Emigrant aid association, which sent out parties of settlers from New England during the Kansas struggle. He was twice nominated by the Whigs and Unionists for governor of Massachusetts. In the beginning of the Civil War he aided in recruiting the 2d Massachusetts Cavalry Regiment. He built Lawrence hall, the Episcopal theological school in Cambridge, and was its treasurer for many years. In 1857-'60 he was treasurer of Harvard College, and in 1880 was chosen an overseer. The town of Lawrence, Kansas, and Lawrence University, at Appleton, Wisconsin, were named in his honor. A “Memoir” of him has been prepared by his son William (Boston, 1888).  [Appleton’s 1892]

LAWRENCE, Cornelius Van Wyck, Congressman, born in Flushing. New York, 28 February, 1791 ; died there, 20 February, 1861. He received a common-school education, and was brought up on a farm. He went to New York City in 1812, engaged in mercantile pursuits, and was elected to Congress as a Jackson Democrat, serving from 2 December, 1833, till May, 1834, when he resigned in order to enter on the office of mayor of New York City, to which he was the first person chosen by popular suffrage. He served as mayor for two successive terms, and in 1836 was a presidential elector on the Van Buren ticket. He was also collector of the port of New York for two years. For twenty years he was president of the Bank of the state of New York, and an officer in various insurance companies. In 1856 he retired to his country-seat at Flushing.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 639-640.

LAWRENCE, George Washington, physician, born in Plymouth, Pennsylvania, 4 July, 1823. He was graduated at the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 184b, and then went to Baltimore, Ma., but later moved to Nicholas, California. Subsequently he returned to Maryland and located in Catonsville, but in 1859 settled in Hot Springs, Arkansas, where he was made medical examiner and resident physician. While in the west he was appointed assistant surgeon-general of California, and during the Civil War he served in the Confederate Army as inspector of hospitals in the Central Army of Kentucky, then as medical director of the 3d Corps of the Army of the Mississippi, and finally as chief surgeon of the bureau of conscription in the trans-Mississippi Department. Dr. Lawrence has made a specialty of chronic blood and nervous diseases and skin affections. He is a member of several medical societies, and, besides papers in professional journals, has published a "Report on the Climatology of Arkansas."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 640.

LAWRENCE, William jurist, born in Mount Pleasant, Jefferson County, Ohio, 26 June, 1819. He was graduated at Franklin College, Ohio, in 1838, and two years later was admitted to the bar. He was appointed commissioner of bankruptcy for Logan County in 1842, in 1845 prosecuting attorney for the same County, and from 1845 till 1847 was editor and proprietor of the " Logan Gazette," subsequently conducting the " Western Law Journal." He was in the legislature in 1846-'7, in 1848 a member of the state senate, in 1851 was elected reporter for the supreme court of the state, and in 1853 again elected to the state senate, where he advocated and carried bills to quiet land titles. He was elected judge of the court of common pleas for five years in 1856, and re-elected in 1861, but resigned in 1864. He served as colonel of the 84th Ohio Regiment at Cumberland and New Creek in 1862, and in 1863 was tendered a U. S. judgeship in Florida, which he declined. He was then elected to Congress from Ohio as a Republican, serving from 4 December, 1865. till 3 March, 1871: and from 1 December, 1873, till 3 March, 1877. He was a delegate to the Philadelphia Loyalist Convention in 1866, and in 1880 was appointed first comptroller of the U. S. Treasury, which post he resigned, 20 March, 1885. Judge Lawrence is the only one of the first comptrollers whose decisions were regularly published. After his resignation he engaged in the practice of law in Bellefontaine, Ohio, and Washington. In addition to monographs and speeches on political and literary topics, he is the author of " Reports of Decisions of the Supreme Court of Ohio " (Columbus, 1852); "The Treaty Question" (Washington, 1871); "The Law of Religious Societies and Church Corporations " (Philadelphia, 1873-'4); "The Law of Claims against the Government" (Washington, 1875); "The Organization of the Treasury Department of the United States " (1880); and" Decisions of the First Comptroller in the Department of the Treasury of the United States" (6 vols., 1881-'5).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 641

LAWRENCE. William Beach, jurist, born in New York City, 23 October, 1800; died there, 26 March, 1881. His ancestor came from England about the middle of the 17th century, and received a patent of land on Long Island. His father, Isaac, was a wealthy merchant of New York. Beach was graduated at Columbia in 1818, studied law, went to Europe in 1821, and on his return to the United States in 1823 was admitted to the bar. In 1826 he was appointed secretary of legation in London, and in 1827 he was charge d'affaires there. From London he went to Paris, and on his return to New York, after an absence of four years, he formed a law partnership with Hamilton Fish, and delivered in Columbia College lectures on political economy, which were repeated before the Mercantile Library Association, and published. He attained eminence at the bar of New York, and promoted the construction of the Erie Railway, being a member of the executive committee. About 1845 he purchased Ochre Point, at Newport, Rhode Island., erected on it a summer residence, and resided there permanently after 1850. He was elected lieutenant-governor of Rhode Island in 1851, soon afterward became acting governor of the state, and in 1853 was a member of the state constitutional convention. During his term as governor he exerted himself to procure the abolition of imprisonment for debt, and was instrumental in defeating the passage by the legislature of the Maine liquor law. Governor Lawrence achieved distinction in appearing before the British and American international tribunal at Washington in 1873 in the case of the "Circassian." involving more than half a million dollars. He won the suit, obtaining for his clients the reversal of a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court, the only instance of that character that has occurred in the country's history. Lawrence's argument in the case, on which the decision was rendered, is regarded, both in this country and in Europe, as an authoritative exposition of several important points of international law. He was a lecturer on international law in 1872-'3 in the law-school of Columbian College, Washington, D. C. and was an original member of the " Institute of the Law of Nations." For thirty years he was noted for the generous hospitality that he dispensed at Ochre Point, where he had collected one of the most valuable private libraries in the land. He was an active member of the New York Historical Society, and from 1836 till 1845 its vice-president. At the annual meeting on 3 January, 1882, James Grant Wilson delivered an address on Governor Lawrence, at the same time presenting to the society a marble bust by Dunbar, the gift of his eldest son, Isaac; and also an unfinished address on "The Life, Character, and Public Services of Albert Gallatin," which had been prepared for the society. Mr. Lawrence published "Address to the Academy of Fine Arts" (New York, 1825); "The History of Louisiana," by Barbe Marbois, translated, with notes (Philadelphia, 1830); "Bank of the United States" (Boston, 1831); "Institutions of the United States "(New York, 1832); "Lectures on Political Economy" (1832); " Discourses on Political Economy " (1834); "Inquiry into the Causes of the Public Distress" (1834); "History of the Negotiations in Reference to the Eastern and Northeastern Boundaries of the United States" (1841); "Biographical Memoir of Albert Gallatin" (1843); "The Law of Charitable Uses" (1845); a new edition of Wheaton's "Elements of International Law," with annotations and a notice of the author (1855); "Visitation and Search " (Boston, 1858); "Commentaire sur les elements du droit international" (4 vols., Leipsic, 1868-'80); "fitude de droit international sur le manage" (Ghent, 1870); "The Treaty of Washington (Providence, 1871): "Disabilities of American Women married Abroad" (New York, 1871); "The Indirect Claims of the United States under the Treaty of Washington of May 8, 1871, as submitted to the Tribunal of Arbitration at Geneva" (Providence, 1872); "Belligerent and Sovereign Rights as regards Neutrals during the War of Secession" (Boston, 1873); "Administration of Equity Jurisprudence " (1874); and " Etudes sur la juridiction consulaire et sur l'extradition" (Leipsic, 1880).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 641-642.

LAWRENCE, Albert Gallatin, soldier, born in New York City in 1834; died there, 1 January, 1887, received his early education at the Anglo-American academy, Vevay, Switzerland, entered Harvard on his return, and was graduated in 1850. He then studied in the law-school at Harvard, and, after graduation in 1858, entered the office of a New York attorney, but soon afterward went to Vienna as an attaché of the U. S. legation. When the Civil War began he returned, joined the volunteer army, was commissioned as lieutenant in the 54th New York Infantry, and served through the Maryland and Virginia Campaigns. In 1864 he was made a captain in the 2d U. S. Colored Cavalry. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for bravery at Fort Fisher, where, in leading the forlorn hope, he lost his right arm, and on 25 March, 1865, was given the brevet of brigadier-general. He was appointed minister to Costa Rica on 2 October, 1866, but was recalled in 1868 in consequence of a duel that he fought with a Prussian attaché who had disparaged the United States. He subsequently served as a commissioner to investigate the grievances of Sitting Bull and his tribe and other difficulties with the Indians.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 642.

LAWTON, Alexander Robert, soldier, born in Beaufort County, South Carolina, about 1818. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1839, commissioned 2d lieutenant m the 1st U.S. Artillery, and stationed on the northern frontier till 1841, when he resigned. He then studied law at Harvard, and in 1842 was admitted to the bar at Savannah, Georgia. He was president of the Savannah and Augusta Railroad in 1849-'54, state senator in 1854-'61, and president of the Georgia Democratic Convention in 1860. When the Civil War began he was colonel of the only volunteer regiment in Georgia, and seized Fort Pulaski under Governor Joseph E. Brown's orders. He retained command at Savannah till April, 1861, when he became brigadier-general in the Provisional Confederate Army, and was put in command of the coast of Georgia. In June, 1862, he was transferred to Virginia, and served in several campaigns. He received the command of a division, was severely wounded at Antietam, and after his recovery served as quartermaster-general till the close of the war. Afterward he resumed the practice of law in Savannah, and was in the legislature in 1875. In 1885 he was appointed by President Cleveland minister to Russia, but the disabilities that he had incurred by taking part in the Civil War against the United States government had not been moved, and the appointment could not be confirmed. Subsequently he was appointed United States minister to Austria.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 643.

LAZELLE, Henry Martyn, soldier, born in Enfield, Massachusetts, 8 September, 1882. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1855, assigned to the infantry, served on the frontiers of Texas and New Mexico against the Apaches, and in February, 1859, was severely wounded in a skirmish with the latter in the Sacramento Mountains. While stationed at Fort Bliss, Texas, he was captured by the Confederates on 8 May, 1861, and held as a prisoner of war until he was exchanged on 28 July, 1862. He was promoted captain on 11 June, 1861, and served in 1862-'3 as assistant commissary of prisoners at Washington, D. C, and in August, 1862, was agent for the exchange of prisoners of war in the west. He was appointed colonel of the 16th New York Cavalry on 23 October, 1863, commanded that regiment in operations against Mosby's guerillas, and was afterward placed in command of a cavalry brigade. He was brevetted major in the regular army on 19 September, 1864, for gallantry in the action near Culpeper, Virginia, resigned his volunteer commission on 19 October, 1863, and served subsequently as provost-marshal-general of the Military Division of West Mississippi. He took part in the Yellowstone Expedition against the Sioux Indians in 1872, being engaged in the action on Powder River, Dakota; also in the Yellowstone expedition of the autumn of 1873, and in the operations against the Sioux in 1874, and was promoted major on 15 December, 1874. In 1877 he served in the field against the Indians in Montana. He was commandant of cadets at the U. S. Military Academy in 1879-'82, was promoted lieutenant-colonel on 26 June, 1882, represented the United States at the military Manoeuvres in India in 1885, and served as assistant inspector general of the Department of the Columbia till June, 1887, when he was placed in charge of the Bureau of Publication of War Records at Washington, D. C, succeeding Colonel Robert N. Scott. Lieutenant-Colonel Lazelle has contributed to various magazines, and has published "One Law in Nature (New York, 1872), and a prize essay on 'Improvements in the Art of War' (1882).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 645.

LEA, John M., jurist, born in Knoxville, Tennessee., 25 December, 1818, was graduated at the University of Nashville in 1837, admitted to the bar in 1840, and began the same year the practice of his profession in Nashville. He was appointed U. S. District Attorney in 1842, and in 1850 elected mayor of Nashville. During a cholera epidemic in the following year he was constantly among the sick and the dying in the hospitals, and by his judicious measures contributed largely to the stay of the pestilence. He was an ardent Unionist, and when Nashville fell into the hands of the government troops he was able, from his influence with the authorities, to do much to lighten the hardships which were necessarily felt by the families of the refugee Confederates. In 1865, at the urgent request of the bar of Nashville, he accepted from Governor William G. Brownlow the appointment of judge of the circuit court, but resigned in the following year, and also declined a seat on the supreme bench of the state. When a bill to remand Tennessee to military control was before the reconstruction committee of Congress, his opposition prevented a report in its favor, and secured the defeat of the measure. In 1875 he was elected to the state senate, where he opposed every suggestion for repudiation of the public debt. He has been a liberal benefactor to the Tennessee School for the Blind, the Woman's Mission Home, and other public charities, and is president of the Tennessee Historical Society.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 645.

LEACH, De Witt Clinton, journalist, born in Clarence, Erie County, New York, 22 November, 1822. He is a descendant of Lawrence Leach, noticed below. His great-grandfather, Samuel Leach, was killed in the French and Indian War, and his grandfather, Samuel Leach, served in the Revolution. He received his education in the public schools, and on reaching manhood began teaching. He then moved with his parents to Michigan, and in 1849 was chosen to the legislature of that state. In 1850 he was a member of the Constitutional convention, and made a speech before it urging the granting of the right of suffrage to the colored race. In 1854 he was appointed state librarian, in 1855 he became editor of a Republican paper at Lansing, and in the following year he was elected to Congress, serving till 1861. He was commissioned by President Lincoln as Indian Agent for Michigan, retaining the office four years. In 1867 he was for the second time chosen a member of a Constitutional convention of the state. About this time he purchased the " Herald," Traverse City, Michigan, which he published and edited for nine years. He has since published the " Patriot Advertiser," Springfield, Missouri, and the "Northwest Farmer," Traverse City, Michigan.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 646.

LEACH, James Madison, member of Congress, born in Lansdowne, Randolph County, North Carolina, in 1824. He received a College education, but was not graduated, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1842. He was for ten years in the House of Representatives of North Carolina, six years in the state senate, and was a presidential elector on the Fillmore ticket in 1856. He was then elected to Congress from North Carolina as a Whig, and served from 3 December 1859, till 3 March, 1861. He opposed secession till the beginning of hostilities, but was for one year a field-officer in the Confederate Army and a member of the Confederate Congress in 1864-'5. After the war he served twice in the state senate, and was elected to Congress for two consecutive terms as a Conservative, serving from 4 March, 1871, till 3 March, 1875. He was a presidential elector in 1876 and 1880.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 646.

LEACH, Josiah Granville, lawyer, born in Cape May, N. .1.. 27 July, 1842. His father. Reverend Joseph S. Leach, a descendant of Lawrence Leach ( q.v.) became in 1855 editor of the "Ocean Wave, the first newspaper in Cape May County, New Jersey. The son entered journalism in I860, and in August. 1862, enlisted in the army, and served as sergeant, sergeant-major, and lieutenant in the 25th New Jersey Regiment. In 1866 he was graduated in law at the University of Pennsylvania, and admitted to the Philadelphia bar. He has been active in politics since he was nineteen years old, has served in the legislature of Pennsylvania, and in 1881-'2 was one of the leaders of the independent Republican movement in Pennsylvania. He is now (1887) commissary-general of Pennsylvania. He has written largely for biographical publications, and is preparing genealogies of the Leach and Manning families in the United States.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 646-647.

LEARY, Lewis Sherrard, free African American man with John Brown during his raid at the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, (West) Virginia, October 16, 1859; hanged with John Brown, December 1859 (see entry for John Brown). (Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 62, 327)

LEAVITT, Hart, 1809-1881, Massachusetts, legislator, prominent abolitionist.  Brother to abolitionist Roger Hooker Leavitt and Joshua Leavitt.  Active in abolitionist organizations and in the Underground Railroad.

LEAVITT, Harvey F., Vergennes, Vermont, abolitionist.  American Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1837-40, 1840-41.

LEAVITT, Humphrey Howe, jurist, born in Suffield, Connecticut, 18 June, 1796; died in Springfield, Ohio, in March, 1873. He went with his father to Ohio in 1800, received a classical education, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1816. He settled at Cadiz, but soon moved to Steubenville, and, after being appointed prosecuting attorney, was chosen successively a member of both branches of the Ohio legislature in 1825-'6 and '7. He was then elected, as a Jackson Democrat, to Congress, serving from 6 December, 1830, till 18 June, 1834, when he resigned, having been appointed by President Jackson judge of the U. S. Court for the District of Ohio. This office he held for nearly forty years. His opinions are contained in Bond's and McLean's reports and in Fisher's "Patent Cases," in which latter branch of the law he was deemed an authority. Judge Leavitt decided the Vallandigham Case during the Civil War, which Mr. Lincoln said was worth three victories to him. He was a member of the Presbyterian Church, and sat as a delegate during eleven sessions of the general assembly.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 649.

LEAVITT, Joshua, 1794-1873, New York, reformer, temperance activist, editor, lawyer, clergyman, abolitionist leader.  Active supporter of the American Colonization Society.  Helped in raising funds for the Society.  Founder of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), New York, 1833.  Manager, AASS, 1833-1837.  Executive Committee, AASS, 1834-1840.  Recording Secretary, AASS, 1838-1840.  Executive Committee, American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (A&FASS).  Advocated political action to end slavery, which led him to help found the Liberty Party.  Edited the newspaper, The Evangelist, which was founded by abolitionists Arthur and Lewis Tappan.  He later became editor of The Emancipator, which was founded by Arthur Tappan in 1833.  Leavitt toured extensively, lecturing against slavery.  His speeches were edited into a pamphlet entitled, “The Financial Power of Slavery.”  It was one of the most widely circulated documents against slavery. 

(Blue, 2005, pp. 20, 25, 34, 45, 50, 54, 94, 119, 122; Davis, 1990; Dumond, 1961, pp. 159, 175, 179, 266, 286, 301; Filler, 1960, pp. 24, 63, 101, 132, 142, 150, 168, 172, 174, 177, 189, 194, 266-267; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 1, 7-8, 17, 20, 28-30, 36, 45-49, 167, 217; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 42, 363-364; Sorin, 1971, pp. 51, 68-71, 96, 131, 132; Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, Vol. 2.  Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1872, 345; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 649-650; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 84; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 518-519; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 13, p. 339; papers in the Library of Congress; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 129-130, 214, 219)

LEAVITT, Joshua, reformer, born in Heath, Franklin County. Massachusetts, 8 September, 1794; died in Brooklyn, New York, 16 January, 1873. He was graduated at Yale in 1814, admitted to the bar in 1819, and began to practise in Putney, Vermont, in 1821. In 1823 he abandoned his profession for the study of theology, and was graduated at Yale divinity school in 1825. He settled the same year at Stratford, Connecticut, where he had charge of a Congregational Church until 1828. In 1819, while a student of law in Heath, Mr. Leavitt organized one of the first Sabbath-schools in western Massachusetts, embracing not only the children, but the entire congregation, all of whom were arranged in classes for religious instruction. He also became interested in the improvement of the public schools. Before he entered the theological seminary he prepared a new reading-book, called "Easy Lessons in Reading" (1823), which  met with an extensive sale. He subsequently issued a " Series of Readers " (1847), but these were not as popular. When the American Temperance Society was formed he became its first secretary, and was one of its travelling agents, in many places delivering the first temperance lecture the people had heard. In 1828 he moved to New York City as secretary of the American Seamen's Friend Society and editor of the "Sailor's Magazine." He established chapels in Canton, the Sandwich Islands, Havre, New Orleans, and other domestic and foreign ports. He also aided in founding the first city temperance society, and became its secretary. He became in 1831 editor and proprietor of the newly established "Evangelist," which under his management soon grew to be the organ of the more liberal religious movements, and was outspoken on the subjects of temperance and slavery. Mr. Leavitt bore a conspicuous part in the early antislavery conflict. His denunciation of slavery cost his paper its circulation in the south and a large proportion of it in the north, well-nigh compelling its suspension. To offset this loss he undertook the difficult feat of reporting in full the revival lectures of Charles G. Finney (q. v.), which, though not a short-hand reporter, he accomplished successfully. The financial crisis of 1837 compelled him, while erecting a new building, to sell out the "Evangelist." In 1833 he aided in organizing the New York Anti-Slavery Society, and was a member of its executive committee, as well as of that of the National Anti-Slavery Society in which it was merged. He was one of the abolitionists who were obliged to fly for a time from the city to escape mob violence. In 1837 he became editor of the " Emancipator," which he afterward moved to Boston, and he also published in that city " The Chronicle," the earliest daily anti-slavery paper. In the convention that met at Albany in 1840 and organized the Liberal Party, Mr. Leavitt took an active part, and he was also chairman of the national committee from 1844 till 1847. In 1848 Mr. Leavitt became office-editor of the New York "Independent," and was connected editorially with it until his death. Mr. Leavitt was an earnest and powerful speaker. In 1855 Wabash College conferred on him the degree of D. C. Dr. Leavitt's correspondence with Richard Cobden, and his " Memoir on Wheat," setting forth the unlimited capacity of our western territory for the growth and exportation of that cereal, were instrumental in procuring the repeal of the English corn laws. During a visit to Europe he also became much interested in Sir Rowland Hill's system of cheap postage. In 1847 he founded the Cheap Postage Society of Boston, and in 1848-'9 he labored in Washington in its behalf, for the establishment of a two-cent rate. In 1869 he received a gold medal from the Cobden Club of England for an essay on our commercial relations with Great Britain, in which he took an advanced position in favor of free-trade. Besides the works already mentioned, he published a hymn-book for revivals, entitled the "Christian Lyre " (1831).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 649-650.

LEAVITT, Roger, Heath, Massachusetts, abolitionist.  Father of abolitionists Roger Hooker Leavitt and Joshua Leavitt.

LEAVITT, Roger Hooker, 1805-1885, Claremont, Massachusetts, abolitionist leader, landowner, industrialist, temperance activist, soldier.  President, Franklin County Anti-Slavery Society.  Vice President, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 1838-1840, 1840-1841.  Gubernatorial candidate for Massachusetts on the Liberty Party ticket.  Brother of abolitionist leader Joshua Leavitt.  Stationmaster on the Underground Railroad.

LEDLIE, James Hewett, soldier, born in Utica, New York, 14 April, 1832; died in New Brighton, Staten Island, New York, 15 August, 1882. He studied at Union College, became a civil engineer, and at the beginning of the Civil War was commissioned major of the 19th New York Infantry, which in the autumn of 1861 became an artillery regiment. He was made chief of artillery on the staff of General John G. Foster late in 1862, and on 24 December promoted to brigadier general of volunteers. He served in North and South Carolina, and subsequently in the Army of the Potomac, where his brigade made the assault on the crater after the mine-explosion at Petersburg. On 23 January, 1865, he resigned, declining a commission in the regular army, and returned to his profession. He took the entire contract for the construction of bridges, trestles, and snow-sheds on the Union Pacific Railroad, built the breakwaters of Chicago Harbor, and was engaged in railroad construction in the west and south. At the time of his death General Ledlie was chief engineer of railways in California and Nevada, and president of the Baltimore, Cincinnati, and Western Railroad Construction Company.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 654.

LEE, Albert Lindley, soldier, born in Fulton, Oswego County, New York, 16 January, 1834. He was graduated at Union College in 1853, studied law, and moved to Kansas, where he was judge of the state supreme court in 1861. He became major of the 7th Kansas Cavalry in that year, was made colonel in 1862, and on 29 November was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded the cavalry in the Red River Expedition of 1864, and was in the advance when the Confederate attack was made at Sabine Cross-roads, after which he was superseded by General Richard Arnold. He resigned on 4 May, 1865, and since the war has passed much of his time in Europe.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 656.

LEE, Benjamin, physician, born in Norwich, Connecticut, 26 September, 1833, was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1852, and at the New York Medical College in 1856, receiving a prize for his thesis on " The Mechanics of Medicine." After studying abroad he established himself in practice in New York City, in 1863 edited the "American Medical Monthly," and in 1863-'3 was surgeon of the 22d New York Regiment. In 1865 he moved to Philadelphia. Dr. Lee has made a specialty of orthopedic surgery and the treatment of nervous diseases. He is the inventor of the method of self-suspension as a means of treating spinal affections, tie is a member of various medical associations, has been treasurer of the Pennsylvania Medical Society since 1873, and in 1884 was president of the American Academy of Medicine. In 1885 he was appointed a member of the newly created State board of health, of which he is now (1887) secretary and executive officer. As a member of the committee on medical legislation of the State Medical Society, he has been instrumental in securing the passage of laws for regulating the practice of medicine, and for the registration of physicians. Besides contributions to medical literature, he has published "Correct Principles of Treatment for Angular Curvature of the Spine" (Philadelphia, 1867); and "Tracts on Massage," original and translated (1885-'7).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 657.

LEE, Luther, 1800-1889, clergyman, Methodist congregation, Utica, New York, abolitionist leader.  Began his abolitionist career in 1837.  Helped create Wesleyan Anti-Slavery societies.  In 1843, co-founded the anti-slavery Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America, of which he became president.  Lecturer for New York Anti-Slavery Society (NYASS) and agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society.  Member, Executive Committee of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1846-1852.  Luther was attacked on a number of occasions by pro-slavery advocates.  In 1840, Lee helped to co-found the Liberty Party.  (Filler, 1960, p. 123; Sernett, 2002, pp. 57-58, 59, 80-83, 299n8, 300n16; Sorin, 1971; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, 603; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 115; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 13, p. 384)

LEE, Luther, clergyman, born in Schoharie. New York, 30 November, 1800. He joined the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1821, soon began to preach, and in 1827 entered the Genesee conference, becoming an itinerant missionary, preacher, and successful temperance lecturer. He began to preach against slavery in 1836, was mobbed several times, and in 1841 established and edited " The New England Christian Advocate," an anti-slavery journal, at Lowell, Massachusetts He subsequently edited "The Sword of Truth," and in 1842 seceded from the Methodist Church, began a weekly journal, "The True Wesleyan," and when the Wesleyan Methodist connection was organized, became pastor of that church in Syracuse, New York. He was the first president of the first general conference of the new church, was editor of the organ of that body, "The True Wesleyan," till 1852, and after that date was successively pastor of churches in Syracuse and Fulton, New York. In 1854-'5 he edited a periodical entitled " The Evangelical Pulpit." He became president and professor of theology in the Michigan union College at Leoni in 1856, resigning the next year to officiate in churches in Ohio. From 1864 till 1867 he was connected with Adrian College, Michigan, and at the latter date returned to the Methodist Episcopal Church, slavery, which was the cause of the organization of the Wesleyan connection, having ceased to exist. Since 1867 he has been a member of the Michigan Conference, and is now (1887) superannuated. His publications include " Universalism Examined and Refuted" (New York, 1836); "The Immortality of the Soul" (1846); "Revival Manual" (1850); "Church Polity" (1850); "Slavery Examined in the Light of the Bible" (1855); and "Elements of Theology " (1856).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 603.

LEE, Robert Edward, soldier, born in Stratford, Westmoreland County, Virginia, 19 January, 1807; died in Lexington, Virginia, 12 October, 1870. He was the son of the Revolutionary general Henry Lee (q. v.), known as " Light-Horse Harry," was graduated from the U. S. Military Academy at West Point in 1829, ranking second in a class of forty-six, and was commissioned as a 2d lieutenant in the engineers. At the beginning of the Mexican War he was assigned to duty as chief engineer of the army under General Wool, his rank being that of captain. His abilities as an engineer, and his conduct as a soldier, won the special admiration of General Scott, who attributed the fall of Vera Cruz to his skill, and repeatedly singled him out for commendation. Lee was thrice brevetted during the war, his last brevet to the rank of colonel being for services at the storming of Chapultepec. In 1852 he was assigned to the command of the Military Academy at West Point, where he remained for about three years. He wrought great improvements in the academy, notably enlarging its course of study and bringing it to a rank equal to that of the best European military schools. In 1855 he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 2d Regiment of U.S. Cavalry, and assigned to duty on the Texan frontier, where he remained until near the beginning of the Civil War, with the exception of an interval when, in 1859, he was ordered to Washington and placed in command of the force that was sent against John Brown at Harper's Ferry. On 20 April, 1861, three days after the Virginia Convention adopted an ordinance of secession, he resigned his commission, in obedience to his conscientious conviction that he was bound by the act of his state. His only authenticated expression of opinion and sentiment on the subject of secession is found in the following passage from a letter written at the time of his resignation to his sister, the wife of an officer in the National Army: "We are now in a state of war which will yield to nothing. The whole south is in a state of revolution, into which Virginia, after a long struggle, has been drawn; and though I recognize no necessity for this state of things, and would have forborne and pleaded to the end for redress of grievances, real or supposed, yet in my own person I had to meet the question whether I should take part against my native state. With all my devotion to the Union, and the feeling of loyalty and duty of an American citizen. I have not been able to make up my mind to raise my hand against my relatives, my children, my home. I have therefore resigned my commission in the army. and. save in defence of my native state—with the sincere hope that my poor services may never be needed—I hope I may never be called upon to draw mv sword." Repairing to Richmond, he was made commander-in-chief of the Virginia state forces, and in May, 1861, when the Confederate government was moved from Montgomery to Richmond, he was appointed a full general under that government. During the early months of the war he served inconspicuously in the western part of Virginia. In the autumn Lee was sent to the coast of South Carolina, where he planned, and in part constructed, the defensive lines that successfully resisted all efforts directed against them until the very end of the war. He was ordered to Richmond, and on 13 March, 1862, assigned to duty "under the direction of the president," and "charged with the conduct  of military operations in the armies of the Confederacy." The campaign of the preceding year in Virginia had embraced but one battle of importance, that of Bull Run or Manassas, and the Confederate success there had not been followed by anything more active than an advance to Centreville and Fairfax Court-House, with advanced posts on Mason's and Munson's hills. Meantime McClellan had been engaged in reorganizing the National Army, and converting the raw levies into disciplined troops. When he was finally ready to advance, the Confederates retired to the south side of the Rappahannock, and when McClellan transferred his base to Port Monroe and advanced upon Richmond by way of the peninsula, General Joseph E. Johnston moved his army to Williamsburg, leaving Jackson's division in the valley and Swell's on the line of the Rappahannock. Johnston fell back in May to make his stand in defence of Richmond immediately in front of the town. McClellan advanced to a line near the city with his army of more than 100,000 men, and, under the mistaken impression that Johnston's force outnumbered his own, waited for McDowell, who was advancing with 40,000 men from the neighborhood of Fredericksburg to join him. To prevent the coming of this re-enforcement, Lee ordered Ewell to join Jackson, and directed the latter to attack Banks in the valley of the Shenandoah, drive him across the Potomac, and thus seem to threaten Washington City. Jackson executed the task assigned him with such celerity and success as to cause serious apprehension in Washington. McDowell was recalled, and the re-enforcement of McClellan was prevented. The latter now established himself on the Chickahominy, with a part of his army thrown across that stream. A flood came at the end of May, and, believing that the swollen river effectually isolated this force, General Johnston attacked it on 31 May, hoping to crush it before assistance could reach it from the northern side of the river. Thus resulted the battle of Seven Pines, or Pair Oaks, in which Johnston was seriously wounded and rendered unfit for further service for a time. McClellan fortified his lines, his left wing lying near White Oak Swamp, on the south of the Chickahominy, his right extending up the river to Mechanicsville, and his depot being at the White House on the York River railroad and the Pamunkey River. Now, for the first time, General Lee had direct command of a great army confronting an enemy strongly posted, and his capacity as a strategist and commander was first demonstrated in that bloody and brilliant, but only in part successful, series of manoeuvres and contests known as " the seven days' battle." He determined to adopt that offensive defence which was always his favorite method. Instead of awaiting McClellan's attack, he resolved to defend Richmond by dislodging the foe that threatened it. His plan was secretly to bring Jackson's force to his aid, and, while holding McClellan in check on the south side of the river with a part of his force securely intrenched, to transfer the rest of it. to the north side, turn the enemy's flank, and move down the river in his rear, threatening his communications and compelling him to quit his intrenchments for a battle in the open, or to abandon his position altogether and retreat. The first necessity was to fortify the lines south of the river and when that was done, General J. E. B. Stuart, with a cavalry column, was sent to march around McClellan's position, ascertain the condition of the roads in his rear, and gather such other information as was needed. Jackson, with his entire force, was brought to Ashland, on the Fredericksburg railroad, from which point he was to move on 25 June to the neighborhood of Atlee's Station, and turn the enemy's positions at Mechanicsville and Beaver Dam on the next day. A. P. Hill's division was to cross the river at Meadow Bridge as soon as Jackson's movement should uncover it, and Longstreet and D. H. Hill were to cross in their turn when the passage should be clear. There was a delay of one day in Jackson's movement, however, so that he did not turn the position at Beaver Dam until the 27th. A. P. Hill, after waiting until the afternoon of the 26th for the movement of Jackson to accomplish the intended purpose, pushed across the river at Meadow Bridge and drove out the force that occupied Mechanicsville. Longstreet and D. H. Hill also crossed, and the next morning the works at Beaver Dam were turned and the Confederates pushed forward in their march down the river, Jackson in advance with D. H. Hill for support, while Longstreet and A. P. Hill were held in reserve, and upon the right, to attack McClellan in flank and rear, should he seriously oppose Jackson's advance toward the York River Railroad. There was some miscarriage of plans, due to a mistake in Jackson's movement, and, in consequence, Longstreet and Hill encountered the right wing of McClellan's force in a strong position near Gaines's Mills before the advance under Jackson was engaged at all. The resistance of the National troops was stubborn, and it was not until after Jackson came up and joined in the conflict that the position was forced. The National troops suffered severely, and were finally driven across the river. Lee now commanded McClellan's communications, and no course was open to the National general but to save his army by a retreat to the James River, during which severe battles were fought at Savage's Station and Frazier's Farm. The series of manoeuvres and battles ended in a fierce conflict at Malvern Hill, where the Confederates suffered terribly in a series of partial and ill-directed assaults upon a strong position taken by the retreating foe. The bloody repulses thus inflicted consoled the retreating army somewhat for their disaster, but could not repair the loss of position already suffered or do more than delay the retreat. The operations outlined above had brought McClellan's movement against Richmond to naught, and their moral effect was very great; but Lee was convinced that he had had and lost an opportunity to compel the actual surrender of his enemy, though stronger than himself in numbers, and regarded McClellan's escape upon any terms as a partial failure of his plans, due to accidental miscarriages. (For a further account of this campaign, see McClellan, George Brinton.) Having driven McClellan from his position in front of Richmond, and having thus raised what was in effect the siege of that city, General Lee's desire was to transfer the scene of operations to a distance from the Confederate capital, and thus relieve the depression of the southern people which had followed the general falling back of their armies and the disasters sustained in the west. McClellan lay at Harrison's Landing, below Richmond, with an army that was still strong, and while the Confederate capital was no longer in immediate danger, the withdrawal of the army defending it would invite attack and capture unless McClellan's withdrawal at the same time could be forced. For effecting that, Lee calculated upon the apparently excessive concern felt at the north for the safety of Washington. If he could so dispose of his forces as to put Washington in actual or seeming danger, he was confident that McClellan's army would be speedily recalled. In the meantime, General John Pope, in command of another National Army, had advanced by way of the Orange and Alexandria railroad, with the purpose of effecting a junction with McClellan, and it was necessary to meet the danger from that quarter without exposing Richmond, as already explained; for if the people of the north laid excessive stress upon the preservation of Washington from capture, the people of the south held Richmond in a like sentimental regard. Jackson was ordered, on 13 July, to Gordonsville with his own and Ewell's divisions, and he moved thence to Orange Court-House, where A. P. Hill was ordered to join him at the end of the month. With this force Jackson crossed the Rapidan, attacked a part of Pope's army at Cedar Mountain on 9 August, and gained an advantage, holding the ground until Pope advanced in force two days later, when he retired to the south of the river. Lee now hurried troops forward as rapidly as possible, and on 14 August took personal command on the Rapidan. His force was slightly superior to Pope's, and, as the National commander seemed at that time unaware of the presence of the main body of the Confederate Army. Lee hoped, by a prompt attack, to take him somewhat unprepared. The movement was planned for 19 August, but there was a delay of a day, and in the meantime Pope had become aware of his danger and withdrawn behind the Rappahannock, where he had posted his army in a strong position to oppose a crossing. Finding the advantage of position to be with the enemy, Lee moved up the river. Pope keeping pace with him until a point near Warrenton Springs was reached. There Lee halted and made a demonstration as if to cross, on 24 August, while Jackson, crossing about eight miles above, made a rapid march around Bull Run Mountain and through Thoroughfare Gap, to gain the enemy's rear. The movement was completely successful, and on the 26th Jackson reached Manassas Junction, capturing the supply depots there. As soon as Pope discovered the movement he withdrew to protect his communications. Longstreet at once marched to join Jackson, following the same route and effecting a junction on the morning of 29 August, on the same field on which the first battle of Manassas or Bull Run was fought in 1861. Pope's army, re-enforced from McClellan's. was in position, and battle was joined that afternoon. The National assaults upon Lee's lines on that day and the next were determined but unsuccessful, and on 30 August the Confederates succeeded in driving their enemy across Bull Run to Centreville. Lee, re-enforced, turned the position on 1 September, and Pope retired toward Washington.

The way was now clear for the further offensive operations that Lee contemplated. The transfer of McClellan's invading force to Washington had been made imperative, and Lee's army, encouraged by success, was again filled with that confidence in itself and its leader which alone can make an army a fit tool with which to undertake aggressive enterprises. He determined to transfer the scene of operations to the enemy's territory. The plan involved the practical abandonment of his communications so far as the means of subsisting his army was concerned, but the region into which he planned to march was rich in food and forage, and, with the aid of his active cavalry under Stuart, he trusted to his ability to live upon the country. The movement was begun at once, and on 5 September the army, 45,000 strong, crossed the Potomac and took up a position near Frederick, Maryland, from which it might move at will against Washington or Baltimore or invade Pennsylvania. A strong garrison of National troops still held Harper's Ferry, to Lee's surprise and somewhat to the disturbance of his plans, as it was necessary for him to have the route to the valley of Virginia open to his ammunition trains. On 10 September, therefore, he directed Jackson to return to the south side of the river and advance upon Harper's Ferry from the direction of Martinsburg, while McLaws should seize Maryland Heights, Walker hold Loudon Heights, and D. H. Hill post himself at Boonsboro' Pass to prevent the escape of the garrison. Having made these dispositions, Lee moved to Hagerstown to collect subsistence and to await the capture of Harper's Ferry by his lieutenant, after which the several divisions were to unite at Boonsboro' or Sharpsburg, as occasion should determine. McClellan was at this time advancing at the head of the National Army from Washington, but with unusual deliberation. By one of those mishaps which play so large a part in military operations, a copy of Lee's order, giving minute details of his dispositions and plans, fell into McClellan's hands, and that general, thus fully apprised of the exact whereabouts of every subdivision of Lee's temporarily scattered forces, made haste to take advantage of his adversary's unprepared situation. Making a rapid march, on 14 September he fell upon D. H. Hill's division at Boonsboro' Pass. Hill resisted stubbornly and held his ground until assistance arrived. During the night Lee withdrew to Sharpsburg, where news soon reached him of the surrender of Harper's Ferry with about 11,000 men and all its stores. By the 16th the army was again united, except that A. P. Hill's division had remained at Harper's Ferry to care for the prisoners and stores. Meantime McClellan had reached Sharpsburg also, and on the 17th battle was joined. (For an account of the battle, see McClellan.) Neither side having gained a decisive victory, neither was disposed to renew the contest on the 18th, and the day was passed in inactivity. During the night following Lee recrossed the Potomac and marched to the neighborhood of Winchester, where he remained until late in October, the enemy also remaining inactive until that time, when Lee retired to the line of the Rappahannock. The conflict at Sharpsburg or Antietam is called a drawn battle, and it was such if we consider only the immediate result. Neither army overcame the other or gained a decisive advantage, and neither was in condition, at the end of the affair, to make effective pursuit should the other retire. But McClellan had had the best of it in the fight, and Lee's invasion of northern territory was brought to an end; the batttle was thus in effect a victory for the National  arms. On the other hand, if we include the capture of the garrison at Harper's Ferry, Lee had inflicted greater loss upon the enemy than he had himself suffered. So far as the definite objects with which he had undertaken the campaign were concerned, it had been successful. Richmond had been relieved of present danger. The moral situation had been reversed for a time. From standing on the defensive, and hard pressed in front of their own capital, the Confederates had been able to march into their enemy's country, overthrowing an army on their way, and to put the National capital upon its defence. The spirits of the southern army and people were revived, and from that time until the last hour of the war the confidence of both in the skill of their commander was implicit and unquestioning. Lee was thenceforth their reliance and the supreme object of their devotion. General Burnside, having succeeded McClellan in command of the National Army, adopted a new plan of campaign that should threaten Richmond by an advance over a short line, and at the same time keep Washington always covered. He made his base upon the Potomac at Acquia Creek, and planned to cross the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg. The head of his column reached Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg, on 17 November Lee moved promptly to meet this new advance, and occupied a line of hills in rear of the town, which commanded the plain below and afforded excellent conditions for defence. Here he posted about half his army, under Longstreet, while D. H. Hill was at Port Royal, twenty miles below, and Jackson lay between, prepared to support either wing that might be attacked. Lee's total force numbered about 80,000 men of all arms; Burnside's about 120,000, of whom 100,000 were thrown across the river on the day of the battle. The crossing was made on 12 December in two columns, the one at Fredericksburg and the other three miles below. No serious opposition was made to the crossing, it being Lee's plan to await attack in his strong position on the crests of the hills rather than risk an action in the plain below. Burnside spent the 12th in preparation, and did not advance to the assault until the next morning about ten o'clock. Two points of attack were chosen, one upon the Confederate right, the other upon the left. The attack upon the Confederate right was for a time successful, breaking through the first line of defence at a weak point, but it was quickly met and repelled by Jackson, who had hurried to the point of danger. The National troops were forced back and pressed almost to the river, where a heavy artillery fire checked Jackson's pursuit, and upon his return to the original line of defence the battle in that quarter ended in Confederate success, but with about equal losses to the two armies. On the other side of the field the assaults were repeated and determined, and resulted in much graver loss to the assailants and much less damage to the Confederates. The nature of the ground forbade all attempts to turn Lee's left, and the National troops had no choice but to make a direct advance upon Marye's Heights. Here Lee was strongly posted with artillery so placed as to enfilade the line of advance. A little in front of his main line, and on the side of the hill below, lay a sunken road, flanked by a stone wall running athwart the line of the National advance, and forming a thoroughly protected ditch. Into this road about 2.000 infantry had been thrown, and Burnside's columns, as they made their successive advances up a narrow field, swept by the artillery from above, came suddenly upon this concealed and well-protected force, and encountered a withering fire of musketry at short range, which swept them back. The nature of the obstacle was not discovered by the National commanders, and assault after assault was made, always with the same result, until the approach of night put an end to the conflict. The next day Lee waited for the renewal of the assault, which he had repelled with a comparatively small part of his force, but, although Burnside remained on the Confederate side of the river, he made no further attempt to force his adversary's position. He had lost nearly 13,000 men, while Lee's loss was but a little more than 5,000. The National Army recrossed the river on the 15th, and military operations were suspended for the winter. (For a further account of this battle, see Burnside, Ambrose Everett.) General Joseph Hooker, who succeeded Burnside in command of the Army of the Potomac, planned a spring campaign, the purpose of which was to force Lee out of his intrenched position at Fredericksburg and overcome him in the field. His plan of operations was to throw a strong detachment across the river below Fredericksburg, threatening an assault upon the works there, while with the main body of his army he should cross the river into the region known as the Wilderness above the Confederate position, thus compelling Lee to move out of his intrenchments and march to meet his advance at Chancellorsville. Lee's army had been weakened by detachments to 57,000 men, while Hooker's strength was about 120,000, and the National commander hoped to compel the further division of his adversary's force by occupying a part of it at Fredericksburg. The plan was admirably conceived, and no operation of the war so severely tested the skill of Lee or so illustrated his character as did the brief campaign that followed. About the end of April, 1863, the plan was put in operation. Sedgwick, with 30,000 men, crossed below Fredericksburg, while Hooker, with the main body, crossed at the fords above and marched through the Wilderness to gain a position upon the Confederate flank. Leaving about 9,000 men in the works at Fredericksburg, Lee marched on 1 May to meet Hooker's advance, which he encountered near Chancellorsville. He attacked the advance force at once, and it retired upon the main body, which occupied a strong position and seemed disposed to act upon the defensive. Notwithstanding the great inferiority of his force (48,000 men), Lee decided upon the hazardous experiment of dividing it. Retaining about 12,000 or 14.000 men with whom to make a demonstration in front, he sent Jackson with the remainder of the army to march around Hooker's right flank and strike him in the rear. The manoeuvre was extremely hazardous, but was made necessary by the situation, and was fully justified bv its success. Jackson made his march without discovery of his purpose, and, late in the afternoon of 2 May, came upon Hooker's rear with a suddenness and determination that threw a part of the National Army into confusion and gave the Confederates a great advantage. The contest lasted until after nightfall, and the armies lay upon their arms throughout the night. Jackson having received a mortal wound from the fire of his own men. the command of his force devolved upon Stuart, who renewed the attack early next day and pressed it with vigor until about ten o'clock, when a junction was formed with the troops under Lee, operating from in front. The whole line then advanced with great impetuosity, under the immediate command of General Lee. and the enemy was driven with great loss from the field, retiring to the works that defended the river crossings.   Meantime Sedgwick had carried the position at Fredericksburg, and was advancing on Lee's right flank. He had reached a point within six miles of Chancellorsville before forces detached for the purpose could check his advance. On the next day Early came up, and Lee succeeded in driving Sedgwick across the river. A storm interfered with plans for pressing Hooker's retreat, and by the 6th he had withdrawn completely from the southern side of the river, and was resuming his position opposite Fredericksburg. Lee also returned to his works, facing the enemy, with the river between. It was now incumbent upon General Lee to determine, so far as the matter was within his control, where and how the campaign of the approaching summer should be carried on. His policy was in a general sense defensive, but it was open to him to choose between a rigid adherence to that policy and the adoption of offensive measures with a defensive intent. He wished to avoid the depressing moral effect of a second near approach of the enemy to Richmond, and, notwithstanding the inferiority of his force to that which he was likely to encounter, he resolved to risk another attempt to transfer operations to northern soil. His army now consisted of three corps, under Longstreet, Ewell, and A. P. Hill. Early in June Ewell was sent into the valley of Virginia with orders to drive out General Milroy's small force and advance toward the Potomac. As soon as he had cleared the lower valley, Longstreet took up his march, moving northward east of the Blue Ridge, and, in exact fulfilment of General Lee's expectation, Hooker withdrew from in front of Fredericksburg and retired to cover and defend Washington, establishing his army south of the Potomac, near Leesburg, to await the further development of his adversary's plans. A. P. Hill now followed Ewell's line of march, and Longstreet also passed into the valley. Ewell had crossed the Potomac, and Lee followed with the other two corps, arriving at Chambersburg on 27 June, Ewell being then at Carlisle. Stuart, in command of the cavalry, had been left to observe the enemy, with orders to cross the river and place himself on Ewell's right as soon as possible after the National Army should have left Virginia. Some discretion was given to him, however, and in the exercise of it he made a successful march around the National Army, but meantime left Lee without cavalry in an enemy's country, and without that information of the enemy's movements which was indispensable to the wise ordering of his own. Moreover, Stuart's absence misled Lee. Confident that his cavalry commander, who was a marvel of alertness and promptitude, would not delay to join him after the passage of the river by the adversary, Lee argued from his absence that the main body of the enemy was still south of the river, and perhaps planning a counter-operation against Richmond, while in fact the entire army under Meade was hastening toward Gettysburg, where Lee encountered its advance on 1 July, unexpectedly and under a complete misapprehension as to its strength. Heth's division, which constituted Lee's advance, met the enemy first, and was directed to ascertain his strength, with orders to avoid a general engagement if he should find anything more than cavalry present. Heth undertook to feel of the force in his front, and, as it consisted of infantry and artillery in large bodies, he was soon hotly engaged in spite of his endeavor to confine his operation to a reconnoissance. When Lee arrived on the field, it was evident that a general engagement was not to be avoided, and he ordered up such re-enforcements as were at hand, at the same time sending directions for the remainder of his forces to hasten forward. Two divisions of Hill's corps and two of Ewell's were brought into action, and during the afternoon, after a sharp contest, the enemy was driven to a position south of the town, where he occupied a line of hills and awaited a renewal of the attack. In the absence of his cavalry, Lee was without any other information as to the strength or the purposes of his enemy than that which he could get from the prisoners taken, from whom he learned that Meade s entire army was approaching. It was important, if possible, to seize the position held by the enemy before further bodies of Meade's troops should arrive, as the line of hills afforded many advantages to the commander who could occupy it, and Lee directed Ewell to gain possession of it if possible, leaving him certain discretion, however, in the exercise of which Ewell delayed the attempt, to await the arrival of his remaining division, and so the opportunity was lost. It was Lee's intention to attack with his whole available force on the morning of the 2d, but it was not until late in the afternoon that Longstreet, whose troops had been some miles in the rear, was ready to bear his important part in the assault, and in the meantime the greater part of Meade's force had arrived and taken position. The assault was made at four o'clock, with Ewell on the left, Hill in the centre, and Longstreet on the right. The plan was for Longstreet to carry the position occupied by the enemy's left, Ewell and Hill making demonstrations on the left and centre, but converting their operations into a real attack should it appear that troops from their front were withdrawn to aid in opposing Longstreet. This was done, and a part of the enemy's works was carried by the Confederate left, but relinquished because of Rhodes's inability to render support to Early as promptly as had been intended. Meantime Longstreet had forced back the enemy's left for some distance, and gained a favorable position for further operations. The day came to an end with no decisive result, but Lee was encouraged to believe that by a carefully concerted assault on the next day he might win a victory that would go far to decide the issue of the war in favor of the Confederates, or at any rate to compensate for the continued disasters suffered by the Confederate arms in the west, and perhaps compel the withdrawal of the National forces from that quarter for the defence of the middle and eastern states. The value of such a victory, if he could achieve it, would be incalculable, and, as Longstreet has declared, the army under Lee's command at that time " was in condition to undertake anything." It was therefore decided to make a supreme effort on the next day to carry the enemy's position and put him to rout. Longstreet, strengthened by three brigades under Pickett, and additionally re-enforced from Hill's corps, was to make the main assault upon the enemy's right, while Ewell should attack his left and Hill menace his centre. There was some slight miscarriage in preparation, however, which resulted in Ewell's becoming engaged before Longstreet advanced to the assault. Moreover, for reasons that have since been the subject of somewhat acrimonious controversy, and the discussion of which would be manifestly improper in this place, Longstreet's attack was not made with his entire force, as had been intended; and although by that charge, which has become historically famous as perhaps the most brilliant feat of arms performed by Confederates on any field, Pickett's division succeeded in carrying the hill in their front and entering the enemy's lines, it  was left without adequate support and was quickly hurled back, broken, and almost annihilated. This in effect ended the battle of Gettysburg. As at Antietam, so on this field, no decisive victory had been won by either army, but Lee's supreme effort had ended in a repulse, and the advantage rested with the National arms. "It is with an invading army as with an insurrection: an indecisive action is equivalent to a defeat." Lee was not driven from the field, and his army was still unbroken; but he had failed to overthrow his adversary, and his project of successful invasion of the enemy's country was necessarily at an end. He tarried a day in inactivity, and then retired without serious molestation to Virginia, whither Meade followed. The two armies having returned to the line of the Rapidan, and neither being disposed to undertake active operations, the campaign of 1863 ended in August. The campaign of 1864 was begun by the advance of the National Army under General Grant, who crossed the Rapidan on 4 May with about 120,000 men, including non-combatants, teamsters, etc. Lee's force at that time was about 66,000 men, not including commissioned officers, teamsters, and other non-combatants, but he determined to attack his adversary as quickly as possible. There followed a succession of stubbornly contested battles and movements by flank from the Wilderness, where the adversaries first met, bv way of Spottsylvania Court-House and Cold Harbor, to Petersburg, for an account of which, and of the siege of Petersburg, see Grant, Ulysses S. Grant sat down before Petersburg about the middle of June, and prepared for a patient siege of that place and of Richmond, to which it afforded a key. By extending his lines farther and farther to the south, and pressing his left forward, he forced Lee to stretch his own correspondingly, until they were drawn out to dangerous tenuity, there being no source from which the Confederate commander could draw re-enforcements, while his already scant force was slowly wasting away under the operations of the siege. Grant was gradually enveloping the position, and pushing back the Confederate right, so as to secure the lines of railway leading to the south, and it was manifestly only a question of time when Petersburg, and Richmond with it, must fall into the hands of the enemy. By all military considerations it was the part of wisdom for the Confederates to withdraw from the obviously untenable position while there was yet opportunity for them to retire to the line of the Roanoke, and there is the best authority for saying that if he had been free to determine the matter for himself, Lee would have abandoned Richmond many weeks before the date of its actual fall, and would have endeavored, by concentration, to win important advantages in the field, where strategy, celerity of movement, and advantages of position might offset disparity of forces. But the Confederate government had decided upon the policy of holding Richmond at all hazards, and Lee was bound by its decision. The end of his power of resistance in that false position came early in the spring of 1865. Grant broke through his defences, south of Petersburg, and compelled the hasty evacuation of the entire Richmond line on 2 April. Meantime Sherman had successfully transferred his base from northern Georgia to Savannah, and was following Johnston in his retreat toward North Carolina and Virginia. Lee made an ineffectual attempt to retreat and form a junction with Johnston somewhere south of the Roanoke; but the head of Grant's column was so far in advance on his left as to be able to beat him back toward the upper James River, capturing a large portion of his force, and the small remnant, in a state of actual starvation, was surrendered on 9 April, at Appomattox Court-House, its total strength being fewer than 10,000 men. The war being at an end, Lee withdrew at once from public affairs, betaking himself to the work of a simple citizen, not morosely, or in sullen vexation of spirit, but manfully, and with a firm conviction of duty. He frankly accepted the result, and used his great influence for the restoration of friendly relations between the lately warring sections, for the prompt return of his soldiers to peaceful pursuits, and for the turning of their devotion to the southern cause into a patriotic pride of American citizenship. He became president of Washington College, at Lexington, Virginia (now Washington and Lee University), and passed the remainder of his life in earnest work as an educator of youth. Physically, intellectually, and morally, Lee was a man of large proportions and unusual symmetry. Whether or not he possessed the highest order of genius, he had a mind of large grasp, great vigor and activity, and perfect self-possession. He was modest in his estimate of himself, but not lacking in that self-confidence which gives strength, his mind was pure, and his character upright in an eminent degree. His ruling characteristic was an inflexible devotion to duty, as he understood it, accompanied by a perfect readiness to make any and every sacrifice of self that might be required of him by circumstance. In manner he was dignified, courteous, and perfectly simple; in temper he was calm, with the placidity of strength that is accustomed to rigid self-control. He was a type of perfectly healthy manhood, in which body and mind are equally under the control of clearly defined conceptions of right and duty. Descended from men who had won distinction by worth, and allied to others of like character, he was deeply imbued with a sense of his obligation to live and act in all things worthily. As a military commander he had thorough knowledge of the art of war, and large ability in its practice. His combinations were sound, and where opportunity permitted, brilliant, and his courage in undertaking great enterprises with scantily adequate means was supported by great skill in the effective employment of such means as were at his command. The tasks he set himself were almost uniformly such as a man of smaller courage would have shrunk from, and a man of less ability would have undertaken only to meet disaster. His military problem was so to employ an inferior force as to baffle the designs of an enemy possessed of a superior one. His great strength lay in that form of defence which involves the employment of offensive manoeuvres as a means of choosing the times, places, and conditions of conflict. A military critic has said that he lacked the gift to seize upon the right moment for converting a successful defence into a successful attack, and the judgment appears to be in some measure sound. In the seven days' fight around Richmond his success was rendered much less complete than it apparently ought to have been by his failure so to handle his force as to bring its full strength to bear upon his adversary's retreating column at the critical moment. At Fredericksburg he seems to have put aside an opportunity to crush the enemy whom he had repelled, when he neglected to press Burnside on the river bank, and permitted him to withdraw to the other side unmolested. After his victory at Chancellorsville a greater readiness to press his retreating foe would have promised results that for lack of that readiness were not achieved. A critical study of his campaigns seems also to show that he erred in giving too much discretion to his lieutenants at critical junctures, when his own fuller knowledge of the entire situation and plan of battle or campaign should have been an absolutely controlling force. It is no reflection upon those lieutenants to say that they did not always make the wisest or most fortunate use of the discretion thus given to them, for with their less complete information concerning matters not immediately within their purview, their decisions rested, of necessity, upon an inadequate knowledge of the conditions of the problem presented. Instances of the kind to which we refer are found in Stuart's absence with the cavalry during all that part of the Gettysburg campaign which preceded the battle, and in Ewell's failure to seize the strong position at Gettysburg while it was still possible to do so. In both these cases Lee directed the doing of that which wisdom dictated; in both he left a large discretion to his lieutenant, in the conscientious exercise of which an opportunity was lost. Three days after General Lee's death his remains were buried beneath the chapel of the University at Lexington. In accordance with his request, no funeral oration was pronounced. For a view of General Lee's residence. "Arlington House," see Custis, George W. P., vol. ii., p. 45. The corner-stone of a monument to his memory was laid in Richmond, Virginia, on 27 October, 1887. There is a recumbent statue by Valentine over his grave, and a bronze statue on a column in New Orleans. A portrait of him was painted from life by John Elder, for the commonwealth of Virginia, which is now in the senate chamber at Richmond; another by Elder, for the city of Savannah, is in the council chamber of that city; and still another is at the University of Virginia. The vignette is copied from an early portrait, while the steel engraving is from a photograph taken in Richmond, during the last year of the war. General Lee edited, with a memoir, a new edition of his father's "Memoirs of the Wars of the Southern Department of the United States" (New York, 1869). See "Life and Campaigns of Robert Edward Lee," by E. Lee Childe (London, 1875); "Life of Robert E. Lee," bv John Esten Cooke (New York. 1871); "Life and Times of Robert E. Lee," by Edward A. Pollard (1871); "Personal Reminiscences of Robert E. Lee," by John W. Jones (1874); "Four Years with General Lee," by Walter L Taylor (1877); and "Memoirs of Robert E. Lee," by General A. L. Long (1886). A life of General Lee is now (1887) in preparation by Colonel Charles Marshall, aide decamp on his staff, 1861-'5, to whom the original papers of General Lee have been committed by the family. — His wife,  Mary Randolph, born at Arlington House, Alexandria County, Virginia. in 1806; died in Lexington, Virginia, 6 November, 1873, was the only daughter of George Washington Parke Custis, the adopted son of Washington, and the grandson of his wife. In June, 1831, she married Robert E. Lee, by which event he came into possession of Arlington, on the Potomac River, and of the White House, on the Pamunkey. Mrs. Lee had strong intellectual powers, and persistently favored the Confederate cause. She was in Richmond during the Civil War, and afterward accompanied her husband to Lexington, where she resided until her death.—His eldest son, George Washington Custis, soldier, born at Arlington, Virginia, 16 September. 1832, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1854 at the head of his class. He was commissioned 2d lieutenant of engineers and assigned to the engineer bureau at Washington. In the spring of 1855 he was assigned to duty on Amelia Island. Florida, where he was engaged in constructing the fort at the mouth of St. Mary's River, and in the autumn of 1857 was ordered to San Francisco, California, for the construction of the works at Fort Point. In October, 1859, he was promoted 1st lieutenant and ordered to the engineer bureau at Washington, where he remained until the beginning of the Civil War, when he resigned his commission and entered the Confederate service. He was commissioned major of engineers of the provisional Army of Virginia, 10 May, 1861, and on 1 July was appointed captain in the Confederate Corps of Engineers. He located and constructed the fortifications around Richmond, and on 31 August, 1861, was appointed aide-de-camp to Jefferson Davis, with the rank of colonel of cavalry. On 25 June, 1863, he was commissioned brigadier-general and assigned to a brigade organized for local defence around Richmond. In the autumn of 1864 he was commissioned major-general and given the command of a division in the Army of Northern Virginia, which he led bravely and skilfully till he was captured at Sailor's Creek. In October, 1865, he became professor of military and civil engineering and applied mechanics in Virginia Military Institute, and in February, 1871. succeeded his father as president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University). Tulane University gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1887.—His brother, William Henry Fitzhugh, soldier, second son of Robert E. Lee, born at Arlington, Virginia, 31 May, 1837, was graduated at Harvard in 1857, and in the same year appointed 2d lieutenant in the 6th U.S. Infantry, U. S. Army, and served in the Utah Campaign of General Albert Sidney Johnston, and afterward in California. Early in 1859 he resigned his commission and took charge of his farm, the historic White House, on the Pamunkey. In the spring of 1861 he raised a cavalry company for the Confederate service, was made captain, and was soon promoted major and made chief of cavalry to General Loring in the West Virginia Campaign. In the winter of 1861-'2 he was ordered to Fredericksburg and was made lieutenant-colonel. In the spring of 1862 he was made colonel, and not long afterward was attached to the brigade of General J. E. B. Stuart, in most of whose campaigns he participated. On 3 October, 1862, he was made brigadier-general, to date from 15 September At Brandy Station, 9 June, 1863, he was severely wounded, and was afterward captured by a raiding party and carried to Fortress Monroe, where he was held for some time as a hostage. In the early spring of 1864 he was exchanged, on 23 April was promoted major-general of cavalry, and led his division in the fights from the Rapidan to Appomattox, where he surrendered. He soon went to work at the White House, rebuilding the dwelling, and became a farmer. For some years he was president of the Virginia agricultural Society. In 1875 he was j elected to the state senate, and in 1886 to Congress. I — Robert Edward's nephew, Fitzhugh, soldier, born I in Clermont, Fairfax County, Virginia, 19 November, 1835, was  graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1856, and commissioned 2d lieutenant in the 2d U.S. Cavalry. He was severely wounded in a fight with Indians, and in May, 1860, was ordered to report at West Point as instructor of cavalry. At the beginning of the Civil War in 1861 he resigned his commission and entered the Confederate service. He was first placed on staff duty, and was adjutant-general of Ewell's brigade until September, 1861, when he was made lieutenant-colonel of the 1st Virginia Cavalry, and later was promoted colonel, and he participated in all the campaigns of the Army of Northern Virginia. On 25 July, 1862, he was made brigadier-general, and on 3 September, 1863, major general. In the battle of Winchester, 19 September, 1864, three horses were shot under him, and he was disabled by a severe wound, which kept him from duty for several months. In March, 1865, he was put in command of the whole cavalry corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, and a month later he surrendered to General Meade at Farmville, after which he retired to his home in Stafford County. In 1874 he made a speech at Bunker Hill which attracted wide attention. In the winter and spring of 1882-'3 he made a tour through the southern states, in the interest of the Southern Historical Society. He was elected governor of Virginia in 1885.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 668-675.

LEEMAN, William H., radical abolitionist, accompanied John Brown in his raid on the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, on October 16, 1859.  Lee wrote to his mother, “We are now all privately gathered in a slave state, where we are determined to strike for freedom, incite the rebels to rebellion, and establish a free government.” (See entry for John Brown.) (Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 207, 327)

LEFFERTS, Marshall, engineer, born in Bedford, Long Island, 15 January, 1821; died near Newark, New Jersey, 3 July, 1876. He was educated in the common schools, was first a clerk, and subsequently a civil engineer, and, returning to mercantile pursuits, became a partner in the importing-house of Monewood and Company, New York. In 1849 he became president of the New York, New England, and New York State Telegraph Companies, from which office he retired in 1860 and began a system of telegraph wires, which was worked on the automatic plan of transmission. These patents were subsequently purchased by the American (now the Western Union) Telegraph Company, of which he became electric engineer, and at the same time he was consulting engineer of the Atlantic Cable Company. He was the first in the United States to make and apply instruments for the detection of faults in electric cables, and to reduce the system of relays to common standards. He resigned his office with the Western Union Telegraph Company in 1867 to organize the commercial news department of that company, became president of the Gold and Stock Telegraph Company in 1869, and when, two years afterward, the latter purchased the commercial news department, he again assumed its control. He joined the New York 7th Regiment in 1851 as a private, became its lieutenant-colonel the next year, and its colonel in 1859. In 1861 this regiment, under his command, was the first to leave the city for the seat of war. It was again called out in 1862 and in 1863, and at the latter date was stationed in Frederick, Maryland, where Colonel Lefferts was military governor, returning to New York to protect the city in the draft riots of July, 1863. At the close of the war he resigned his command, and accepted that of commandant of the veteran corps of the 7th Regiment, holding office until his death, which occurred on the railroad train while he was going with his corps to the Fourth of July parade in Philadelphia in 1876.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 677.

LEGGETT, Mortimer Dormer, soldier, born in Ithaca, New York, 19 April, 1831. He moved, in youth, with his parents, who were Friends, to Ohio, was graduated in medicine at Willoughby, Ohio, in 1844, and in 1846 organized the first system of union free schools in the state. He was admitted to the bar in 1845, and was professor of pleadings and practice in the Ohio Law College from 1855 till 1858, when he became superintendent of schools in Zanesville. At the beginning of the Civil War he raised the 78th Ohio Infantry, of which he was appointed colonel in January, 1862, and which he led at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, where he was wounded, and at Corinth. In June of this year he commanded a brigade, and captured Jackson, Tennessee, defended Olivia, Tennessee, against a largely superior force, and was slightly wounded. In November, 1862, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers. He was severely wounded at Champion Hills, and again at Vicksburg, commanded the 3d Division of the 7th Corps in General Sherman's march to the sea, and in July, 1864, was brevetted major-general. On 21 August, 1865, he was commissioned major-general of volunteers, and on 28 September resigned. In 1871 he was appointed U. S. Commissioner of Patents.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 679.

LEGGETT, William, author, born in New York City in 1802; died in New Rochelle, New York, 29 May, 1839. His father, Major Abraham Leggett, was a soldier of the Revolution. The son was educated at Georgetown College, D.C., and in 1819 moved with his father to Illinois. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman in 1822, but resigned in 1826, and became editor of the "Critic," a weekly literary journal which was soon united with the "New York Mirror." In 1829 he became an editor of the "New York Evening Post," and was attached to that journal till 1836. At the outset he stipulated with William Cullen Bryant, the senior editor, that he should not be required to write political articles, as he had neither taste nor fixed opinions regarding politics; but before the year had passed he appeared to have found his true vocation in discussing them, and wrote vigorous editorial articles in favor of free trade and against the U. S. Bank. In 1835 the meetings of the Abolitionists in New York were dispersed by mobs. Leggett denounced these proceedings, and defended the right to free discussion in regard to slavery as well as all other subjects. Retiring from the "Post," he began the publication of "The Plain Dealer " in 1836, which attained a large circulation, but was discontinued in less than a year through the failure of its publisher. After this, his health being greatly enfeebled. Mr. Leggett left literary work and retired to New Rochelle, New York. He was appointed in 1839 by President Van Buren diplomatic agent to Guatemala, but died before the day of sailing. Mr. Leggett was remarkable among the journalists of  his day. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 679.

LEMEN, James D., died 1870, New Design, Virginia, clergyman.  Organized eight Baptist Churches on abolitionist principles.  Worked against pro-slavery petitions.  Sent to U.S. Congress.  Leader of the anti-slavery cause in Indiana Territory.  Organized The Baptized Church of Christ, Friends of Humanity, on Cantine Creek, whose constitution opposed slavery.  Its members formed the Illinois Anti-Slavery League.  (Dumond, 1961, p. 92)

LE MOYNE, Francis Julius, 1798-1879, Washington, Pennsylvania, physician, abolitionist leader.  Le Moyne became active in the abolitionist movement in the 1830s.  Was against the colonization movement.  Le Moyne was a manager in the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), 1837-1840, 1840-1841.  Vice President of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 1840-1851.   In 1840, ran as the vice-presidential candidate of the Liberty Party.   Unsuccessfully ran on Pennsylvania abolitionist tickets, 1841, 1844, 1847.  Was active in helping fugitive slaves in the Underground Railroad.  Founded Le Moyne College in 1870 in Memphis, Tennessee.  (Blue, 2005, p. 25; Dumond, 1961, pp. 186, 266, 301; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 46; Sernett, 2002, pp. 109, 111; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 687; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 163)

LE MOYNE, Francis Julius, abolitionist, born in Washington, Pennsylvania, 4 September, 1798; died there, 14 October, 1879. His father was a royalist refugee from France, who practised medicine in Washington. The son was graduated at the college there in 1815, studied medicine with his father and at the Medical College in Philadelphia, and began practice in his native town in 1822. In 1835 he assisted in organizing an anti-slavery society in Washington, and from that time entered earnestly into the abolition movement. He was the first candidate of the Liberty Party for vice-president, his nomination having been proposed in a meeting at Warsaw, New York, 13 November, 1839, and confirmed by a national convention at Albany, 1 April, 1840. Though he and James G. Birney, the nominee for president, declined the nomination, they received 7,059 votes in the election of 1840. In 1841, 1843, and 1847 Le Moyne was the candidate of the same party for governor of Pennsylvania. At a later period he became widely known as an advocate of cremation. He erected in 1876, near Washington, Pennsylvania, the first crematory in the United States. Dr. Le Moyne founded the public library in Washington, gave $25,000 for a colored normal school near Memphis, Tennessee., and endowed professorships of agriculture and applied mathematics in Washington College.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 687.

LERAY, Francis Xavier, archbishop, born in Chateau Giron, near Rennes, France, 20 April, 1825; died there, 23 September, 1887. He studied in the lyceum of Rennes in 1833-'43, and in the latter year came to the United States, where he taught for several months in Spring Hill College, near Mobile, Alabama, and then entered the Sulpitian College of Baltimore, where he finished his theological studies. He was next appointed prefect of St. Mary's College, near Baltimore, afterward travelled in the west as a missionary, and in 1852 was ordained priest and attached to the diocese of Natchez. At the end of six months he was sent to Jackson, Mississippi, where during the yellow-fever epidemic of 1853 and 1855 he was unceasing in his efforts to minister to the sick and dying. In 1857 he was sent to Vicksburg, where he formed a parish, and in 1860 established the Sisters of Mercy, whom he had obtained from Baltimore. In 1861,when the Civil War began, he placed them in the hospitals of Mississippi Springs, Jackson, and Shelby Springs, while he went to the front as chaplain in the Confederate Army. After the war he returned to Vicksburg, where he established many institutions for the general good. In 1867 Vicksburg was visited by the cholera, during which he showed the same fearlessness that he had exhibited during the yellow-fever epidemics.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 692.

LEROY, William Edgar, naval officer, born in New York, 24 March, 1817. He became a midshipman, 11 January, 1832, and lieutenant. 13 July. 1843, served in the Mediterranean on Commodore Isaac Hull's flagship the "Ohio," was afterward attached to the steamer " Princeton," and took part in the engagement with Mexican soldiers at Rio Aribiqua in 1847. After promotion to commander. 1 July, 1861, he was assigned to the steamer "Keystone State," of the South Atlantic Squadron, with which he was at the capture of Fernandina, Florida. in 1862. and in an engagement with iron-clads off Charleston, S. C., in January, 1863. He commanded the steam-sloop " Oneida," of the Western Gulf Squadron, in 1864, and the "Ossipee" in the same year. In the latter vessel he received the surrender of the Confederate ram ' Tennessee." in the battle of Mobile Bay. He was made captain, 25 July, 1866, commodore in July, 1870, and rear-admiral, 5 April. 1874, and in 1876 commanded the South Atlantic Station. On 20 March, 1884, he was placed on the retired list. Admiral Leroy is familiarly known as " the Chesterfield of the Navy." 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 694.

LESLIE, Thomas Jefferson, soldier, born in London, 2 November, 1796; died in New York City, 25 November, 1874. was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1815, was paymaster of engineers from that date till 1838, was appointed 2d lieutenant in 1816,1st lieutenant in 1819, and brevetted captain for ten years' faithful service in 1829. He was major and paymaster in 1838, declined the appointment of deputy paymaster-general in 1847, and during the Civil War was chief of the paymaster's department of New York District. In 1865 he was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general for faithful performance of duty during a continuous period of fifty years' service. He was retired in 1869.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 696.

LESLIE, Frank, publisher, born in Ipswich, England, 29 March, 1821; died in New York City, 10 January, 1880. He was the son of Joseph Carter, a glove-manufacturer, and was christened Henry, educated in his native town, and placed in a wholesale dry-goods house in London at the age of seventeen. While at school he showed a strong taste for art, and before he left had become proficient in the use of the pencil and engraver's tools. On the establishment of “The Illustrated London News” he began sending in sketches signed “Frank Leslie,” a pen-name that he adopted to conceal his identity from his father. The prompt publication of his sketches led him to give up the dry-goods business, and he became superintendent of the engraving department of the paper before he was of age. He studied the various branches of the publication business, became an expert in the operation of “overlaying” wood-engravings, and was successful as an engraver on wood. In 1848 he came to the United States, assumed the name of Frank Leslie by legislative act, and secured employment on “Gleason's Pictorial” in Boston. Shortly afterward he became superintendent of the engraving department of “The Illustrated News.” In 1854 he began publishing on his own account, his first periodical being “The Gazette of Fashion,” and his second “The New York Journal.” On 14 December, 1855, he published the first number of “Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper,” in which his ideas of a pictorial newspaper were indicated by illustrations of Dr. Kane's arctic expedition that attracted wide attention. In 1865 he established “The Chimney Corner,” and followed it with German and Spanish editions of the “Illustrated Newspaper,” “The Boys' and Girls' Weekly,” “The Lady's Journal,” a weekly, “The Budget of Fun,” a monthly, “The New World,” a weekly, “Pleasant Hours,” “Popular Monthly,” and “Sunday Magazine,” monthlies, and “The Chatter-Box,” the “Illustrated Almanac,” and the “Comic Almanac,” annuals. Mr. Leslie received the medal of the American Institute for wood-engraving in 1848, was a commissioner to the Paris exposition of 1867, where he was presented with a prize medal in gold by Napoleon III. for his services on the jury on art, and president of the New York state centennial commission in 1876. He was a liberal patron of art and charitable interests. — His wife, Miriam Florence, after his death, by a legal process, assumed the name of Frank Leslie, and has since conducted the business of the publishing-house. She is the author of “From Gotham to the Golden Gate” (New York, 1877).  [Appleton’s 1900]

LETCHER, John, governor of Virginia, born in Lexington, Virginia, 29 March, 1813; died there, 20 January, 1884. He was graduated at Randolph Macon in 1833, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1839, and while practising edited a newspaper in Lexington, Virginia He was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1850, and in 1852 was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving till 1859. At the latter date he became governor of Virginia, and was in office when the convention passed the Ordinance of Secession in 1861. Although he had opposed this policy, he sustained the action of the convention, and immediately placed all the state's forces at the disposition of the Confederate government, without waiting for the popular vote. After the failure of the Confederacy he resumed his profession, and retired from politics.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 699.

LEVINGTON, William, 1793-1836, African American, political and community leader, lawyer, abolitionist, organized and led new African American Ohio State Anti-Slavery Society. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 7, p. 256)

LEVY, Uriah Phillips, naval officer, born in Pennsylvania about 1795; died in New York City, 22 March, 1862. He entered the U. S. Navy on 29 March, 1812, and was an officer of the brig " Argus," which, escaping the blockade, took out William H. Crawford as minister to France, and destroyed in the English channel twenty-one vessels, one of which had a cargo worth $625,000. On the capture of the "Argus" he was made prisoner and retained for two years. He became lieutenant on 5 March, 1817, commander, 9 February, 1837, and captain, 29 March, 1844. His last cruise was in 1858, as flag officer of the Mediterranean Squadron. He was active in the movement to abolish flogging in the navy. He became the owner of "Monticello," the home of Thomas Jefferson, of whom he was an ardent admirer, and this valuable estate, with his stock, dwellings, pictures, etc., was confiscated during the Civil War by the Confederates, in consequence of Levy’s sympathies with the National government. He published a " Manual of Internal Rules and Regulations for Men-of-War" (3d ed., New York, 1861).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 701.

LEWIS, John Lawson, soldier, born in Lexington, Kentucky, 26 March, 1800; died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 15 May, 1886, moved to New Orleans in boyhood, and was educated in that city and at Litchfield, Connecticut. He served as courier to General Andrew Jackson at the battle of New Orleans, was admitted to the bar in 1821, became inspector-general and major-general of the first Division of Louisiana state troops in 1842, was sheriff in 1850, and mayor in 1855. During the Civil War he was major-general of state militia in the Confederate service, was severely wounded at Mansfield, and served throughout the campaign that ended in the retirement of General Nathaniel P. Banks from the Red River. After the war he held several public posts in New Orleans, including that of jury-commissioner.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 702.

LEWIS, Edmonia, sculptor, born near Albany. New York, 4 July, 1845. Her father was a Negro and her mother a Chippewa Indian. She was left an orphan at the age of three, and. after living for some time with the Indians, was sent by her brother to school, where she obtained a partial education. She early began to model in clay, and attracted attention by her portrait bust of Robert G. Shaw, colonel of the first Negro regiment in the National service, which was exhibited in Boston. In 1865 she went to Rome, where she studied, and has since resided. Her works, which show considerable ideality and talent, have found their chief patronage abroad. Among them are " The Freedwoman " (1867): "Death of Cleopatra," a vividly realistic work, sent to the Centennial exhibition of 1876; "The Old Arrow-Maker and his Daughter," "Hagar," "Rebecca at the Well," and portrait busts of Henry W. Longfellow, Charles Sumner, John Brown, and Abraham Lincoln. The last mentioned work is in the San Jose library, California.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 702.

LEWIS, Edward Parke Custis, diplomatist, born in Audley, Clarke County, Virginia, 7 February, 1837, was educated at the University of Virginia, and studied law, but subsequently engaged in planting. He served throughout the Civil War in the Confederate Army, rising to the rank of colonel, and for fifteen months was a prisoner of war. He settled in Hoboken, New Jersey, in 1875, served in the legislature in 1877, was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1880, and in 1885 was appointed by President Cleveland U. S. minister to Portugal.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.

LEWIS, Enoch, 1776-1856, mathematician, educator, publisher, African Observer, Society of Friends, Quaker, Wilmington, Delaware, moderate abolitionist, editor, anti-slavery monthly, the African Observer. Organized Free Produce Society of Pennsylvania. (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 703; Drake, 1950, pp. 118, 132, 145, 171-173; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 211)

LEWIS, Enoch,
mathematician, born in Radnor, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, 29 Jan., 1776; died in Philadelphia, 14 June, 1856. He belonged to the Society of Friends. He early exhibited a talent for mathematics, at the age of fourteen was usher in a country school, and at fifteen became principal. In the autumn of 1792 he moved to Philadelphia, studied mathematics, teaching half of each day to earn his support, and in 1795 was engaged as a surveyor in laying out towns in western Pennsylvania. He was in charge of the mathematical department in the Friends' academy in Philadelphia, in 1796-'9, subsequently was mathematical tutor at the Westtown, Pennsylvania, school, and in 1808 opened a private school for mathematical students, which he successfully taught for several years. He edited several mathematical works, with notes, and about 1819 published a treatise on arithmetic that was followed by one on algebra, and by a work on plane and spherical trigonometry. In 1827 he became editor of a monthly called “The African Observer,” which continued only one year, and from 1847 till his death he was in charge of “The Friends' Review.” His publications include a “Life of Penn” in the “Friends' Library,” treatises on “Oaths” and on “Baptism,” and a “Vindication of the Society of Friends,” in answer to Dr. Samuel H. Cox's “Quakerism not Christianity.” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 703.

LEWIS, Evan, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Wilmington, Society of Friends, Quaker, radical abolitionist.  Vice president, 1833-1835, and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society, president of the Anti-Slavery Convention of 1833 (Drake, 1950, pp. 130, 140, 145; Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833)

LEWIS, Graceanna, 1821-1912, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, educator, naturalist, illustrator, social reformer.  Society of Friends, Quaker, wrote “An Appeal to Those Members of the Society of Friends, who Knowing the Principles of the Abolitionist, Stand Aloof from the Anti-Slavery Enterprise,” 1846.  Lewis was active in anti-slavery, temperance and women’s suffrage movements.  Hid and protected fugitive slaves in her home in the Underground Railroad. (Drake, 1950, p. 179; National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1899)

LEWIS, John Francis, senator, born near Port Republic, Virginia, 1 March, 1818. He was engaged in planting for many years, was a delegate to the Virginia Convention of 1861, and the only member from east of the Alleghanies that refused to sign the ordinance of secession. He was an unsuccessful Union candidate for Congress in 1865, and in 1869 was nominated for lieutenant-governor by the True Republican Party on the ticket with Gilbert C. Walker, and elected by 20,000 majority. The same year he was elected to the United States Senate as a Republican, serving from 1870 till 1875.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 705.

LEWIS, William Berkeley, politician, born in Loudon County, Virginia, in 1784; died near Nashville, Tennessee., 14 November, 186. He moved to Tennessee early in life and settled near Nashville. He was quartermaster under General Andrew Jackson in the war of 1812, served through the Creek Campaign, and formed a friendship with Jackson (q. v.) that had much to do with bringing the latter forward as a candidate for the presidency in 1821. On his election, Lewis accompanied Jackson to Washington, prepared in part his inaugural address, and became one of his family, holding the office of auditor of the treasury. Lewis was conversant with all the purposes of the administration, assisted in establishing the " Globe " in 1830, and prepared accounts of the feud between Jackson and Calhoun, for which, with Amos Kendall, he was partially responsible, and of the removal of the bank deposits. After leaving Washington in 1845 he lived in retirement on his estate near Nashville until shortly after the Civil War, when he served one term in the legislature. He was a Union man, and after the occupation of Nashville by the National troops exercised a pacific influence there. See " Life of Andrew Jackson." bv James Parton (New York, 1861).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 707.

LEWIS, William David, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1828; died there, 19 January, 1872, was active in the Philadelphia militia previous to the Civil War, and at the first call for volunteers served three months as colonel of the 18th Pennsylvania Regiment, subsequently becoming colonel of the 110th Pennsylvania Volunteers. He participated in the battle of Winchester and others of that campaign, and in March, 1865, was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 707.

LIEBER, Francis, publicist, born in Berlin, Germany, 18 March, 1800; died in New York City, 2 October, 1872. His father, William, was engaged in commerce, and suffered heavy losses during the Napoleonic wars of 1789-1815. The son had begun the study of medicine when, in 1815, he joined the Prussian Army as a volunteer, fought at Ligny and Waterloo, and was severely wounded in the assault of Namur. At the close of the campaign he returned to his studies and entered the gymnasium of Berlin, but was arrested as a Liberal and confined several months in prison. After his discharge, without a trial he was prohibited from studying in the Prussian universities, and accordingly went to Jena, where he took his degrees in 1820, but was again persecuted as a member of a students' society. He then went to Halle; but, being subject to surveillance, he sought refuge in Dresden, and afterward took part in the Greek revolution. He spent one year, in 1822-3, in Rome in the family of Niebuhr then Prussian ambassador, as tutor to his son. While there he wrote in German a journal of his sojourn in Greece under the title of "The German Anacharsis" (Leipsic, 1823). With the king's promise of protection he returned to Berlin in 1824, and went to the University of Halle, but was again imprisoned at Kopeniek, where he wrote a collection of poems entitled "Wein-und Wonne-Lieder," which on his release, through the influence of Niebuhr, were published under the pen-name of " Franz Arnold (Berlin, 1824). Annoyed by persecutions, he tied to England in 1825, and supported himself for a year in London, giving lessons and contributing to German periodicals. He also wrote a tract on the Lancasterian system of instruction. In 1827 he came to this country and lectured on history and politics in the large cities. He settled in Boston, where he edited the ' Encyclopaedia Americana," based on Brockhaus's "Conversations-Lexicon" (13 vols., Philadelphia, 1829-'33). At this time he made translations of a French work on the revolution of July, 1830, and of the life of Kaspar Hauser by Feuerbach. In 1832 he received a commission from the trustees of the newly founded Girard College to form a plan of education (Philadelphia, 1834). He resided in Philadelphia from 1833 till 1835, when he accepted the professorship of history and political economy in the University of South Carolina, Columbia, remaining there until 1855, when he was appointed to the same chair in Columbia College, New York. He held this until 1865, and in 1860 became also professor of political science in the law-school of that institution, which post he held until his death. His inaugural address as professor at Columbia, on "Individualism; and Socialism, or Communism," was published by the college. As early as 1851 he delivered an address in South Carolina warning the southern states against secession, and during the Civil War was active in upholding the Union, frequently being summoned to Washington by the Secretary of War for consultation on important subjects. In 1863 he was one of the founders of the " Loyal Publication Society," of which he served as president. More than one hundred pamphlets were issued by it under his supervision, of which ten were by himself. His "Guerrilla Parties considered with reference to the Law and Usages of War," written at the request of General Halleck, was often quoted in Europe during the Franco-German war: and his "Instructions for the Government of the Armies of the United States in the Field" (Washington, 18(53) was ordered by President Lincoln to be promulgated in the general orders of the war department, and has formed the basis for many later European codes. In 1805 he was appointed superintendent of a bureau in Washington that had for its object the collection, arrangement, and preservation of the records of the Confederate government, and in 1870 he was chosen by the United States and Mexico as final arbitrator in important disputes between the two countries, which work was not completed at his death.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 709-710.

LIEBER, Oscar Montgomery, geologist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 8 September, 1830; died in Richmond, Virginia. 27 June, 1862, was educated at Berlin, Gottingen, and Freiburg. He was state geologist of Mississippi in 1850-'l, engaged in the geological survey of Alabama in 1854-'5, and from 1856 till 1860 held the office of mineralogical, geological, and agricultural surveyor of South Carolina. His first annual report of the last-mentioned survey was published in 1857, and the fourth and last in 1860. In 1860 he accompanied the American Astronomical Expedition to Labrador as geologist. At the beginning of the Civil War he joined the Confederate Army, and died of wounds that he received in the battle of Williamsburg. He was the author of "The Assayer's Guide" (Philadelphia, 1862); "The Analytical Chemist's Assistant," translated from the German of Wohler's " Beispiele zur Uebung in der analytischen Chemie," with an introduction (1852), and various articles on mining in this country in the New York " Mining Magazine."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 711

LIEBER, Hamilton, born in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania, 7 June, 1835; died in Baden-Baden, Germany, 18 October, 1876, entered the volunteer army at the beginning of the Civil War as 1st lieutenant, 9th Illinois Regiment, and was badly wounded at Fort Donelson. Afterward he was appointed a captain in the veteran reserve corps, and served during the draft riots in New York City in 1863. In 1866 he was made a captain and military storekeeper in the regular army, and was retired on account of disabilities contracted in the line of duty.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 711.

LIEBER, Guido Norman, born in Columbia, South Carolina, 21 May, 1837, was graduated at the University of South Carolina in 1856, and at Harvard law-school in 1859, and in that year was admitted to the bar of New York. At the beginning of the Civil War he became 1st lieutenant in the 11th Infantry, U. S. Army, and was appointed regimental adjutant, and served during the Peninsular Campaign under McClellan, being brevetted captain for gallantry at the battle of Gaines's Mills, 27 June, 1862. He was with his regiment at the second battle of Bull Run, Virginia, 27 August, 1862, being then appointed aide-de-camp to the general-in-chief. In 1862 he was appointed major and judge-advocate, and he served in this capacity in the Department of the Gulf, being present in the Teche and Red River Campaigns. For gallantry during the latter he received another brevet, and he was brevetted a third time for services during the war. He also served as adjutant-general of the department, and as judge of the provost court in New Orleans. He was then transferred to the judge-advocate-general's office in Washington, and subsequently appointed assistant to his father. Dr. Francis Lieber, in the Bureau of Confederate Archives. He afterward served as judge-advocate of various military departments and divisions, being, when stationed in New York, one of the founders of the Military Service Institution. He was professor of law at the U. S. Military Academy from 1878 till 1882, when he was assigned to duty in Washington in the Bureau of Military Justice. In 1884 he was appointed assistant judge-advocate-general, with the rank of colonel, and he has since then been on duty as acting judge-advocate-general of the army.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 711.

LIGHTBURN, Joseph Andrew Jackson, soldier, born in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, 21 September, 1824. He received a common-school education, moved to western Virginia, and represented Lewis County in the convention that reorganized the state government in 1861. He organized the 4th Virginia Regiment of the National Army, was made its colonel, 14 August, 1861, and in 1862 commanded the District of the Kanawha. He conducted the retreat from Kanawha Valley in September of that year, and was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers, 16 March, 1863. He then took part in the siege and capture of Vicksburg, and the battle of Missionary Ridge, and was with Sherman in his campaign to Atlanta, where in August, 1864, he received a gun-shot wound in the head. After his recovery he led a brigade in Shenandoah valley, and was then president of an examining board 22 June, 1865, when he resigned his commission. In 1866-'7 he was a member of the West Virginia legislature.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 711

LINCOLN, Abraham, 1809-1865, 16th President of the United States (1861-1865), opponent of slavery.  Issued Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863, freeing slaves in southern states.  By the end of the Civil War, more than four million slaves were liberated from bondage.  (Basler, Ed., The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, New Jersey, Rutgers University, 1953, 9 Vols.; Dumond, 1961, pp. 224-225, 356; Miers, E. S., Lincoln Day by Day – A Chronology, Vols. 1-3; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 65, 66, 140, 241-243, 275, 368-370, 385, 690-691; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 715-727; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 242; National Archives and Records Administration [NARA], College Park, Maryland; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 13, p. 662)

LINCOLN, Abraham,
sixteenth president of the United States, born in Hardin County, Kentucky, 12 Feb., 1809; died in Washington, D. C., 15 April, 1865. His earliest ancestor in America seems to have been Samuel Lincoln, of Norwich, England, who settled in Hingham, Massachusetts, where he died, leaving a son, Mordecai, whose son of the same name moved to Monmouth, New Jersey, and thence to Berks County, Pennsylvania, dying there in 1735. He was a man of some property, which at his death was divided among his sons and daughters, one of whom, John Lincoln, having disposed of his land in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, established himself in Rockingham County, Virginia. The records of that county show that he was possessed of a valuable estate, which was divided among five sons, one of whom, named Abraham, emigrated to Kentucky about 1780. At this time Daniel Boone was engaged in those labors and exploits in the new country of Kentucky that have rendered his name illustrious; and there is no doubt that Abraham Lincoln was induced by his friendship for Boone to give up what seems to have been an assured social position in Virginia and take his family to share with him the risks and hardships of life in the new territory. The families of Boone and Lincoln had been closely allied for many years. Several marriages had taken place between them, and their names occur in each other's wills as friends and executors. The pioneer Lincoln, who took with him what for the time and place was a sufficient provision in money, the result of the sale of his property in Virginia, acquired by means of cash and land-warrants a large estate in Kentucky, as is shown by the records of Jefferson and Campbell counties. About 1784 he was killed by Indians while working with his three sons—Mordecai, Josiah, and Thomas—in clearing the forest. His widow moved after his death to Washington County, and there brought up her family. The two elder sons became reputable citizens, and the two daughters married in a decent condition of life. Thomas, the youngest son, seems to have been below the average of the family in enterprise and other qualities that command success. He learned the trade of a carpenter, and married, 12 June, 1806, Nancy Hanks, a niece of the man with whom he learned his trade. She is represented, by those who knew her at the time of her marriage, as a handsome young woman of twenty-three, of appearance and intellect superior to her lowly fortunes. The young couple began housekeeping with little means. Three children were born to them; the first, a girl, who grew to maturity, married, and died, leaving no children; the third a boy, who died in infancy; the second was Abraham Lincoln. Thomas Lincoln remained in Kentucky until 1816, when he resolved to remove to the still newer country of Indiana, and settled in a rich and fertile forest country near Little Pigeon creek, not far distant from the Ohio River. The family suffered from diseases incident to pioneer life, and Mrs. Lincoln died in 1818 at the age of thirty-five. Thomas Lincoln, while on a visit to Kentucky, married a worthy, industrious, and intelligent widow named Sarah Bush Johnston. She was a woman of admirable order and system in her habits, and brought to the home of the pioneer in the Indiana timber many of the comforts of civilized life. The neighborhood was one of the roughest. The president once said of it: “It was a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods, and there were some schools, so called; but no qualification was ever required of a teacher beyond readin’, writin’, and cipherin’ to the rule of three. If a straggler supposed to understand Latin happened to sojourn in the neighborhood, he was looked upon as a wizard. There was absolutely nothing to excite ambition for education.” But in spite of this the boy Abraham made the best use of the limited opportunities afforded him, and learned all that the half-educated backwoods teachers could impart; and besides this he read over and over all the books he could find. He practised constantly the rules of arithmetic, which he had acquired at school, and began, even in his early childhood, to put in writing his recollections of what he had read and his impressions of what he saw about him. By the time he was nineteen years of age he had acquired a remarkably clear and serviceable handwriting, and showed sufficient business capacity to be intrusted with a cargo of farm products, which he took to New Orleans and sold. In 1830 his father emigrated once more, to Macon County, Ill. Lincoln had by this time attained his extraordinary stature of six feet four inches, and with it enormous muscular strength, which was at once put at the disposal of his father in building his cabin, clearing the field, and splitting from the walnut forests, which were plentiful in that county, the rails with which the farm was fenced. Thomas Lincoln, however, soon deserted this new home, his last migration being to Goose Nest Prairie, in Coles County, where he died in 1851, seventy-three years of age. In his last days he was tenderly cared for by his son. 
Abraham Lincoln left his father's house as soon as the farm was fenced and cleared, hired himself to a man named Denton Offutt, in Sangamon County, assisted him to build a fiat-boat, accompanied him to New Orleans on a trading voyage, and returned with him to New Salem, in Menard County, where Offutt opened a store for the sale of general merchandise. Little was accomplished in this way, and Lincoln employed his too abundant leisure in constant reading and study. He learned during this time the elements of English grammar, and made a beginning in the study of surveying and the principles of law. But the next year an Indian war began, occasioned by the return of Black Hawk with his bands of Sacs and Foxes from Iowa to Illinois. Lincoln volunteered in a company raised in Sangamon County, and was immediately elected captain.
His company was organized at Richland on 21 April, 1832; but his service in command of it was brief, for it was mustered out on 27 May. Lincoln immediately re-enlisted as a private, and served for several weeks in that capacity, being finally mustered out on 16 June, 1832, by Lieutenant Robert Anderson, who afterward commanded Fort Sumter at the beginning of the civil war. He returned home and began a hasty canvass for election to the legislature. His name had been announced in the spring before his enlistment; but now only ten days were left before the election, which took place in August. In spite of these disadvantages, he made a good race and was far from the foot of the poll. Although he was defeated, he gained the almost unanimous vote of his own neighborhood, New Salem giving him 277 votes against 3. He now began to look about him for employment, and for a time thought seriously of learning the trade of a blacksmith; but an opportunity presented itself to buy the only store in the settlement, which he did, giving his notes for the whole amount involved. He was associated with an idle and dissolute partner, and the business soon went to wreck, leaving Lincoln burdened with a debt which it required several years of frugality and industry for him to meet; but it was finally paid in full. After this failure he devoted himself with the greatest earnestness and industry to the study of law. He was appointed postmaster of New Salem in 1833, an office which he held for three years. The emoluments of the place were very slight, but it gave him opportunities for reading. At the same time he was appointed deputy to John Calhoun, the county surveyor, and, his modest wants being supplied by these two functions, he gave his remaining leisure unreservedly to the study of law and politics. He was a candidate for the legislature in August, 1834, and was elected this time at the head of the list. He was re-elected in 1836, 1838, and 1840, after which he declined further election. After entering the legislature, he did not return to New Salem, but, having by this time attained some proficiency in the law, he moved to Springfield, where he went into partnership with John T. Stuart, whose acquaintance he had begun in the Black Hawk war and continued at Vandalia. He took rank from the first among the leading members of the legislature. He was instrumental in having the state capital moved from Vandalia to Springfield, and during his eight years of service his ability, industry, and weight of character gained him such standing among his associates that in his last two terms he was the candidate of his party for the speakership of the House of Representatives. In 1846 he was elected to Congress, his opponent being the Reverend Peter Cartwright. The most important congressional measure with which his name was associated during his single term of service was a scheme for the emancipation of the slaves in the District of Columbia, which in the prevailing temper of the time was refused consideration by Congress. He was not a candidate for re-election, but for the first and only time in his life he applied for an executive appointment, the commissionership of the general land-office. The place was given to another man, but President Taylor's administration offered Mr. Lincoln the governorship of the territory of Oregon, which he declined.  Mr. Lincoln had by this time become the most influential exponent of the principles of the Whig Party in Illinois, and his services were in request in every campaign. After his return from Congress he devoted himself with great assiduity and success to the practice of law, and speedily gained a commanding position at the bar. As he says himself, he was losing his interest in politics when the repeal of the Missouri Compromise aroused him again. The profound agitation of the question of slavery, which in 1854 followed the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, awakened all the energies of Lincoln's nature. He regarded this act, in which Senator Douglas was the most prominent agent of the reactionary party, as a gross breach of faith, and began at once a series of earnest political discussions which immediately placed him at the head of the party that, not only in Illinois but throughout the west, was speedily formed to protest against and oppose the throwing open of the territories to the encroachments of slavery. The legislature elected in Illinois in the heat of this discussion contained a majority of members opposed to the policy of Douglas. The duty of selecting a senator in place of General Shields, whose term was closing, devolved upon this legislature, and Mr. Lincoln was the unanimous choice of the Whig members. But they did not command a clear majority of the legislature. There were four members of Democratic antecedents who, while they were ardently opposed to the extension of slavery, were not willing to cast their votes for a Whig candidate, and adhered tenaciously through several ballots to Lyman Trumbull, a Democrat of their own way of thinking. Lincoln, fearing that this dissension among the anti-slavery men might result in the election of a supporter of Douglas, urged his friends to go over in a body to the support of Trumbull, and his influence was sufficient to accomplish this result. Trumbull was elected, and for many years served the Republican cause in the senate with ability and zeal. 
As soon as the Republican Party became fully organized in the nation, embracing in its ranks the anti-slavery members of the old Whig and Democratic parties, Mr. Lincoln, by general consent, took his place at the head of the party in Illinois; and when, in 1858, Senator Douglas sought a re-election to the senate, the Republicans with one voice selected Mr. Lincoln as his antagonist. He had already made several speeches of remarkable eloquence and power against the pro-slavery reaction of which the Nebraska bill was the significant beginning, and when Mr. Douglas returned to Illinois to begin his canvass for the senate, he was challenged by Mr. Lincoln to a series of joint discussions. The challenge was accepted, and the most remarkable oratorical combat the state has ever witnessed took place between them during the summer. Mr. Douglas defended his thesis of non-intervention with slavery in the territories (the doctrine known as “popular sovereignty,” and derided as “squatter sovereignty”) with remarkable adroitness and energy. The ground that Mr. Lincoln took was higher and bolder than had yet been assumed by any American statesman of his time. In the brief and sententious speech in which he accepted the championship of his party, before the Republican Convention of 16 June, 1858, he uttered the following pregnant and prophetic words: “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.
I do not expect the Union to be dissolved; I do not expect the house to fall; but I do expect that it will cease to be divided. It will become all the one thing or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in course of ultimate extinction, or its advocates will push it forward until it shall become alike lawful in all the states, old as well as new, north as well as south.” This bold utterance excited the fears of his timid friends, and laid him open to the hackneyed and conventional attacks of the supporters of slavery; but throughout the contest, while he did not for an instant lower this lofty tone of opposition to slavery and hope of its extinction, he refused to be crowded by the fears of his friends or the denunciations of his enemies away from the strictly constitutional ground upon which his opposition was made. The debates between him and Senator Douglas aroused extraordinary interest throughout the state and the country. The men were perhaps equally matched in oratorical ability and adroitness in debate, but Lincoln's superiority in moral insight, and especially in farseeing political sagacity, soon became apparent. The most important and significant of the debates was that which took place at Freeport. Mr. Douglas had previously asked Mr. Lincoln a series of questions intended to embarrass him, which Lincoln without the slightest reserve answered by a categorical yes or no. At Freeport, Lincoln, taking his turn, inquired of Douglas whether the people of a territory could in any lawful way, against the wish of any citizen of the United States, exclude slavery from its limits prior to the formation of a state constitution. By his reply, intimating that slavery might be excluded by unfriendly territorial legislation, Douglas gained a momentary advantage in the anti-slavery region in which he spoke, but dealt a fatal blow to his popularity in the south; the result of which was seen two years afterward at the Charleston Convention. The ground assumed by Senator Douglas was, in fact, utterly untenable, and Lincoln showed this in one of his terse sentences. “Judge Douglas holds,” he said, “that a thing may lawfully be driven away from a place where it has a lawful right to go.” 
This debate established the reputation of Mr. Lincoln as one of the leading orators of the Republican Party of the Union, and a speech that he delivered at Cooper Institute, in New York, on 27 Feb., 1860, in which he showed that the unbroken record of the founders of the republic was in favor of the restriction of slavery and against its extension, widened and confirmed his reputation; so that when the Republican Convention came together in Chicago in May, 1860, he was nominated for the presidency on the third ballot, over William H. Seward, who was his principal competitor. The Democratic Convention, which met in Charleston, South Carolina, broke up after numerous fruitless ballotings, and divided into two sections. The southern half, unable to trust
Mr. Douglas with the interests of slavery after his Freeport speech, first adjourned to Richmond, but again joined the other half at Baltimore, where a second disruption took place, after which the southern half nominated John C. Breckinridge, of Kentucky, and the northern portion nominated Mr. Douglas. John Bell, of Tennessee, was nominated by the so-called Constitutional Union Party. Lincoln, therefore, supported by the entire anti-slavery sentiment of the north, gained an easy victory over the three other parties. The election took place on 6 Nov., and when the electoral college cast their votes Lincoln was found to have 180, Breckinridge 72, Bell 39, and Douglas 12. The popular vote stood: for Lincoln 1,866,462; for Douglas, 1,375,157; for Breckinridge, 847,953; for Bell, 590,631. 
The extreme partisans of slavery had not even waited for the election of Lincoln, to begin their preparations for an insurrection, and as soon as the result was declared a movement for separation was begun in South Carolina, and it carried along with her the states of Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. A provisional government, styled the “Confederate States of America,” of which Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, was made president, was promptly organized, and seized, with few exceptions, all the posts, arsenals, and public property of the United States within their limits. Confronted by this extraordinary crisis, Mr. Lincoln kept his own counsel, and made no public expression of his intentions or his policy until he was inaugurated on 4 March, 1861. 
He called about him a cabinet of the most prominent members of the anti-slavery parties of the nation, giving no preference to any special faction. His Secretary of State was William H. Seward, of New York, who had been his principal rival for the nomination, and whose eminence and abilities designated him as the leading member of the administration; the Secretary of the Treasury was Salmon P. Chase, of Ohio, whose pre-eminence in the west was as unquestioned as Seward's in the east; of war, Simon Cameron, of Pennsylvania, the most influential politician of that state; of the U.S. Navy, Gideon Welles, of Connecticut; of the interior, Caleb B. Smith, of Indiana; the border slave-states were represented in the government by Edward Bates, of Missouri, Attorney-General, and Montgomery Blair, of Maryland, postmaster-general—both of them men of great distinction of character and high standing as lawyers. Seward, Smith, and Bates were of Whig antecedents; all the rest of Democratic. The cabinet underwent, in the course of Mr. Lincoln's term, the following modifications: Secretary Chase, after a brilliant administration of the finances, resigned in 1864 from personal reasons, and was succeeded by William P. Fessenden, of Maine; Secretary Cameron left the war department at the close of the year 1861, and was appointed minister to Russia, and his place was taken by Edwin M. Stanton, a war Democrat of singular energy and vigor, and equal ability and devotion; Secretary Smith, accepting a judgeship, gave way to John P. Usher, of Indiana; Attorney-General Bates resigned in the last year of the administration, and was succeeded by James Speed, of Kentucky; and Postmaster-General Blair about the same time gave way to William Dennison, of Ohio. 
In his inaugural address, President Lincoln treated the acts of secession as a nullity. He declared the Union perpetual and inviolate, and announced with perfect firmness, though with the greatest moderation of speech and feeling, the intention of the government to maintain its authority and to hold the places under its jurisdiction. He made an elaborate and unanswerable argument against the legality as well as the justice of secession, and further showed, with convincing clearness, that peaceful secession was impossible. “Can aliens make treaties,” he said, “easier than friends can make laws? Can treaties be more faithfully enforced between aliens than laws can among friends? Suppose you go to war; you cannot fight always, and when, after much loss on both sides and no gain on either, you cease fighting, the identical old questions as to terms of intercourse are again upon you.” He pleaded for peace in a strain of equal tenderness and dignity, and in closing he said: “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have a most solemn one to preserve, protect, and defend it.” This speech profoundly affected the public opinion of the north; but in the excited state of sentiment that then controlled the south it naturally met only contempt and defiance in that section. A few weeks later the inevitable war began, in an attack upon Fort Sumter by the secessionists of South Carolina under General G. T. Beauregard, and after a long bombardment the fort surrendered on 13 April, 1861. The president instantly called for a force of 75,000 three-months' militiamen, and three weeks later ordered the enlistment of 64,000 soldiers and 18,000 seamen for three years. He set on foot a blockade of the southern ports, and called Congress together in special session, choosing for their day of meeting the 4th of July. The remaining states of the south rapidly arrayed themselves on one side or the other; all except Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri were drawn into the secession movement, and the western part of Virginia, adhering to the Union, under the name of West Virginia, separated itself from that ancient commonwealth. 
The first important battle of the war took place at Bull Run. near Manassas Station, Va., 21 July, 1861, and resulted in the defeat of the National troops under General Irwin McDowell by a somewhat larger force of the Confederates under Generals Joseph E. Johnston and Beauregard. Though the loss in killed and wounded was not great, and was about the same on both sides, the victory was still one of the utmost importance for the Confederates, and gave them a great increase of prestige on both sides of the Atlantic. They were not, however, able to pursue their advantage. The summer was passed in enlisting, drilling, and equipping a formidable National Army on the banks of the Potomac, which was given in charge of General George B. McClellan, a young officer who had distinguished himself by a successful campaign in western Virginia. In spite of the urgency of the government, which was increased by the earnestness of the people and their representatives in Congress, General McClellan made no advance until the spring of 1862, when General Johnston, in command of the Confederate Army, evacuated the position which, with about 45,000 men, he had held during the autumn and winter against the Army of the Potomac, amounting to about 177,000 effectives. General McClellan then transferred his army to the peninsula between the James and York Rivers. Although there was but a force of 16,000 opposed to him when he landed, he spent a month before the works at Yorktown, and when he was prepared to open fire upon them they were evacuated, and General Johnston retreated to the neighborhood of Richmond. The battle of Seven Pines, in which the Confederates, successful in their first attack, were afterward repelled, was fought on 31 May, 1862. Johnston was wounded, and the command devolved upon General Robert E, Lee, who in the latter part of June moved out from his position before Richmond and attacked McClellan's right flank, under General Fitz-John Porter, at Gaines's Mills, north of the Chickahominy. Porter, with one corps, resisted the Confederate Army all day with great gallantry, unassisted by the main army under McClellan, but withdrew in the evening, and McClellan at once began his retreat to the James River. Several battles were fought on the way, in which the Confederates were checked; but the retreat continued until the National Army reached the James. Taking position at Malvern Hill, they inflicted a severe defeat upon General Lee, but were immediately after withdrawn by General McClellan to Harrison's Landing. Here, as at other times during his career, McClellan labored under a strange hallucination as to the numbers of his enemy. He generally estimated them at not less than twice their actual force, and continually reproached the president for not giving him impossible re-enforcements to equal the imaginary numbers he thought opposed to him. In point of fact, his army was always in excess of that of Johnston or Lee. The continual disasters in the east were somewhat compensated by a series of brilliant successes in the west. In February, 1862, General Ulysses S. Grant had captured the Confederate forts Henry and Donelson, thus laying open the great strategic lines of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers, and, moving southward, had fought (6 and 7 April) the battle of Shiloh, with unfavorable results on the first day, which were turned to a victory on the second with the aid of General D. C. Buell and his army, a battle in which General Albert Sidney Johnston was killed and the Confederate invasion of Kentucky baffled. Farragut, on 24 April, had won a brilliant naval victory over the twin forts above the mouths of the Mississippi, which resulted in the capture of New Orleans and the control of the lower Mississippi. After General McClellan's retreat to the James, the president visited the army at Harrison's Landing (8 July), and, after careful consultations with the corps commanders, became convinced that in the actual disposition of the officers and the troops there was no reasonable expectation of a successful movement upon Richmond by McClellan. An order was therefore issued for the withdrawal of the Army from the James, and, General Halleck having been appointed general-in-chief, General Pope was sent forward from Washington with a small force to delay the Confederate Army under General Lee unti1 the Army of the Potomac could arrive and be concentrated to support him. McClellan's movements, however, were so deliberate, and there was such a want of confidence and co-operation on the part of his officers toward General Pope, that the National Army met with a decisive defeat on the same battle-field of Bull Run that saw their first disaster. General Pope, disheartened by the lack of sympathy and support that he discerned among the most eminent officers of the Army of the Potomac, retreated upon Washington, and General McClellan, who seemed to be the only officer under whom the army was at the moment willing to serve, was placed in command of it. General Lee, elated with his success, crossed the Potomac, but was met by the army under McClellan at South Mountain and Antietam, and after two days of great slaughter Lee retreated into Virginia. 
President Lincoln availed himself of this occasion to give effect to a resolve that had long been maturing in his mind in an act the most momentous in its significance and results that the century has witnessed. For a year and a half  he had been subjected to urgent solicitations from the two great political parties of the country, the one side appealing to him to take decided measures against slavery, and the other imploring him to pursue a conservative course in regard to that institution. His deep-rooted detestation of the system of domestic servitude was no secret to any one; but his reverence for the law, his regard for vested interests, and his anxiety to do nothing that should alienate any considerable body of the supporters of the government, had thus far induced him to pursue a middle course between the two extremes. Meanwhile the power of events had compelled a steady progress in the direction of emancipation. So early as August, 1861, Congress had passed an act to confiscate the rights of slave-owners in slaves employed in a manner hostile to the Union, and General Frémont had seized the occasion of the passage of this act to issue an order to confiscate and emancipate the slaves of rebels in the state of Missouri. President Lincoln, unwilling, in a matter of such transcendent importance, to leave the initiative to any subordinate, revoked this order, and directed General Frémont to modify it so that it should conform to the confiscation act of Congress. This excited violent opposition to the president among the radical anti-slavery men in Missouri and elsewhere, while it drew upon him the scarcely less embarrassing importunities of the conservatives, who wished him to take still more decided ground against the radicals. On 6 March, 1862, he sent a special message to Congress inclosing a resolution, the passage of which he recommended, to offer pecuniary aid from the general government to states that should adopt the gradual abolishment of slavery. This resolution was promptly passed by Congress; but in none of the slave-states was public sentiment sufficiently advanced to permit them to avail themselves of it. The next month, however, Congress passed a law emancipating slaves in the District of Columbia, with compensation to owners, and President Lincoln had the happiness of affixing his signature to a measure that he had many years before, while a representative from Illinois, fruitlessly urged upon the notice of Congress. As the war went on, wherever the National armies penetrated there was a constant stream of fugitive slaves from the adjoining regions, and the commanders of each department treated the complicated questions arising from this body of “contrabands”, as they came to be called, in their camps, according to their own judgment of the necessities or the expediencies of each case, a discretion which the president thought best to tolerate. But on 9 May, 1862, General David Hunter, an intimate and esteemed friend of Mr. Lincoln's, saw proper, without consultation with him, to issue a military order declaring all persons theretofore held as slaves in Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina forever free. The president, as soon as he received this order, issued a proclamation declaring it void, and reserving to himself the decision of the question whether it was competent for him, as commander-in-chief of the army and navy, to declare the slaves of any state or states free, and whether at any time or in any case it should have become a necessity indispensable to the maintenance of the government to exercise such supposed power, and prohibiting to commanders in the field the decision of such questions. But he added in his proclamation a significant warning and appeal to the slave-holding states, urging once more upon them the policy of emancipation by state action. “I do not argue,” he said; “I beseech you to make the argument for yourselves. You cannot, if you would, be blind to the signs of the times. I beg of you a calm and enlarged consideration of them, ranging, if it may be, far above personal and partisan politics. This proposal makes common cause for a common object, casting no reproaches upon any. . . . Will you not embrace it? So much good has not been done, by one effort, in all past time, as in the providence of God it is now your high privilege to do. May the vast future not have cause to lament that you have neglected it.” He had several times endeavored to bring this proposition before the members of Congress from the loyal slave-holding states, and on 12 July he invited them to meet him at the executive mansion, and submitted to them a powerful and urgent appeal to induce their states to adopt the policy of compensated emancipation. Be told then, without reproach or complaint, that he believed that if they had all voted for the resolution in the gradual emancipation message of the preceding March, the war would now have been substantially ended, and that the plan therein proposed was still one of the most potent and swift means of ending it. “Let the states,” he said, “which are in rebellion see definitely and certainly that in no event will the states you represent ever join their proposed confederacy, and they cannot much longer maintain the contest.” While urging this policy upon the conservatives, and while resolved in his own mind upon emancipation by decree as a last resource, he was the subject of vehement attacks from the more radical anti-slavery supporters of the government, to which he replied with unfailing moderation and good temper. Although in July he had resolved upon his course, and had read to his cabinet a draft of a proclamation of emancipation which he had then laid aside for a more fitting occasion (on the suggestion from Mr. Seward that its issue in the disastrous condition of our military affairs would be interpreted as a sign of desperation), he met the reproaches of the radical Republicans, the entreaties of visiting delegations, and the persuasions of his eager friends with arguments showing both sides of the question of which they persisted in seeing only one. To Horace Greeley, on 22 Aug., Mr. Lincoln said: “My paramount object is to save the Union, and not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.” And even so late as 13 Sept. he said to a delegation of a religious society, who were urging immediate action: I do not want to issue a document that the whole world will see must necessarily be inoperative, like the pope's bull against the comet .
. .  I view this matter as a practical war measure, to be decided on according to the advantages or disadvantages it may offer to the suppression of the rebellion.” Still, he assured them that he had not decided against a proclamation of liberty to the slaves, but that the matter occupied his deepest thoughts. The retreat of Lee from Maryland after his defeat at Antietam seemed to the president to afford a proper occasion for the execution of his long-matured resolve, and on 22 Sept. he issued his preliminary proclamation, giving notice to the states in rebellion that, on 1 Jan., 1863, all persons held as slaves within any state or designated part of a state, the people whereof should then be in rebellion against the United States, should be then, thenceforward, and forever free. When Congress came together on 1 Dec. he urged them to supplement what had already been done by constitutional action, concluding his message with this impassioned appeal: “Fellow-citizens, we cannot escape history. We of this Congress and this administration will be remembered in spite of ourselves. No personal significance or insignificance can spare one or another of us. The fiery trial through which we pass will light us down in honor or dishonor to the latest generation. We even we here-hold the power and bear the responsibility. In giving freedom to the slave, we assure freedom to the free—honorable alike in what we give and what we preserve. We shall nobly save, or meanly lose, the last, best hope of earth. Other means may succeed; this could not fail. The way is plain, peaceful, generous, just a way which, if followed, the world will forever applaud, and God must forever bless.” It was hardly to be expected, however, that any action would be taken by Congress before the lapse of the hundred days that the president had left between his warning and its execution. On 1 Jan., 1863, the final proclamation of emancipation was issued. It recited the preliminary document, and then designated the states in rebellion against the United States. They were Arkansas, Texas, a part of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, excepting certain counties. The proclamation then continued: “I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated states and parts of states are, and henceforward shall be, free; and that the executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.” The criticisms and forebodings of the opponents of emancipation had well-nigh been exhausted during the previous three months, and the definitive proclamation was received with general enthusiasm throughout the loyal states. The dissatisfaction with which this important measure was regarded in the border states gradually died away, as did also the opposition in conservative quarters to the enlistment of Negro soldiers. Their good conduct, their quick submission to discipline, and their excellent behavior in several battles, rapidly made an end of the prejudice against them; and when, in the winter session of Congress of 1863-'4, Mr. Lincoln again urged upon the attention of that body the passage of a constitutional amendment abolishing slavery, his proposition met with the concurrence of a majority of Congress, though it failed of the necessary two-third vote in the House of Representatives. During the following year, however, public opinion made rapid progress, and the influence of the president with Congress was largely increased after his triumphant re-election. In his annual message of 6 Dec., 1864, he once more pleaded, this time with irresistible force, in favor of constitutional emancipation in all the states. As there had been much controversy during the year in regard to the president's anti-slavery convictions, and the suggestion had been made in many quarters that, for the sake of peace, he might be induced to withdraw the proclamation, he repeated the declaration made the year before: “While I remain in my present position I shall not attempt to retract or modify the emancipation proclamation; nor shall I return to slavery any person who is free by the terms of that proclamation or by any of the acts of Congress. If the people should, by whatever mode or means, make it an executive duty to re-enslave such persons, another, and not I, must be their instrument to perform it.” This time Congress acted with alacrity, and on 31 Jan., 1865, proposed to the states the 13th amendment to the constitution, providing that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. The states rapidly adopted the amendment by the action of their legislatures, and the president was especially pleased that his own state of Illinois led the van, having passed the necessary resolution within twenty-four hours. Before the year ended twenty-seven of the thirty-six states (being the necessary three fourths) had ratified the amendment, and President Johnson, on 18 Dec., 1865, officially proclaimed its adoption. 
While the energies of the government and of the people were most strenuously occupied with the war and the questions immediately concerning it, the four years of Mr. Lincoln's administration had their full share of complicated and difficult questions of domestic and foreign concern. The interior and post-office departments made great progress in developing the means of communication throughout the country. Mr. Chase, as Secretary of the Treasury, performed, with prodigious ability and remarkable success, the enormous duties devolving upon him of providing funds to supply the army at an expense amounting at certain periods to $3,000,000 a day; and Mr. Seward, in charge of the state department, held at bay the suppressed hostility of European nations. Of all his cabinet, the president sustained with Mr. Seward relations of the closest intimacy, and for that reason, perhaps, shared more directly in the labors of his department. He revised the first draft of most of Seward's important despatches, and changed and amended their language with remarkable wisdom and skill. He was careful to avoid all sources of controversy or ill-feeling with foreign nations, and when they occurred he did his best to settle them in the interests of peace, without a sacrifice of national dignity. At the end of the year 1861 the friendly relations between England and the United States were seriously threatened by the capture of the Confederate envoys, Mason and Slidell, on board a British merchant-ship. (See WILKES, CHARLES.) Public sentiment approved the capture, and, as far as could be judged by every manifestation in the press and in Congress, was in favor of retaining the prisoners and defiantly refusing the demand of England for their return. But when the president, after mature deliberation, decided that the capture was against American precedents, and directed their return to British custody, the second thought of the country was with him. His prudence and moderation were also conspicuously displayed in his treatment of the question of the invasion of Mexico by France, and the establishment by military power of the emperor Maximilian in that country. Accepting as genuine the protestations of the emperor of the French, that he intended no interference with the will of the people of Mexico, he took no measures unfriendly to France or the empire, except those involved in the maintenance of unbroken friendship with the republican government under President Juarez, a proceeding that, although severely criticised by the more ardent spirits in Congress, ended, after the president's death, in the triumph of the National Party in Mexico and the downfall of the invaders. He left no doubt, however, at any time, in regard to his own conviction that “the safety of the people of the United States and the cheerful destiny to which they aspire are intimately dependent upon the maintenance of free republican institutions throughout Mexico.” He dealt in a sterner spirit w
ith the proposition for foreign mediation that the emperor of the French, after seeking in vain the concurrence of other European powers, at last presented singly at the beginning of 1863. This proposition, under the orders of the president, was declined by Mr. Seward on 6 Feb., in a despatch of remarkable ability and dignity, which put an end to all discussion of overtures of intervention from European powers. The diplomatic relations with England were exceedingly strained at several periods during the war. The building and fitting out of Confederate cruisers in English ports, and their escape, after their construction and its purpose had been made known by the American minister, more than once brought the two nations to the verge of war; but the moderation with which the claims of the United States were made by Mr. Lincoln, the energy and ability displayed by Secretary Seward and by Mr. Charles Francis Adams in presenting these claims, and, it must now be recognized, the candor and honesty with which the matter was treated by Earl Russell, the British minister for foreign affairs, saved the two countries from that irreparable disaster; and the British government at last took such measures as were necessary to put an end to this indirect war from the shores of England upon American commerce. In the course of two years the war attained such proportions that volunteering was no longer a sufficient resource to keep the army, consisting at that time of nearly a million men, at its full fighting strength. Congress therefore authorized, and the departments executed, a scheme of enrolment and draft of the arms-bearing population of the loyal states. Violent opposition arose to this measure in many parts of the country, which was stimulated by the speeches of orators of the opposition, and led, in many instances, to serious breaches of the public peace. A frightful riot, beginning among the foreign population of New York, kept that city in disorder and terror for three days in July, 1863. But the riots were suppressed, the disturbances quieted at last, and the draft was executed throughout the country. Clement L. Vallandigham, of Ohio, one of the most eloquent and influential orators of the Democratic Party, was arrested in Ohio by General Burnside for his violent public utterances in opposition to the war, tried by a military court, and sentenced to imprisonment during the continuance of the war. The president changed his sentence to that of transportation within the lines of the rebellion. These proceedings caused a great ferment among his party in Ohio, who, by way of challenge to the government, nominated him for governor of that state. A committee of its prominent politicians demanded from the president his restoration to his political rights, and a correspondence took place between them and the president, in which the rights and powers of the government in case of rebellion were set forth by him with great lucidity and force. His letters exercised an important influence in the political discussions of the year, and Mr. Vallandigham was defeated in his candidacy by John Brough by a majority of 100,000 votes.
The war still continued at a rate that appears rapid enough in retrospect, but seemed slow to the eager spirits watching its course. The disasters of the Army of the Potomac did not end with the removal of General McClellan, which took place in November, 1862, as
a consequence of his persistent delay in pursuing Lee's retreating army after the battle of Antietam. General Burnside, who succeeded him, suffered a humiliating defeat in his attack upon the intrenched position of the Confederates at Fredericksburg. General Hooker, who next took command, after opening his campaign by crossing the Rapidan in a march of extraordinary brilliancy, was defeated at Chancellorsville, in a battle where both sides lost severely, and then retired again north of the river. General Lee, leaving the National Army on his right flank, crossed the Potomac, and Hooker having, at his own request, been relieved and succeeded by General Meade, the two armies met in a three days' battle at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, where General Lee sustained a decisive defeat, and was driven back into Virginia. His flight from Gettysburg began on the evening of the 4th of July, a day that in this year doubled its lustre as a historic anniversary. For on this day Vicksburg, the most important Confederate stronghold in the west, surrendered to General Grant. He had spent the early months of 1863 in successive attempts to take that fortress, all of which had failed; but on the last day of April he crossed the river at Grand Gulf, and within a few clays fought the successful battles of Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hills, and the Big Black River, and shut np the army of Pemberton in close siege in the city of Vicksburg, which he finally captured with about 30,000 men on the 4th of July. 
The speech that Mr. Lincoln delivered at the dedication of the National cemetery on the battlefield of Gettysburg, 19 Nov., 1863, was at once recognized as the philosophy in brief of the whole great struggle, and has already become classic. There are slightly differing versions; the one that is here given is a literal transcript of the speech as he afterward wrote it out for a fair in Baltimore: 
“Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” 
General Grant was transferred to Chattanooga, where, in November, with the troops of Thomas, Hooker, and Sherman, he won the important victory of Missionary Ridge; and then, being appointed lieutenant-general and general-in-chief of the armies of the United States, he went to Washington and entered upon the memorable campaign of 1864. This campaign began with revived hopes on the part of the government, the people, and the army. The president, glad that the army had now at its head a general in whose ability and enterprise he could thoroughly confide, ceased from that moment to exercise any active influence on its movements. He wrote, on 30 April, to General Grant: “The particulars of your plans I neither know nor seek to know. You are vigilant and self-reliant, and, pleased with this, I wish not to obtrude any constraints or restraints upon you. . .  If there is anything wanting which is in my power to give, do not fail to let me know it. And now, with a brave army and a just cause, may God sustain you.” Grant crossed the Rapidan on 4 May, intending to move by the right flank of General Lee; but the two armies came together in a gloomy forest called the Wilderness, where, from the 5th to the 7th of May, one of the most sanguinary battles known to modern warfare was fought. Neither side having gained any decisive advantage in this deadly struggle, Grant moved to the left, and Lee met him again at Spottsylvania Court-House, where for ten days a series of destructive contests took place, in which both sides were alternately successful. Still moving to the left, Grant again encountered the enemy at the crossing of North Anna River, and still later at Cold Harbor, a few miles northeast of Richmond, where, assaulting General Lee's army in a fortified position, he met with a bloody repulse. He then crossed the James River, intending by a rapid movement to seize Petersburg and the Confederate lines of communication south of Richmond, but was baffled in this purpose, and forced to enter upon a regular siege of Petersburg, which occupied the summer and autumn. While these operations were in progress, General Philip H. Sheridan had made one of the most brilliant Cavalry raids in the war, threatening Richmond and defeating the Confederate cavalry under General J. E. B. Stuart, and killing that famous leader. While Grant lay before Richmond, General Lee, hoping to induce him to attack his works, despatched a force under General Early to threaten Washington; but Grant sent two corps of his army northward, and Early—after a sharp skirmish under the fortifications of Washington, where Mr. Lincoln was personally present—was driven back through the Shenandoah valley, and on two occasions, in September and October, was signally defeated by General Sheridan. 
General William T. Sherman, who had been left in command of the western District formerly commanded by Grant, moved southward at the same time that Grant crossed the Rapidan. General Joseph E. Johnston, one of the ablest of the Confederate generals, retired gradually before him, defending himself at every halt with the greatest skill and address; but his movements not proving satisfactory to the Richmond government, he was moved, and General John B. Hood appointed in his place. After a summer of hard fighting, Sherman, on 1 Sept., captured Atlanta, one of the chief manufacturing and railroad centres of the south, and later in the autumn organized and executed a magnificent march to the seaboard, which proved that the military power of the Confederacy had been concentrated at a few points on the frontier, and that the interior was little more than an empty shell. He reached the sea-coast early in December, investing Savannah on the 10th, and capturing the city on the 21st. He then marched northward with the intention of assisting General Grant in the closing scenes of the war. The army under General George H. Thomas, who had been left in Tennessee to hold Hood in check while this movement was going on, after severely handling the Confederates in the preliminary battle of Franklin, 30 Nov., inflicted upon Hood a crushing and final defeat in the battle of Nashville, 16 Dec., routing and driving him from the state. 
During the summer, while Grant was engaged in the desperate and indecisive series of battles that marked his southward progress in Virginia, and Sherman had not yet set out upon his march to the sea, one of the most ardent political canvasses the country had ever seen was in progress at the north. Mr. Lincoln, on 8 June, had been unanimously renominated for the presidency by the Republican Convention at Baltimore. The Democratic leaders had postponed their convention to a date unusually late, in the hope that some advantage mi
ght be reaped from the events of the summer. The convention came together on 29 Aug. in Chicago. Mr. Vallandigham, who had returned from his banishment, and whom the government had sagaciously declined to rearrest, led the extreme peace party in the convention. Prominent politicians of New York were present in the interest of General McClellan. Both sections of the convention gained their point. General McClellan was nominated for the presidency, and Mr. Vallandigham succeeded in imposing upon his party a platform declaring that the war had been a failure, and demanding a cessation of hostilities. The capture of Atlanta on the day the convention adjourned seemed to the Unionists a providential answer to the opposition. Republicans, who had been somewhat disheartened by the slow progress of military events and by the open and energetic agitation that the peace party had continued through the summer at the north, now took heart again, and the canvass proceeded with the greatest spirit to the close. Sheridan's victory over Early in the Shenandoah valley gave an added impulse to the general enthusiasm, and in the October elections it was shown that the name of Mr. Lincoln was more popular, and his influence more powerful, than anyone had anticipated. In the election that took place on 8 Nov., 1864, he received 2,216,000 votes, and General McClellan 1,800,000. The difference in the electoral vote was still greater, Mr. Lincoln being supported by 212 of the presidential electors, while only 21 voted for McClellan.  
President Lincoln's second inaugural address, delivered on 4 March, 1865, will forever remain not only one of the most remarkable of all his public utterances, but will also hold a high rank among the greatest state papers that history has preserved. As he neared the end of his career, and saw plainly outlined before him the dimensions of the vast moral and material success that the nation was about to achieve, his thoughts, always predisposed to an earnest and serious view of life, assumed a fervor and exaltation like that of the ancient seers and prophets. The speech that he delivered to the vast concourse at the eastern front of the capitol is the briefest of all the presidential addresses in our annals; but it has not its equal in lofty eloquence and austere morality. The usual historical view of the situation, the ordinary presentment of the intentions of the government, seemed matters too trivial to engage the concern of a mind standing, as Lincoln's apparently did at this moment, face to face with the most tremendous problems of fate and moral responsibility. In the briefest words he announced what had been the cause of the war, and how the government had hoped to bring it to an earlier close. With passionless candor he admitted that neither party expected for the war the magnitude or the duration it had attained. “Each looked for an easier triumph and a result less fundamental and astounding”; and, passing into a strain of rhapsody, which no lesser mind and character could ever dare to imitate, he said: “Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes his aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men's faces. But let us judge not, that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered; that of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has his own purposes. ‘Woe unto the world because of offences! for it must needs be that offences come; but woe to that man by whom the offence cometh.’ If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offences, which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that He gives to both north and south this terrible war, as the woe due to those by whom the offence came, shall we discern therein any departure from those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always ascribe to Him? Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword, as was said three years ago, so still it must be said, ‘The judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.’ With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and his orphan—to do all which may and cherish a just and a lasting peace among ourselves, and with all nations.” 
The triumphant election of Mr. Lincoln, no less than the steady progress of the National armies, convinced some of the more intelligent of the southern leaders that their cause was hopeless, and that it would be prudent to ascertain what terms of peace could be made before the utter destruction of their military power. There had been already several futile attempts at opening negotiations; but they had all failed of necessity, because neither side was willing even to consider the only terms that the other side would offer. There had never been a moment when Mr. Lincoln would have been willing to receive propositions of peace on any other basis than the recognition of the national integrity, and Mr. Davis steadfastly refused to the end to admit the possibility of the restoration of the national authority, In July, certain unauthorized persons in Canada, having persuaded Horace Greeley that negotiations might be opened through them with the Confederate authorities, Mr. Lincoln despatched him to Niagara Falls, and sent an open letter addressed, “To whom it may concern” (see illustration). It is in the possession of Mr. William H. Appleton, of New York, and now appears in fac-simile for the first time. This document put an end to the negotiation. The Confederate emissaries in Canada, and their principals in Richmond, made no use of this incident except to employ the president's letter as a text for denunciation of the National government, But later in the year, the hopelessness of the struggle having become apparent to some of the Confederate leaders, Mr. Davis was at last induced to send an embassy to Fortress Monroe, to inquire what terms of adjustment were possible. They were met by President Lincoln and the Secretary of State in person. The plan proposed was one that had been suggested, on his own responsibility, by Mr. Francis Preston Blair, of Washington, in an interview he had been permitted to hold with Mr. Davis in Richmond, that the two armies should unite in a campaign against the French in Mexico for the enforcement of the Monroe doctrine, and that the issues of the war should be postponed for future settlement. The president declined peremptorily to entertain this scheme, and repeated again the only conditions to which he could listen: The restoration of the national authority throughout all the states, the maintenance and execution of all the acts of the general government in regard to slavery, the cessation of hostilities, and the disbanding of the insurgent forces as a necessary prerequisite to the ending of the war. The Confederate agents reported at Richmond the failure of their embassy, and Mr. Davis denounced the conduct of President Lincoln in a public address full of desperate defiance. Nevertheless, it was evident even to the most prejudiced observers that the war could not continue much longer. Sherman's march had demonstrated the essential weakness of the Confederate cause; the soldiers of the Confederacy—who for four years, with the most s
tubborn gallantry, had maintained a losing fight—began to show signs of dangerous discouragement and insubordination; recruiting had ceased some time before, and desertion was going on rapidly. The army of General Lee, which was the last bulwark of the Confederacy, still held its lines stoutly against the gradually enveloping lines of Grant; but their valiant commander knew it was only a question of how many days he could hold his works, and repeatedly counselled the government at Richmond to evacuate that city, and allow the army to take up a more tenable position in the mountains. General Grant's only anxiety each morning was lest he should find the army of General Lee moving away from him, and late in March he determined to strike the final blow at the rebellion. Moving for the last time by the left flank, his forces under Sheridan fought and gained a brilliant victory over the Confederate left at Five Forks, and at the same time Generals Humphreys, Wright, and Parke moved against the Confederate works, breaking their lines and capturing many prisoners and guns. Petersburg was evacuated on 2 April. The Confederate government fled from Richmond the same afternoon and evening, and Grant, pursuing the broken and shattered remnant of Lee's army, received their surrender at Appomattox Court-House on 9 April. About 28,000 Confederates signed the parole, and an equal number had been killed, captured, and dispersed in the operations immediately preceding the surrender. General Sherman, a few days afterward, received the surrender of Johnston, and the last Confederate Army, under General Kirby Smith, west of the Mississippi, laid down its arms. 
President Lincoln had himself accompanied the army in its last triumphant campaign, and had entered Richmond immediately after its surrender, receiving the cheers and benedictions, not only of the Negroes whom he had set free, but of a great number of white people, who were weary of the war, and welcomed the advent of peace. Returning to Washington with his mind filled with plans for the restoration of peace and orderly government throughout the south, he seized the occasion of
a serenade, on 11 April, to deliver to the people who gathered in front of the executive mansion his last speech on public affairs, in which he discussed with unusual dignity and force the problems of reconstruction, then crowding upon public consideration. As his second inaugural was the greatest of all his rhetorical compositions, so this brief political address, which closed his public career, is unsurpassed among his speeches for clearness and wisdom, and for a certain tone of gentle but unmistakable authority, which shows to what a mastery of statecraft he had attained. He congratulated the country upon the decisive victories of the last week; he expressly asserted that, although he had been present in the final operations, “no part of the honor, for plan or execution, was his”; and then, with equal boldness and discretion, announced the principles in accordance with which he should deal with the restoration of the states. He refused to be provoked into controversy, which he held would be purely academic, over the question whether the insurrectionary states were in or out of the Union. “As appears to me,” he said, “that question has not been, nor yet is, a practically material one, and any discussion of it, while it thus remains practically immaterial, could have no effect other than the mischievous one of dividing our friends. As yet, whatever it may hereafter become, that question is bad, as the basis of a controversy, and good for nothing at all—a merely pernicious abstraction. We all agree that the seceded states, so-called, are out of their proper practical relation with the Union, and that the sole object of the government, civil and military, in regard to those states, is to again get them into that proper practical relation. I believe it is not only possible, but in fact easier, to do this without deciding, or even considering, whether these states have ever been out of the Union than with it. Finding themselves safely at home, it would be utterly immaterial whether they had ever been abroad. Let us all join in doing the acts necessary to restoring the proper practical relations between these states and the Union, and each forever after innocently indulge his own opinion whether in doing the acts he brought the states from without into the Union, or only gave them proper assistance, they never having been out of it.” In this temper he discussed the recent action of the Unionists of Louisiana, where 12,000 voters had sworn allegiance, giving his full approval to their course, but not committing himself to any similar method in other cases; “any exclusive and inflexible plan would surely become a new entanglement . . . . If we reject and spurn them, we do our utmost to disorganize and disperse them. We, in effect, say to the white men, ‘You are worthless or worse, we will neither help you, nor be helped by you.’ To the blacks we say, ‘This cup of liberty which these, your old masters, hold to your lips, we will dash from you and leave you to the chances of gathering the spilled and scattered contents in some vague and undefined when, where, and how’. . . . If, on the contrary, we sustain the new government of Louisiana, the converse is made true. Concede that it is only to what it should be as the egg is to the fowl, we shall sooner have the fowl by hatching the egg than by smashing it.” These words were the last he uttered in public; on 14 April, at a cabinet meeting, he developed these views in detail, and found no difference of opinion among his advisers. The same evening he attended a performance of “Our American Cousin” at Ford's theatre, in Tenth street. He was accompanied by Mrs. Lincoln and two friends—Miss Harris, a daughter of Senator Ira Harris, of New York, and Major Henry R. Rathbone. In the midst of the play a shot was heard, and a man was seen to leap from the president's box to the stage. Brandishing a dripping knife, with which, after shooting the president, he had stabbed Major Rathbone, and shouting, “Sic semper tyrannis!—the south is avenged!” he rushed to the rear of the building, leaped upon a horse, which was held there in readiness for him, and made his escape. The president was carried to a small house on the opposite side of the street, where, surrounded by his family and the principal officers of the government, he breathed his last at 7 o'clock on the morning of 15 April. The assassin was found by a squadron of troops twelve days afterward, and shot in a barn in which he had taken refuge. The illustration on page 722 represents the house where Mr. Lincoln passed away.  The body of the president lay in state at the Capitol on 20 April and was viewed by a great concourse of people; the next day the funeral train set out for Springfield, Ill. The cortege halted at all the principal cities on the way, and the remains of the president lay in state in Baltimore, Harrisburg, Philadelphia, New York, Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland, and Chicago, being received everywhere with extraordinary demonstrations of respect and sorrow. The joy over the return of peace was for a fortnight eclipsed by the universal grief for the dead leader. He was buried, amid the mourning of the whole nation, at Oak Ridge, near Springfield, on 4 May, and there on 15 Oct., 1874, an imposing monument—the work of the sculptor Larkin G. Mead—was dedicated to his memory. The monument is of white marble, with a portrait-statue of Lincoln in bronze, and four bronze groups at the corners, representing the infantry, cavalry, and artillery arms of the service and the navy. (See accompanying illustration.) 
The death of President Lincoln, in the moment of the great national victory that he had done more than any other to gain, caused a movement of sympathy throughout the world. The expressions of grief and condolence that were sent to the government at Washington, from national, provincial, and municipal bodies all over the globe, were afterward published by the state department in a quarto volume of nearly a thousand pages, called “The Tribute of the Nations to Abraham Lincoln.” After the lapse of twenty years, the high estimate of him that the world appears instinctively to have formed at the moment of his death seems to have been increased rather than diminished, as his participation in the great events of his time has been more thoroughly studied and understood. His goodness of heart, his abounding charity, his quick wit and overflowing humor, which made him the hero of many true stories and a thousand legends, are not less valued in themselves; but they are cast in the shade by the evidences that continually appear of his extraordinary qualities of mind and of character. His powerful grasp of details, his analytic capacity, his unerring logic, his perception of human nature, would have made him unusual in any age of the world, while the quality that, in the opinion of many, made him the specially fitted agent of Providence in the salvation of the country, his absolute freedom from prejudice or passion in weighing the motives of his contemporaries and the deepest problems of state gives him pre-eminence even among the illustrious men that have preceded and followed him in his great office. Simple and modest as he was in his demeanor, he was one of the most self-respecting of rulers. Although his kindness of heart was proverbial, although he was always glad to please and unwilling to offend, few presidents have been more sensible of the dignity of their office, and more prompt to maintain it against encroachments. He was at all times unquestionably the head of the government, and, though not inclined to interfere with the routine business of the department
s, he tolerated no insubordination in important matters. At one time, being conscious that there was an effort inside of his government to force the resignation of one of its members, he read in open cabinet a severe reprimand of what was going on, mentioning no names, and ordering peremptorily that no questions should be asked, and no allusions be made to the incident then or thereafter. He did not except his most trusted friends or his most powerful generals from this strict subordination. When Mr. Seward went before him to meet the Confederate envoys at Hampton Roads, Mr. Lincoln gave him this written injunction: “You will not assume to definitely consummate anything”; and, on 3 March, 1865, when General Grant was about to set out on his campaign of final victory, the Secretary of War gave him, by the president's order, this imperative instruction: “The president directs me to say to you that he wishes you to have no conference with General Lee, unless it be for the capitulation of General Lee's army, or on some other minor and purely military matter. He instructs me to say that you are not to decide, discuss, or to confer upon any political question. Such questions the president holds in his own hands, and will submit them to no military conferences or conventions. Meanwhile, you are to press to the utmost your military advantages.” When he refused to comply with the desire of the more radical Republicans in Congress to take Draconian measures of retaliation against the Confederates for their treatment of black soldiers, he was accused by them of weakness and languor. They never seemed to perceive that to withstand an angry congress in Washington required more vigor of character than to launch a threatening decree against the Confederate government in Richmond. Mr. Lincoln was as unusual in personal appearance as in character. His stature was almost gigantic, six feet and four inches; he was muscular but spare of frame, weighing about 180 pounds. His hair was strong and luxuriant in growth, and stood out straight from his head; it began to be touched with gray in his last years. His eyes, a grayish brown, were deeply set, and were filled, in repose, with an expression of profound melancholy, which easily changed to one of uproarious mirth at the provocation of a humorous anecdote, told by himself or another. His nose was long and slightly curved, his mouth large and singularly mobile. Up to the time of his election he was clean-shaven, but during his presidency the fine outline of his face was marred by a thin and straggling beard. His demeanor was, in general, extremely simple and careless, but he was not without a native dignity that always protected him from anything like presumption or impertinence. 
Mr. Lincoln married, on 4 November, 1842, Miss Mary Todd, daughter of Robert S. Todd, of Kentucky. There were born of this marriage four sons. One, Edward Baker, died in infancy; another, William Wallace, died at the age of twelve, during the presidency of Mr. Lincoln; and still another, Thomas, at the age of eighteen, several years after his father's death. The only one that grew to maturity was his eldest son, Robert. The house in which Mr. Lincoln lived when he was elected president, in Springfield, Illinois, was conveyed to the state of Illinois in 1887 by his son, and a collection of memorials of him is to be preserved there perpetually. (See illustration on page 717.) 
There were few portraits of Mr. Lincoln painted in his lifetime; the vast number of engravings that have made his face one of the most familiar of all time have been mostly copied from photographs. The one on page 715 is from a photograph taken in 1858. There are portraits from life by Frank B. Carpenter, by Matthew Wilson, by Thomas Hicks, and an excellent crayon drawing by Barry. Since his death G. P. A. Healy, William Page, and others have painted portraits of him. There are two authentic life-masks: one made in 1858 by Leonard W. Volk (see illustration on page 723), who also executed a bust of Mr. Lincoln before his election in 1860, and another by Clark Mills shortly before the assassination. There are already a number of statues: one by Henry Kirke Brown in Union square, New York (see page 720); another by the same artist in Brooklyn; one in the group called “Emancipation,'” by Thomas Ball, in Lincoln Park, Washington, D. C., a work which has especial interest as having been paid for by the contributions of the freed people; one by Mrs. Vinnie Ream Hoxie in the Capitol; one by Augustus St. Gaudens in Chicago, set up in Chicago, 22 Oct., 1887; and one by Randolph Rogers in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia (see illustration on page 721). There is a bust by Thomas D. Jones, modelled from life in 1860. 
The Lincoln bibliography is enormous, comprising thousands of volumes. See John Russell Bartlett's “Catalogue of Books and Pamphlets relating to the Civil War in the United States” (Boston, 1866). The most noteworthy of the lives of Lincoln already published are those of Joseph H. Barrett (Cincinnati, 1865); Henry J. Raymond (New York, 1865); Josiah G. Holland (Springfield, Massachusetts, 1866); Ward H. Lamon (only the first volume, Boston, 1872); William O. Stoddard (New York, 1884); and Isaac N. Arnold (Chicago, 1885). Briefer lives have also been written by Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, William D. Howells, Carl Schurz, Charles G. Leland, John Carroll Power, and others. The most complete and exhaustive work upon his life and times appeared in the “Century” magazine, written by his private secretaries, John G. Nicolay and John Hay (reissued in 10 vols., New York, 1890). The same authors prepared a complete edition of all his writings, speeches, and letters (2 vols., 1894).—His wife, Mary Todd, born in Lexington, Kentucky, 12 Dec., 1818; died in Springfield, Ill.. 16 July, 1882, was the daughter of Robert S. Todd, whose family were among the most influential of the pioneers of Kentucky and Illinois. Her great-uncle, John Todd, was one of the associates of General George Rogers Clark, in his campaign of 1778, and took part in the captur
e of Kaskaskia and Vincennes. Being appointed county lieutenant by Patrick Henry, at that time governor of Virginia, he organized the civil government of what became afterward the state of Illinois. He was killed in the battle of Blue Licks, 18 Aug., 1782, of which his brother Levi, Mrs. Lincoln's grandfather, who also accompanied Clark's expedition as a lieutenant, was one of the few survivors. Mary Todd was carefully educated in Lexington. When twenty-one years of age she went to Springfield to visit her sister, who had married Ninian W. Edwards, a son of Ninian Edwards, governor of the state. While there she became engaged to Mr. Lincoln, whom she married, 4 Nov., 1842. Her family was divided by the civil war; several of them were killed in battle; and, devoted as Mrs. Lincoln was to her husband and the National cause, this division among her nearest kindred caused her much suffering. The death of her son, William Wallace, in 1862, was an enduring sorrow to her. One of her principal occupations was visiting the hospitals and camps of the soldiers about Washington. She never recovered from the shock of seeing her husband shot down before her eyes; her youngest son, Thomas, died a few years later, and her reason suffered from these repeated blows. She lived in strict retirement during her later years, spending part of her time with her son in Chicago, a part in Europe, and the rest with her sister, Mrs. Edwards, in Springfield, where she died of paralysis. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 715-727.

LINCOLN, Robert Todd, lawyer, born in Springfield, Illinois., 1 August, 1843, was prepared for college at Phillips Exeter academy, and graduated at Harvard in 1864. He entered Harvard law-school, but after a short stay applied for admission to the military service, and his father suggested his appointment on the staff of General Grant, as a volunteer aide-de-camp without-pay or allowances. This exceptional position did not meet with General Grant's approval, and at his suggestion young Lincoln was regularly commissioned as a captain, and entered the service on the same footing with others of his grade. He served with zeal and efficiency throughout the final campaign, which ended at Appomattox. At the close of the war he resumed the study of law, was admitted to the bar in Illinois, and practised his profession with success in Chicago until 1881, with an interval of a visit to Europe in 1872; he steadily refused the offers that were repeatedly made him to enter public life, though taking part, from time to time, in political work and discussion. In 1881, at the invitation of President Garfield, he entered his cabinet as Secretary of War. Mr. Lincoln, who, sixteen years before, had returned from the field just in time to stand by the death-bed of his father, assassinated while president, now had this strange experience repeated upon the assassination of President Garfield, a few months after his inauguration. On the accession of Vice-President Arthur to the presidency, Mr. Lincoln was the only member of the former cabinet who was requested to retain his portfolio, and he did so to the end of the administration. He performed the duties of the place with such ability and fairness, and with such knowledge of the law and appreciation of the needs of the army, as to gain the warmest approbation of its officers and its friends. Noteworthy incidents of his administration of the civil duties of the department were his report to the House of Representatives upon its challenge to him to justify President Arthur's veto of the river and harbor bill of 1882, and the thoroughness and promptness of the relief given, from Wheeling to New Orleans, to those suffering from the great floods of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in February, 1884. In the latter year Mr. Lincoln was prominently spoken of for the presidency: but as President Arthur was a candidate before the Republican Convention, Lincoln refused to allow his name to be presented for either place on the ticket. He returned to Chicago in the spring of 1885, and resumed the practice of his profession.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 727-728.

LINCOLN, Sumner, Gardiner, Vermont, abolitionist, American Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1844-1848, Vice-President, 1848-1849.  Vice President, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, 1840-1845.

LINDSEY, Daniel Weisiger, soldier, born in Frankfort, Kentucky, 4 October, 1835. His father, Thomas N. Lindsey, served as commonwealth's attorney in 1845-'8, was several times in the legislature, and a member of the state constitutional convention of 1849. The son was graduated at Kentucky Military Institute, and at Louisville law-school, beginning the practice of his profession in 1858. At the opening of the Civil War he entered the National service, and raised and organized the 22d Kentucky Volunteers, of which he was elected colonel. He led it in the campaign of General James A. Garfield in eastern Kentucky, and in the retreat with General George W. Morgan from Cumberland Gap. He was soon afterward appointed to the command of a brigade in General Morgan's division, which he led in the Vicksburg Campaign, and in other engagements. In 1863 he was appointed adjutant-general of Kentucky by Governor Thomas E. Bramlette, and served till the close of the term, in 1867. Since then General Lindsey has practised law in Frankfort.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 731.

LINDSLEY, Philip, 1786-1855, Basking Ridge, New Jersey, clergyman, educator, abolitionist.  (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 731; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 6, Pt. 1, p. 279)

educator, born in Morristown, New Jersey, 21 Dec., 1786; died in Nashville, Tennessee., 25 May, 1855. He was graduated at Princeton in 1804, and after teaching he was appointed in 1807 tutor in Latin and Greek at Princeton. Meanwhile he studied theology, and was licensed to preach in April, 1810. In 1812 he returned to Princeton, after preaching in various places, as senior tutor. He was made professor of languages in 1813, and at the same time became secretary of the board of trustees. In 1817 he was elected vice-president of Princeton, and, after the resignation of Ashbel Green in 1822, he was for one year acting president, but in the succeeding year was chosen president of Cumberland College (now University of Nashville), and also of Princeton, both of which he declined; but later he was again offered the presidency of Cumberland. He was finally induced to visit Nashville, and the result of his trip was his acceptance of the office in 1824. He continued his relations with that college until 1850, when he accepted the professorship of archæology and church polity in the Presbyterian theological seminary in New Albany, Indiana, which he held until 1853. Meanwhile he declined the presidency of numerous colleges. He was chosen moderator in 1834 of the general assembly of the Presbyterian Church, held in Philadelphia, and in 1855 commissioner of the presbytery to the general assembly in Nashville. In 1825 he received the degree of D. D. from Dickinson College. His publications, consisting chiefly of baccalaureate addresses and occasional sermons, were collected by Leroy J. Halsey, and published as “Dr. Lindsley's Complete Works and a Biography” (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1868). See also “A Sketch of the Life and Educational Labors of Philip Lindsley,” by Leroy J. Halsey (Hartford, 1859). Appletons’ Cyclopædia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 731

LINDSEY, William, born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, 4 September, 1835. He received an education in the schools of his native place, and in 1854 moved to Hickman County, Kentucky, where he taught, studied law, and was admitted to practice in 1858. At the opening of the Civil War he entered the Confederate Army as lieutenant, and was soon made captain in the 22d Tennessee Infantry. He served as staff-officer with General Buford and General Lyon, and remained with the 2d Kentucky brigade until paroled as a prisoner of war early in 1865, at Columbus, Mississippi. At the close of hostilities he returned to Clinton, Kentucky, resumed the practice of his profession, and was elected to the state senate in 1867. In 1870 he was chosen to the highest judicial bench in the state, and in September, 1876, he became chief justice of Kentucky, leaving the bench two years afterward with a high reputation. He declined a renomination, and has since followed the profession of law at Frankfort.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 731.

LITTLE, Lewis Henry, born in Baltimore in 1818; died in Iuka, Mississippi., 19 September, 1862, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1839, and assigned to the 5th U.S. Infantry. He was made 1st lieutenant, 18 April, 1845, and having taken part in the Mexican War, he was brevetted captain, 23 September, 1846, for "gallant and meritorious conduct at Monterey. He was given the full rank of captain, 20 August, 1847, but resigned, 7 May, 1861, to enter the Confederate Army. He was appointed adjutant-general of the forces in Missouri on the staff of General Sterling Price, and for his bravery at the battle of Elk Horn was promoted brigadier-general. When Van Dorn was assigned to the command of the District of Northern Mississippi, Little succeeded to the command of Price's division. He was killed at the battle of Iuka.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 738.

LITTLE, Sophia Louise, poet, born in Newport, Rhode Island., 22 August, 1799. She was the second daughter of Asher Robbins. U. S. Senator from Rhode Island. She was educated in her native town, and in 1824 married William Little, Jr., of Boston, who greatly assisted her by judicious criticism in the development of her poetic talent. Her first poem of any length, a description of a New England Thanksgiving, was printed in 1828 in "The Token." Mrs. Little took an active interest in the anti-slavery movement, and was a life-long friend of William Lloyd Garrison, being present at the Boston meeting, at which he was mobbed. She was also president of the Prisoner's aid association of Rhode Island from its formation. With the aid of friends she opened a free reading-room for working people in Newport, which proved to be the germ of a free public library. She also established a Holly-tree coffee-house, and is still (1887) active in many charitable enterprises. Mrs. Little, besides contributing frequently to various periodicals, has published the following poems: "The Last Days of Jesus " (Boston, 1839); "The Annunciation and Birth of Jesus, and the Resurrection" (1842): and "Pentecost" (1873). In 1877 a complete edition of her religious poems was published at Newport, bearing the title, "Last Days of Jesus, and Other Poems. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 738-739.

LITTLEHALE, Sargent Smith, abolitionist.  Father of Ednah Dow Littlehale Cheney (American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 164-165)

LITTLEJOHN, DeWitt C., Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)

LIVERMORE, Mary Ashton, reformer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 19 December, 1821. Her maiden name was Rice. She was noted in childhood for resolution and restless activity, being foremost in all healthful, out-door sports, and also remarkable for proficiency in her studies. She was a pupil and for some time a teacher in the Charlestown, Massachusetts, female seminary, and subsequently became a governess in southern Virginia, where she remained two years, and then taught at Duxbury, Massachusetts. There she met Daniel P. Livermore, a Universalist clergyman, whom she married and accompanied successively to Stafford. Connecticut, Maiden and Weymouth, Massachusetts, Auburn, New York, and Quincy, Illinois, in which places he had pastorates. In 1857 he became editor and publisher of the "New Covenant" at Chicago. During this period Mrs. Livermore wrote frequently for the periodicals of her denomination, and edited the "Lily," besides assisting her husband for twelve years as associate in his editorial labors. At the beginning of 1862 Mrs. Livermore was appointed one of the agents of the northwestern branch of the U. S. Sanitary Commission, which had been then recently established in Chicago. During that year she travelled throughout the northwest, everywhere organizing sanitary aid societies. In the following December she attended a council of the National Sanitary Commission at Washington, and the next spring was ordered to make a tour of the hospitals and military posts on the Mississippi. At this time sanitary supplies were low, and the most serious results at the Vicksburg camps were feared; but by personal appeals, by circulars, and by untiring persistence and enthusiasm, she secured immediate relief. She also took an active part in the organization of the Great Northwestern Sanitary Fair in Chicago in 1863, from which nearly $100,000 were secured for the purposes of the association, and obtained the original draft of his Emancipation proclamation from President Lincoln, which sold for $3,000. Since the war she has labored earnestly in the woman suffrage and temperance movements, often appearing on the platform, and editing the " Woman s Journal " (Boston, 1870—'1). Her success as a lecturer before lyceums has been great. At a time when those institutions were at the height of their popularity, she was one of the four lecturers that were most in demand and that commanded the largest fees, the other three being men. For years she spoke five nights in the week for five months in the year, travelling 25,000 miles annually. Among her more popular lectures are "What shall we do with our Daughters?" "Women of the War," and "The Moral Heroism of the Temperance Reform." The first of the foregoing has been issued in book form (Boston, 1883). She is the author of "Pen Pictures" (Chicago. 1865), and "Thirty Years too Late," a temperance tale (Boston, 1878). She has also prepared a work of 600 pages giving her experience during the war, which will probably be issued during the present year (1887).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 740.

LOAN, Benjamin F., Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)

LOCKE, Joseph J., Barre, Massachusetts, abolitionist, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, Vice-President, 1851-1852.

LOCKHART, Jesse, abolitionist, Russellville (Dumond, 1961, p. 135)

LOCKWOOD, Henry Hayes, soldier, born in Kent County. Delaware, 17 August, 1814. He was graduated at the IT. S. Military Academy in 1836, assigned to the 2d Artillery, and served against the Seminoles in Florida in 1836-'7, but resigned his commission on 12 September, 1837, and engaged in farming in Delaware until 1841. He was then appointed professor of mathematics in the U. S. Navy and ordered to the frigate "United States," on which he participated in the capture of Monterey, California, in October, 1842. On his return he was ordered to the naval asylum at Philadelphia, and subsequently to the naval school at Annapolis, as professor of natural and experimental philosophy. In 1851 he was transferred to the chair of field artillery and infantry tactics, serving also as professor of astronomy and gunnery till 1860. During the Civil War he served as colonel of the 1st Delaware Regiment, and was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 8 August, 1861. He commanded an expedition to the eastern shore of Virginia, then had charge of Point Lookout and the defences of the lower Potomac, commanded a brigade at Gettysburg, and, from December, 1863, till April, 1864, was at the head of the middle department, with headquarters at Baltimore. He then participated in the Richmond Campaign in May and June, 1864, and commanded provisional troops against General Jubal A. Early, in July, 1864. From that date until August, 1865, he commanded a brigade in Baltimore. He was mustered out of service on 25 August, 1865, and returned to the naval school in Annapolis. He was retired on 4 August, 1870. In addition to a tract entitled " Manual of Naval Batteries," he has published " Exercises in Small Arms and Field Artillery, arranged for the Naval Service " (Washington. 1852).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 751-752.

LOCKWOOD, Julia, abolitionist (Yellin, 1994, p. 43n40)

LOCKWOOD, Roe, abolitionist (Yellin, 1994, p. 43n40)

LOCKWOOD, Samuel, naval officer, born in Connecticut, 24 January, 1803. He was appointed midshipman in the U. S. Navy on 12 July, 1820, and in 1826 served in the sloop "Warren,'' which was engaged in suppressing piracy in the Greek waters. He was promoted lieutenant in 1828, and in 1847-'8 commanded the steamers "Petrel" and "Scourge," assisting in the capture of Vera Cruz, Tuspan, and Tobasco. In 1850 he was made commander, and in 1857 commodore. In 1861-'2 he had charge of the blockade of Wilmington and Beaufort, and of York River and Newport News. Commodore Lockwood also assisted in the capture, of Fort Macon. He retired 1 October, 1864.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 752.