American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
Conscience of the Nation

Updated April 4, 2021

l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Has-Hil


Access Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography here:

A                    B                    C                    D                    E                    F               

                      Bab-Bee         Cab-Che         Dab-Dev                               Fai-Fle
                      Bel-Bon          Chi-Cle          Dib-Dye                                Flo-Fur
                      Boo-Bro         Cli-Cox
                      Bru-Byr          Cra-Cuy

G                    H                    I                     J                     K                    L

Gag-Gid         Hab-Har                                                                             Lad-Loc
Gih-Gra         Has-Hil                                                                               Log-Lyt
Gre-Gru         Hin-Hyd

M                    N                    O                    P                    Q                    R

McA-McW                                                   Pac-Pie                                 Rad-Riv
Mad-Mid                                                      Pik-Put                                  Roa-Rya

S                     T                    U                    V                    W                    XYZ

Sac-Sha          Tab-Tho                                                       Wad-Way
She-Smi         Thr-Tyn                                                        Wea-Whe
Sno-Sti                                                                                Whi-Wil 
Sto-Sza                                                                                Wim-Wyt



Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - Has-Hil

HASCALL, Milo Smith
, soldier, born in Le Roy, Genesee County, New York, 5 August, 1829. He spent the early years of his life on his father's farm, and in 1846 went to Goshen, Indiana. He was appointed from Indiana to the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1852, and assigned to the artillery. He served in garrison at Fort Adams, Rhode Island, from 1852 till 1853, when he resigned. He was a contractor for the Indiana and Michigan Southern Railroad in 1854, and practised law in Goshen, Indiana, from 1855 till 1861, serving as prosecuting attorney of Elkhart and Lagrange counties from 1856 till 1858, and school-examiner and clerk of courts from 1859 till 1861, when he enlisted as a private in an Indiana regiment. He was subsequently appointed captain and aide-de-camp on General Thomas A. Morris's staff, and organized and drilled six regiments in Camp Morton. He became colonel of the 17th Indiana Regiment on 21 June, which was engaged in the West Virginia Campaign, and at Philippi made the first capture of a Confederate flag. In December, 1861, he was ordered to Louisville, Kentucky, and placed in command of a brigade consisting of the 17th Indiana, 6th Ohio, 43d Ohio, and 15th Indiana Regiments, assigned to the division commanded by General William Nelson. He was transferred to a brigade in General Thomas J. Wood's division, serving during the capture of Nashville and in the advance on Shiloh. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 25 April, 1862, and commanded a brigade in the Tennessee Campaign from October, 1862, till March, 1863. At the battle of Stone River he commanded a division, and was wounded. He was then sent to Indianapolis to return deserters from Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, was transferred to the Army of the Ohio and placed in command of the District of Indiana. He also took part in the battles of Chickamauga and Mission Ridge, and was active in the defence of Knoxville. He was in command of the 2d Division of the 23d Corps. Army of the Ohio, in the invasion of Georgia in 1864, being engaged in numerous actions on the advance to Atlanta and taking an active part in the siege of that city. He resigned his commission on 27 October, 1864, and became a proprietor of Salem's Bank, in Goshen, Indiana, in which he is now (1887) engaged.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 109

HASKELL, Llewellyn Frost, soldier, born 8 October, 1842, went to Heidelberg, Germany, to study, but returned in 1861 to join the National Army. He enlisted in the 14th New York Regiment, rose to the rank of captain, served on the staff of General Alexander S. Asboth at Pea Ridge and on that of General Henry Prince at Cedar Mountain, where he was severely wounded, and was the only officer on General Prince's staff that was not killed or mortally wounded. He became lieutenant-colonel of the 7th Colored Troops in October, 1863, served in South Carolina and Virginia, and became colonel in November, 1864. At the close of the war he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. He then became associated with his father in the development of Llewellyn Park, but in 1877 moved to San Francisco, California, where he has since engaged in business.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 110.

HASKIN, Joseph A., soldier, born in New York in 1817; died in Oswego, New York, 3 August, 1874. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1839, and entered the 1st U.S. Artillery. He was on duty in Maine during the "disputed frontier" controversy, from 1840 till 1845, afterward in Florida and Louisiana, and during the Mexican war took part in all the battles under General Scott, losing an arm at the storming of Chapultepec. He was subsequently in garrison and fortress duty on the frontiers and elsewhere, becoming captain in the 1st U.S. Artillery in 1851, was compelled to surrender Baton Rouge Arsenal to a vastly superior force of Confederates in the winter of 1861, served during the Civil War in Washington, at Key West, in command of the northern defences of Washington in 1862-'4, and as chief of artillery in the Department of Washington till 1866. He was promoted to be major in 1862, lieutenant-colonel of staff the same year, lieutenant-colonel, 1st U.S. Artillery, in 1866, and brevet colonel and brevet brigadier-general, 13 March, 1865. He was retired from active service in 1872.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 110.

HASTINGS, Russell, soldier, born in Greenfield, Massachusetts, 30 May, 1835. While he was a boy his parents moved to Ohio, and settled in Willoughby, Lake County, where he was educated in the common schools. Early in the Civil War he enlisted as a private, and was soon promoted to be a lieutenant in the 23d Ohio Regiment. During Sheridan's campaigns he acted as adjutant-general, was severely wounded at the battle of Opequan, and was subsequently promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 28th Ohio Regiment, after a charge in which he had displayed great courage. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865. General Hastings was elected a member of the Ohio legislature in 1865, and while there was appointed U.S. Marshal for the Northern District of Ohio. Owing to failing health, he resigned in 1874.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 112.

HASWELL, Charles Haynes, civil engineer, born in New York City, 22 May, 1809. He was educated at the high-school of Jamaica, Long Island, and in a classical school in New York City. From his boyhood he showed great interest in mechanics, and he entered in 1825 the steam engine factory of James P. Allaire, where he remained for several years. In 1836 he was appointed chief engineer in the U. S. Navy, and was then the only one of that grade. He was a member of the board that designed the steam frigates "Missouri" and "Mississippi." An Engineer Corps having been organized in 1839, he was promoted to the rank of engineer-in-chief in 1844, and held that office until 1850, when, in consequence of failing health, he left the service. Subsequently he travelled in Europe, and on his return settled in New York, and resumed the practice of his profession. He designed and constructed the first practicable steam launch in 1837, and was the first to put zinc into a marine steam boiler or the hold of an iron steam vessel in order that the galvanic action of the salt water and copper might be exhausted on the zinc, in preference to the iron. As engineer of the state quarantine commission he designed and directed the completion of Hoffman Island and its buildings in the lower bay of New York, and while in the employ of the New York Department of Public Charities and Corrections designed and built the crib bulkhead at Hart's Island. He was a trustee of the New York and Brooklyn Bridge in 1877-'8, and. in addition to membership in all of the principal engineering societies in the United States, he is a member of the Institutes of Civil Engineers and of Naval Architects in Great Britain. Mr. Haswell has published "Mechanic's and Engineer's Pocket-Book" (New York, 1844; 51st ed. 1887); "Mechanic's Tables" (1856); "Mensuration and Practical Geometry" (1858); "Book-keeping" (1871); and has in manuscript (1887) a " History of the Steam Boiler and its Appendages" and "Reminiscences of New York from 1816 to 1835."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 113

HATCH, Edward, soldier, born in Bangor, Maine, 22 December. 1832. In April, 1861, he was a member of the District of Columbia Volunteers who were enlisted to defend the national capital, and subsequently had charge of the camp of instruction at Davenport, Iowa. He was commissioned captain in the 2d Iowa Cavalry, 12 August, 1861, major, 5 September, and lieutenant-colonel, 11 December, the same year. He commanded his regiment at New Madrid, Island No. 10, the battle of Corinth, the raid on Booneville, and the battle of Iuka. He was promoted colonel, 13 June, 1862, and commanded a brigade of cavalry in General Grant's Mississippi Campaign. He was afterward placed at the head of the cavalry division of the Army of the Tennessee, and was present at the various engagements in which it took part. He was disabled by wounds in December. 1863, and on 27 April, 1864, was made brigadier-general. Under General A. J. Smith, and still in command of a cavalry division, he was engaged in the battles of Franklin (for bravery in which he was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular service) and Nashville, and in the pursuit of Hood's Confederate Army. For gallantry at Nashville he was, in 1864, brevetted major-general of volunteers, and three years later promoted to the same rank by brevet in the U. S. Army. On 15 January, 1866, he was honorably mustered out of the volunteer service, and on 6 July following he was promoted colonel of the 9th U. S. Cavalry, which commission he still holds. Since the war he has seen service in Colorado, Indian and Wyoming territories, and Nebraska.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 113.

HATCH, John Porter, soldier, born in Oswego, New York, 9 January, 1822. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1845, and assigned to the 3d U.S. Infantry. Subsequently he was transferred  to the mounted rifles, and promoted 2d lieutenant, 18 April, 1847. He saw service during the military occupation of Texas in 1845-'6, and took part in all the principal battles of the Mexican War, being brevetted 1st lieutenant, 20 August, 1847, for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, and captain on 13 September, for gallantry at Chapultepec. After the conclusion of the Mexican war, he was chiefly engaged in frontier duty and on various expeditions against the Indians until 1861, when he was acting as chief of commissariat in the Department of New Mexico, after receiving a captain s commission on 13 October, 1860. On 28 September, 1861, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and in December following was placed in command of a brigade of cavalry at Annapolis, Maryland, under General King. He distinguished himself by several daring reconnoissances about Gordonsville, the Rapidan, and the Rappahannock, and afterward commanded the cavalry of the 5th Army Corps, taking part in the battles of Winchester, Groveton, and Manassas, Virginia, where he was wounded and made brevet major for "gallant and meritorious services." He was again severely wounded at the battle of South Mountain, Maryland, 14 September, 1862, and brevetted lieutenant-colonel. Disabled by his injuries and unable to report for duty until 18 February, 1863, he was then employed on courts-martial, assigned to command the draft rendezvous at Philadelphia, and given charge of the Cavalry Depot at St. Louis until 27 October, 1863, when he was made major of the 4th U.S. Cavalry. During the remainder of the war he was assigned to various commands in the Department of the South, being in charge of John's Island and Honey Hill, South Carolina, during the attacks on those places. He was also under General Sherman's orders, co-operating with him while the latter was moving up the coast, and participating in several skirmishes. From 26 February to 26 August, 1865, he was in command of the Charleston District. Department of South Carolina. On 13 March of the latter year he was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general for his services during the Civil War, and major-general of volunteers for the same cause. From the close of the war until 1881 he was on duty principally in Texas, the Indian Territory, Montana, and Washington territory, and was promoted colonel, 2d U.S. Cavalry, 26 June, 1881. Colonel Hatch remained in command of his regiment until 9 January, 1886, when he was retired by operation of law.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 113-114.

HATHEWAY, Samuel Gilbert, soldier, born in Freetown, Massachusetts, 18 January, 1810; died in Solon, New York, 16 April, 1864, was graduated at Union College in 1831, studied law, and in 1833 moved to Elmira, New York, and began practice. He served in the legislature in 1842-'3, declined a renomination in 1844, and resumed practice. He was a defeated candidate for Congress in 1856 and in 1862, and the next year entered the army as colonel of the 14th New York Regiment. He afterward commanded Abercrombie's division, as acting brigadier-general, but in 1863, the exposures of camp-life having produced disease of the heart, he was compelled to resign, and died a few months afterward. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 114.

HATTON, Frank, journalist, born in Cambridge, Ohio, 28 April, 1846. His father, Richard, moved to Cadiz, Ohio, where he published the "Republican." At the age of eleven the son entered the office of this paper, where he became foreman, and then local editor. When the Civil War began he enlisted in the 98th Ohio Infantry, and in 1864 was commissioned 1st lieutenant. His service was with the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he went to Mount Pleasant, Iowa, edited the "Journal" there in 1869-'74, and then moved to Burlington. Iowa, where he purchased a controlling interest in the " Hawkeye." He was postmaster in Burlington for a few years prior to 1881. In that year President Arthur appointed him Assistant Postmaster General, and he served from October, 1881, till October, 1884, when the retirement of Judge Gresham from the office of Postmaster General, led to Mr. Hatton's promotion to fill the vacancy. He served until the close of President Arthur's administration, and was the youngest cabinet officer that ever served the government, Alexander Hamilton alone excepted. From October, 1882, till the summer of 1884 Mr. Hatton was connected with the "National Republican" in Washington. In July of the latter year he moved to Chicago, and assisted in reorganizing the " Mail," of which he is now (1887) the editor-in-chief.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 115.

HATTON, Robert, soldier, born in Sumner County, Tennessee, in 1827; killed at the battle of Fair Oaks, Virginia, 31 May, 1862. He was educated at Harvard, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1849. He was a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1856, and in 1858 was elected to Congress from that state, serving one term. He then entered the Confederate Army, was appointed brigadier-general, 23 May, 1862, and was assigned to the command of the 5th brigade, 1st Division, 1st Corps. Army of Virginia.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 115

HAUPT, Herman, engineer, born in Philadelphia, 26 March, 1817. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1835, and entered the 2d U.S. Infantry, but resigned on 30 September following, and was assistant engineer on the public works of Pennsylvania until 1839. He was appointed in 1844 professor of civil engineering and mathematics in Pennsylvania College, Gettysburg, and filled that chair until 1847, when he became principal engineer of the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad, of which he was made superintendent in 1849. From 1856 till June, 1861, he was chief engineer of the Hoosac Tunnel in Massachusetts. During the Civil War he was aide to General Irwin McDowell, with the rank of colonel, and chief of the Bureau of U. S. Military Railways, in charge of construction and operation. In September, 1862, he declined the appointment of brigadier-general of volunteers. In 1875 he acted as general manager of the Piedmont Air-line Railway from Richmond, Virginia, to Atlanta, Georgia. Since 1875 he has been chief engineer of the Tide-Water Pipe Line Company, and he has demonstrated the feasibility of transporting oil in pipes for long distances. He was also for several years general manager of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Colonel Haupt invented a drilling-engine, which took the highest Prize of the Royal Polytechnic Society of Great Britain. He is the author of "Hints on Bridge Building " (1840); "General Theory of Bridge-Construction " (New York, 1852); "Plan for Improvement of the Ohio River" (1855); and "Military Bridges" (New York, 1864).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 116.

HAVEN, Gilbert, 1821-1880, clergyman, African American civil rights advocate, abolitionist.  (Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 407)

HAVILAND, Charles, Jr., New York, abolitionist.  Husband of noted abolitionist leader Laura Smith Haviland.  Helped organize the Logan Female Anti-Slavery Society in Michigan in 1832.  Co-founded the Raisin Institute, a progressive racially integrated school.  Operated a station on the Underground Railroad.  (Danforth, 1961; Dumond, 1961, pp. 279-281; Haviland, 1882; Lindquist, 1999)

HAVILAND, Laura Smith, 1808-1898, New York, Society of Friends, Quaker, anti-slavery activist.  October 8, 1832, co-founded the Logan Female Anti-Slavery Society in Lenawee County, Michigan Territory, with Elizabeth Chandler.  Founded the Raisin Institute.  Helped fugitive slaves.  (Dumond, 1961, pp. 279, 401n18, 32; Haviland, 1882)

HAWES, Richard, lawyer, born in Caroline County, Virginia, 6 February, 1797; died in Bourbon County, Kentucky, 25 May, 1877. He emigrated to Kentucky in 1810. After being educated at Transylvania University he studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began his practice in Winchester, Kentucky. He was a member of the legislature in 1828, 1829, and 1836, and in the latter year he was elected to Congress as a Whig, serving until 1841. He subsequently became an ardent Democrat, advocated the southern cause during the Civil War, and left Kentucky with Breckinridge and others in 1861. On the death of George W. Johnson, at Shiloh, he was elected to succeed him in the nominal office of "provisional" or Confederate governor of Kentucky. When Bragg entered the state, Hawes went with him to Frankfort, and was installed governor, 4 October, 1862, but was compelled to retire immediately, in consequence of the advance of a division of Buell's army. After the close of the war he returned to Paris, Kentucky, and in 1866 was appointed county judge, which office he held until his death.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 119.

HAWKINS, Rush Christopher, soldier. born in Pomfret, Vermont, 14September, 1831, left home at an early age and enlisted in the 2d U. S. dragoons, but after a brief term of service in Mexico was discharged for disability contracted in the field. He settled in New York in 1851, studied law, and in 1856 began the practice of his profession. At the beginning of the Civil War he raised the 9th Regiment of New York Volunteers and the Hawkins Zouaves, of which he was elected colonel. He commanded a successful expedition against Winston, North Carolina, on 16 February, and on 19 April his brigade took part in the action at South Mills, where he was wounded. He served with his regiment in Virginia and elsewhere, and with it was mustered out of the service on 30 May, 1863. Since the war he has been active in movements for political reform. His collection of books from the first 15th century presses was the most comprehensive in the country, and was sold at auction in New York in 1887. Colonel Hawkins has contributed to periodical literature and has published "The First Books and Printers of the 15th Century" (New York, 1884).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 120

HAWKINS, John P., soldier, born in Indiana about 1830. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1852, assigned to the infantry, and promoted 1st lieutenant, 12 October, 1857. At the beginning of the Civil War he was brigade quartermaster in the defences of Washington, D. C. He was appointed commissary of subsistence with the staff rank of captain, 3 August, 1861, and filled several posts as chief and assistant commissary of subsistence in southwest Missouri and west Tennessee, until 13 April, 1863, when he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and from 17 August of that year till 7 February, 1864, was in command of a brigade of colored troops in northeastern Louisiana. He was then promoted to the command of a division, and stationed at Vicksburg, Mississippi, from March, 1864, till February, 1865. He afterward took part in the Mobile Campaign, and for gallant and meritorious services at the capture of that city was brevetted major. For his services in the war he was successively given the brevets of lieutenant-colonel, colonel, brigadier-general, and major-general in the U. S. Army, and also major-general of volunteers. On 23 June, 1874, he was made major and commissary of subsistence, and in 1887 was in charge of the subsistence department at Omaha, Nebraska.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 121.

HAWLEY, Joseph Roswell, 1826-1905, statesman, clergyman, lawyer, editor, opponent of slavery, Union officer.  Member of the Free Soil Party.  Co-founder of the Republican Party.  Chairman of Connecticut Free Soil State Committee.  He opposed pro-slavery Know-Nothing Party and aided in anti-slavery organizing.  Helped organize and found the Republican Party in 1856.  In 1857, became editor of the Republican newspaper, Evening Press in Hartford.  Enlisted in the Union Army, rising to the rank of Brigadier General, commanding both a division and a brigade.  (Appletons, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 123-124; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 421; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 10, p. 351)

HAWLEY, Joseph Roswell, statesman, born in Stewartsville, North Carolina, 31 October, 1826. He is of English-Scotch ancestry. His father, Reverend Francis Hawley (descended from Samuel, who settled in Stratford, Connecticut, in 1639), was born in Farmington, Connecticut He went south early and engaged in business, but afterward entered the Baptist ministry. He married Mary McLeod, a native of North Carolina, of Scotch parentage, and the family went to Connecticut in 1837, where the father was an active anti-slavery man. The son prepared for college at the Hartford grammar-school and the seminary in Cazenovia, New York, whither the family moved about 1842. He was graduated at Hamilton in 1847, with a high reputation as a speaker and debater. He taught in the winters, studied law at Cazenovia and Hartford, and began practice in 1850. He immediately became chairman of the Free-Soil state committee, wrote for the Free-Soil press, and spoke in every canvass. He stoutly opposed the Know-Nothings, and devoted his energies to the union of all opponents of slavery. The first meeting for the organization of the Republican Party in Connecticut was held in his office, at his call, 4 February, 1856. Among those present were Gideon Welles and John M. Niles. Mr. Hawley gave three months to speaking in the Fremont canvass of 1856. In February, 1857, he abandoned law practice, and became editor of the Hartford "Evening Press," the new distinctively Republican paper. His partner was William Faxon, afterward assistant Secretary of the Navy. He responded to the first call for troops in 1861 by drawing up a form of enlistment, and, assisted by Drake, afterward colonel of the 10th Regiment, raising rifle company A, 1st Connecticut Volunteers, which was organized and accepted in twenty-four hours, Hawley having personally engaged rifles at Sharp's Factory. He became the captain, and is said to have been the first volunteer in the state. He received special praise for good conduct at Bull Run from General Erastus D. Keyes, brigade commander. He directly united with Colonel Alfred H. Terry in raising the 7th Connecticut Volunteers, a three years' regiment, of which he was lieutenant-colonel. It went south in the Port Royal Expedition, and on the capture of the forts was the first sent ashore as a garrison. It was engaged four months in the siege of Fort Pulaski, and upon the surrender was selected as the garrison. Hawley succeeded Terry, and commanded the regiment in the battles of James Island and Pocotaligo, and in Brannan's expedition to Florida. He went with his regiment to Florida, in January, 1863, and commanded the post of Fernandina, whence in April he undertook an unsuccessful expedition against Charleston. He also commanded a brigade on Morris Island in the siege of Charleston and the capture of Fort Wagner. In February, 1864, he had a brigade under General Truman Seymour in the battle of Olustee, Florida, where the whole National force lost 38 per cent. His regiment was one of the few that were armed with the Spencer breech loading rifle. This weapon, which he procured in the autumn of 1863, proved very effective in the hands of his men. He went to Virginia in April, 1864, having a brigade in Terry's division, 10th Corps, Army of the James, and was in the battles of Drewry's Bluff, Deep Run, Derbytown Road, and various affairs near Bermuda Hundred and Deep Bottom. He commanded a division in the fight on the Newmarket road, and engaged in the siege of Petersburg. In September, 1864, he was made a brigadier-general, having been repeatedly recommended by his immediate superiors. In November, 1864, he commanded a picked brigade sent to New York City to keep the peace during the week of the presidential election. He succeeded to Terry's division when Terry was sent to Port Fisher in January, 1865, afterward rejoining him as chief of staff, 10th Corps, and on the capture of Wilmington was detached by General Schofield to establish a base of supplies there for Sherman's army, and command southeastern North Carolina. In June he rejoined Terry as chief of staff for the Department of Virginia. In October he went home, was brevetted major-general, and was mustered out, 15 January, 1866. In April, 1866, he was elected governor of Connecticut, but he was defeated in 1867, and then, having united the "Press" and the "Courant," he resumed editorial life, and more vigorously than ever entered the political contests following the war. He was always in demand as a speaker throughout the country. He was president of the National Republican Convention in 1868, secretary of the committee on resolutions in 1872, and chairman of that committee in 1876. He earnestly opposed paper money theories. In November, 1872, he was elected to fill a vacancy in Congress caused by the death of Julius L. Strong. He was re-elected to the 43d Congress, defeated for the 44th and 45th, and re-elected to the 46th (1879-'81). He was elected senator in January, 1881, by the unanimous vote of his party, and re-elected in like manner in January, 1887, for the term ending 4 March, 1893. In the house he served on the committees on Claims, Banking and Currency, Military Affairs, and appropriations; in the senate, on the committees on Coast Defences, Railroads, Printing, and Military Affairs. He is chairman of the committee on Civil Service, and vigorously promoted the enactment of civil-service-reform legislation. He was also chairman of a Select Committee on Ordnance and War-Ships, and submitted a long and valuable report, the result of careful investigation into steel production and heavy gun-making in England and the United States. In the National Convention of 1884 the Connecticut Delegation unanimously voted for him for president in every ballot. He was president of the U. S. Centennial Commission from its organization in 1872 until the close of its labors in 1877, gave two years exclusively to the work, was ex-officio member of its committees, and appointed all save the executive. He received the degree of LL. D. from Hamilton in 1875, and from Yale in 1886. Of the former institution he is a trustee. Ecclesiastically he is a Congregationalist.  General Hawley is an ardent Republican, one of the most acceptable extemporary orators in the republic, a believer in universal suffrage, the American people and the "American way," is a "hard-money" man, would adjust the tariff so as to benefit native industries, urges the reconstruction of our naval and coast defences, demands a free ballot and a fair count everywhere, opposes the tendency to federal centralization, and is a strict constructionist of the constitution in favor of the rights and dignity of the individual states.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 123-124.

HAWLEY, William Merrill, 1802-1869, lawyer, jurist, State Senator.  Member, Free-Soil Radical Delegation in August 1848.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 124

HAWLEY, William Merrill, lawyer, born in Delaware County, New York, 23 August, 1802; died in Hornellsville, New York,
9 February, 1869. His father, one of the earliest settlers in western New York, was a farmer, and unable to give his children a classical education. William went to the common school, and at the age of twenty-one moved to Almond, Alleghany County, where be cleared a piece of land for tillage. In the spring of 1824 be was elected constable, and began the study of law to assist him in this office. He was admitted to the bar in 1826, moved to Hornellsville the next year, and practised his profession until his appointment in 1846 as first judge of Steuben County. He served in the state senate, was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention of 22 May, 1848, which met in Baltimore, and was identified with the “Free-Soil radical delegation,” which culminated in the National Convention of 9 Aug., 1848, held in Buffalo, New York, in which Martin Van Buren was nominated for the presidency. Judge Hawley was one of the committee appointed to introduce the resolutions the essential elements of which were afterward adopted by the Republican Party. After his retirement from the state senate he did not again enter public life, but, devoting himself to his profession, acquired a large fortune, and practised until a short time before his death. Appletons’ Cyclopædia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 124

HAY, John
, author, born in Salem, Indiana, 8 October, 1838. His ancestor, John, was a son of a Scottish soldier who left his own country in the beginning of the last century and took service in the army of the Elector Palatine. The son, with his family, emigrated to this country, and two grandsons served with distinction in the war of independence. John Hay took, while in college, high rank as a writer, and after graduation at Brown in 1858, studied law at Springfield, Ill. He was admitted to practice in the supreme court in Illinois in 1861, but immediately afterward went to Washington as assistant secretary to President Lincoln, remaining with him, both as a secretary and a trusted friend, almost constantly till his death. He acted also as his adjutant and aide-de-camp, and served for several months under General Hunter and General Gillmore, with the rank of major and assistant adjutant-general. He was also brevetted lieutenant-colonel and colonel. He was first secretary of legation at Paris, and several times in charge in 1865-'7, and chargé de affaires at Vienna in 1867-'8, when he resigned and came home, but was soon afterward secretary of legation at Madrid, where he remained more than a year. Leaving that post in 1870, he came to New York and became an editorial writer on the “Tribune,” where he remained about five years. He was afterward editor-in-chief of that paper for seven months, during the absence of Whitelaw Reid in Europe. He moved to Cleveland, Ohio, in 1875, and took an active part in the presidential canvasses of 1876, 1880, and 1884. Under the administration of President Hayes he was first assistant secretary of state in 1879-'81. In the latter year he represented the United States at the International sanitary Congress of Washington, of which body he was elected president. He has published “Pike County Ballads,” one of the best known of which is “Jim Bludso” (Boston, 1871), “Castilian Days” studies of Spanish life and character (1871), and has been engaged many years in writing, in collaboration with John G. Nicolay, a “History of the Administration of Abraham Lincoln,” which is now (1887) in course of serial publication in “The Century.” Colonel Hay is also the translator of Emilio Castelar's treatise on the Republican movement in Europe (New York, 1874-'5). Appleton’s 1900 pp. 130-131.

HAYDEN, Ferdinand Vandeveer, geologist, born in Westfield, Massachusetts, 7 September, 1829. He early settled in Ohio, and, after his graduation at Oberlin in 1850, received his medical degree at the Albany Medical College in 1853. During the same year he explored the "Bad Lands" of Dakota for James Hall, state geologist of New York, and returned with a large and valuable collection of fossil vertebrates. In 1854 he again went west, spent two years in exploring the basin of the upper Missouri, and returned with a large number of fossils, part of which he deposited in the St. Louis academy of science, and the remainder in the Philadelphia academy of natural sciences. These collections attracted the attention of the authorities of the Smithsonian institution, and he was appointed geologist on the staff of Lieutenant Gouverneur K. Warren, of the topographical engineers, who was then making a reconnaissance of the northwest, after which, in May, 1859, he was appointed naturalist and surgeon to the expedition sent out for the exploration of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers under Captain William F. Raynolds. He continued in this capacity until May, 1862, when he entered the U. S. Army as assistant surgeon of volunteers, and was assigned to duty in the Satterlee Hospital in Philadelphia, becoming full surgeon on 19 February, 1863, when he was sent to Beaufort, South Carolina, as chief medical officer. In February, 1864, he became assistant medical inspector of the Department of Washington, and in September, 1864, he was sent to Winchester, Virginia, as chief medical officer of the Army of the Shenandoah. This office he held until May, 1865, when he resigned and was given the brevet of lieutenant-colonel. He was appointed professor of mineralogy and geology in 1865 in the University of Pennsylvania, and held that chair until 1872, when the increased duties of the survey caused his resignation. During the summer of 1866 he again visited the valley of the upper Missouri for the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, and gathered valuable vertebrate fossils. In 1867 Congress provided for the geological survey of Nebraska. Dr. Hayden was directed to perform the work, and continued so occupied until 1 April, 1869, when it was organized under the title of the Geological Survey of the Territories of the United States. From 1869 till 1872 Dr. Hayden conducted a series of geological explorations in Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado, the scope of investigation including, besides geology, the natural history, climatology, resources, and ethnology of the region. It was largely in consequence of his explorations and reports that Congress was led to set apart the Yellowstone National Park as a perpetual reservation. In 1873 geography was added, and the name of the organization then became the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. Dr. Hayden continued the direction of this survey until 1879, when the then existing national surveys were consolidated into the U. S. Geological Survey, and Dr. Hayden was made geologist-m-charge of the Montana Division. He held this office until 31 December, 1886, when failing health led to his resignation. Dr. Hayden is a member of scientific societies both in the United States and in Europe, and in 1873 was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In 1887 the degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by the University of Pennsylvania. He has written numerous scientific papers, and his government publications have been very large. The latter include annual reports of his work performed from 1867 till 1879; also a series of "Miscellaneous Publications" on special subjects written by authorities in the specialties of which they treat, and a series of quarto volumes entitled " Report of the U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p.131.

HAYDEN, Harriet, African American, wife of Lewis Hayden.  Aided fugitive slaves in the Underground Railroad.  Their home was a station.

HAYDEN, Lewis, 1811-1888, African American, fugitive slave, businessman, abolitionist, lecturer, politician. (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 5, p. 459)

HAYES, Joseph, soldier, born in South Berwick, Maine, 14 September, 1835. He was graduated at Harvard in 1855, appointed major of the 18th Massachusetts Regiment, 26 July, 1861, lieutenant-colonel, 25 August, 1802, colonel, 30 November. 1862, and brigadier-general of volunteers, 12 May, 1864. He was taken prisoner by the Confederates, and was for several months confined in Libby Prison, Richmond, Virginia He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865, and mustered out of service on 24 August In January, 1865, he was appointed U. S. commissioner of supplies in the seceded states. In 1877 he introduced the American system of hydraulic mining into the United States of Colombia.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 133.

HAYES, Philip Cornelius, soldier, born in Granby, Connecticut, 3 February, 1833. He moved in infancy to La Salle County. Illinois., and spent many of his early years on a farm. He was graduated at Oberlin in 1860, and at the Theological seminary in 1863. He entered the army as captain in the 103d Ohio Infantry, and served with this regiment from 16 July, 1802, till 22 June, 1865, its entire period of service, being promoted successively lieutenant-colonel and colonel, and brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers at the close of the war. He served in Kentucky, in West Tennessee in 1863, including the siege of Knoxville, was in the Hundred Days' Campaign to Atlanta, and was in the battles of Resaca and Atlanta. He took part in the engagements of Franklin and Nashville, and was with the army in its march from Fort Fisher to Raleigh. North Carolina, in the capture of Wilmington, and at Johnston's surrender. During his last year's service he was on the staff of General John M. Schofield. He was then elected a representative in Congress as a Republican, and served from 4 March, 1877, till 4 March, 1881. He has published a “History of the 103d Ohio Regiment” (1872).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 133-134.

HAYES, Rutherford Birchard, 1822-1893, Delaware, Ohio,, 19th President of the United States, 1877-1881.  Governor of Ohio, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1865-1867, abolitionist, lawyer, soldier.  Defended fugitive slaves in pre-Civil War court cases.  His wife, Lucy, Webb, was also an abolitionist.  Early member of the Republican Party.  Served with distinction as an officer in the Union Army during the Civil War.  (Scribner’s Dictionary of American Biography; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 134-143)

HAYES, Rutherford Birchard, nineteenth president of the United States, born in Delaware, Ohio, 4 October, 1822. His father had died in July, 1822, leaving his mother in modest but easy circumstances. The boy received his first education in the common schools, and began early the study of Latin and Greek with Judge Sherman Finch, of Delaware. Then he was sent to an academy at Norwalk, Ohio, and in 1837 to Isaac Webb's school, at Middletown, Connecticut, to prepare for college. In the autumn of 1838 he entered Kenyon College, at Gambier, Ohio. He excelled in logic, mental and moral philosophy, and mathematics, and also made his mark as a debater in the literary societies. On his graduation in August, 1842, he was awarded the valedictory oration, with which he won much praise. Soon afterward he began to study law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, at Columbus, Ohio, and then attended a course of law lectures at Harvard University, entering the law-school on 22 August, 1843, and finishing his studies there in January, 1845. As a law student he had the advantage of friendly intercourse with Judge Story and Prof. Greenleaf, and he also attended the lectures of Longfellow on literature and of Agassiz on natural science, prosecuting at the same time the study of French and German. On 10 May, 1845, after due examination, he was admitted to practice in the courts of Ohio as an attorney and counsellor at law. He established himself first at Lower Sandusky (now Fremont), where, in April, 1846, he formed a law partnership with Ralph P. Buckland (q. v.), then a member of Congress. In November, 1848, having suffered from bleeding in the throat, Mr. Hayes went to spend the winter in the milder climate of Texas, where his health was completely restored. Encouraged by the good opinion and advice of professional friends to seek a larger field of activity, he established himself, in the winter of 1849-’50, in Cincinnati. His practice at first being light, he earnestly and systematically continued his studies in law and literature, also enlarging the circle of his acquaintance by becoming a member of various societies, among others the literary club of Cincinnati, in the social and literary entertainments of which at that time such men as Salmon P. Chase, Thomas Ewing, Thomas Corwin, Stanley Matthews, Moncure D. Conway, Manning F. Force, and others of note, were active participants. He won the respect of the profession, and attracted the attention of the public as attorney in several criminal cases which gained some celebrity, and gradually increased his practice.

On 30 December, 1852, he married Miss Lucy W. Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, a physician of high standing in Chillicothe, Ohio. In January, 1854, he formed a law partnership with H. W. Corwine and William K. Rogers. In 1856 he was nominated for the office of common pleas judge, but declined. In 1858 he was elected city solicitor by the city council of Cincinnati, to fill a vacancy caused by death, and in the following year he was elected to the same office at a popular election by a majority of over 2,500 votes. Although he performed his duties to the general satisfaction of the public, he was, in April, 1861, defeated for re-election as solicitor, together with the whole ticket. Mr. Hayes, ever since he was a voter, had acted with the Whig Party, voting for Henry Clay in 1844, for General Taylor in 1848, and for General Scott in 1852. Having from his youth always cherished anti-slavery feelings, he joined the Republican Party as soon as it was organized, and earnestly advocated the election of Frémont in 1856, and of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. At a great mass-meeting, held in Cincinnati immediately after the arrival of the news that the flag of the United States had been fired upon at Fort Sumter, he was made chairman of a committee on resolutions to give voice to the feelings of the loyal people. His literary club formed a military company, of which he was elected captain, and this club subsequently furnished to the National Army more than forty officers, of whom several became generals. On 7 June, 1861, the governor of Ohio appointed Mr. Hayes a major of the 23d Regiment of Ohio volunteer Infantry, and in July the regiment was ordered into West Virginia. On 19 September, 1861, Major Hayes was appointed by General Rosecrans judge advocate of the Department of Ohio, the duties of which office he performed for about two months. On 24 October, 1861, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. On 14 September, 1862, in the battle of South Mountain, he distinguished himself by gallant conduct in leading a charge and in holding his position at the head of his men, after being severely wounded in his left arm, until he was carried from the field. His regiment lost nearly half its effective force in the action. On 24 October, 1862, he was appointed colonel of the same regiment. He spent some time at his home while under medical treatment, and returned to the field as soon as his wound was healed. In July, 1863, while taking part in the operations of the National Army in southwestern Virginia, Colonel Hayes caused an expedition of two regiments and a section of artillery, under his own command, to be despatched to Ohio for the purpose of checking the raid of the Confederate General John Morgan, and he aided materially in preventing the raiders from recrossing the Ohio River and in compelling Morgan to surrender. In the spring of 1864 Colonel Hayes commanded a brigade in General Crook's expedition to cut the principal lines of communication between Richmond and the southwest. He again distinguished himself by conspicuous bravery at the head of his brigade in storming a fortified position on the crest of Cloyd mountain. In the first battle of Winchester, 24 July, 1864, commanding a brigade in General Crook's division, Colonel Hayes was ordered, together with Colonel James Mulligan, to charge what proved to be a greatly superior force. Colonel Mulligan fell, and Colonel Hayes, flanked and pressed in front by overwhelming numbers, conducted the retreat of his brigade with great intrepidity and skill, checking the pursuit as soon as he had gained a tenable position. He took a creditable part in the engagement at Berryville and at the second battle of Winchester, 19 September, 1864, where he performed a feat of extraordinary bravery. Leading an assault upon a battery on an eminence, he found in his way a morass over fifty yards wide. Being at the head of his brigade, he plunged in first, and, his horse becoming mired at once, he dismounted and waded across alone under the enemy's fire. Waving his cap, he signaled to his men to come over, and, when about forty had joined him, he rushed upon the battery and took it after a hand-to-hand fight with the gunners, the enemy having deemed the battery so secure that no infantry supports had been placed near it. At Fisher's Hill, in pursuing General Early, on 22 September, 1864, Colonel Hayes, then in command of a division, executed a brilliant flank movement over mountains and through woods difficult of access, took many pieces of artillery, and routed the enemy. At the battle of Cedar Creek, 19 October, 1864, the conduct of Colonel Hayes attracted so much attention that his commander, General Crook, on the battle-field took him by the hand, saying: “Colonel, from this day you will be a brigadier-general.” The commission arrived a few days afterward, and on 13 March, 1865, he received the rank of brevet major-general “for gallant and distinguished services during the campaign of 1864 in West Virginia, and particularly at the battles of Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, Virginia” Of his military services General Grant, in the second volume of his memoirs, says: “On more than one occasion in these engagements General R. B. Hayes, who succeeded me as president of the United States, bore a very honorable part. His conduct on the field was marked by conspicuous gallantry, as well as the display of qualities of a higher order than mere personal daring. Having entered the army as a major of volunteers at the beginning of the war, General Hayes attained, by his meritorious service, the rank of brevet major-general before its close.” While General Hayes was in the field, in August, 1864, he was nominated by a Republican District Convention at Cincinnati, in the second District of Ohio, as a candidate for Congress. When a friend suggested to him that he should take leave of absence from the army in the field for the purpose of canvassing the district, he answered: “Your suggestion about getting a furlough to take the stump was certainly made without reflection. An officer fit for duty, who at this crisis would abandon his post to electioneer for a seat in Congress, ought to be scalped.” He was elected by a majority of 2,400. The Ohio soldiers in the field nominated him also for the governorship of his state. The accompanying illustration is a view of his home in Fremont.

After the war General Hayes returned to civil life, and took his seat in Congress on 4 December, 1865. He was appointed chairman of the committee on the library. On questions connected with the reconstruction of the states lately in rebellion he voted with his party. He earnestly supported a resolution declaring the sacredness of the public debt and denouncing repudiation in any form; also a resolution commending President Johnson for declining to accept presents, and condemning the practice as demoralizing in its tendencies. He opposed a resolution favoring an increase of the pay of members. He also introduced in the Republican caucus a set of resolutions declaring that the only mode of obtaining from the states lately in rebellion irreversible guarantees was by constitutional amendment, and that an amendment basing representation upon voters, instead of population, ought to be acted upon without delay. These resolutions marked the line of action of the Republicans. In August, 1866, General Hayes was renominated for Congress by acclamation, and, after an active canvass, was re-elected by the same majority as before. He supported the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. In the House of Representatives he won the reputation, not of an orator, but of a working legislator and a man of calm, sound judgment. In June, 1867, the Republican Convention of Ohio nominated him for the governorship. The Democrats had nominated Judge Allen G. Thurman. The question of Negro suffrage was boldly pushed to the foreground by General Hayes in an animated canvass, which ended in his election, and that of his associates on the Republican ticket. But the Negro-suffrage amendment to the state constitution was defeated at the same time by 50,000 majority, and the Democrats carried the legislature, which elected Judge Thurman to the United States Senate. In his inaugural address, Governor Hayes laid especial stress upon the desirability of taxation in proportion to the actual value of property, the evils of too much legislation, the obligation to establish equal rights without regard to color, and the necessity of ratifying the 14th amendment to the constitution of the United States. In his message to the legislature, delivered in November, 1868, he recommended amendments to the election laws, providing for the representation of minorities in the boards of the judges and clerks of election, and for the registration of all the lawful voters prior to an election. He also recommended a comprehensive geological survey of the state, which was promptly begun. In his second annual message he warmly urged such changes in the penal laws, as well as in prison discipline, as would tend to promote the moral reformation of the culprit together with the punishment due to his crime.

In June, 1869, Governor Hayes was again nominated by the Republican state Convention for the governorship, there being no competitor for the nomination. The Democratic candidate was George H. Pendleton. The platform adopted by the Democratic state Convention advocated the repudiation of the interest on the U. S. bonds unless they be subjected to taxation, and the payment of the national debt in greenbacks. In the discussions preceding the election, Governor Hayes pronounced himself unequivocally in favor of honestly paying the national debt and an honest money system. He was elected by a majority of 7,500. In his second inaugural address, delivered on 10 January, 1870, he expressed himself earnestly against the use of public offices as party spoils, and suggested that the constitution of the state be so amended as to secure the introduction of a system making qualification, and not political services and influence, the chief test in determining appointments, and giving subordinates in the civil service the same permanence of place that is enjoyed by officers of the army and navy. He also advocated the appointment of judges, by the executive, for long terms, with adequate salaries, as best calculated to “afford to the citizen the amplest possible security that impartial justice will be administered by an independent judiciary.” In his correspondence with members of Congress, he urged a monthly reduction of the national debt as more important than a reduction of taxation, the abolition of the franking privilege, and the passage of a civil-service-reform law. In his message addressed to the legislature on 3 January, 1871, he recommended that the policy embodied in that provision of the state constitution which prohibited the state from creating any debt, save in a few exceptional cases, be extended to the creation of public debts by county, city, and other local authorities, and further that for the remuneration of public officers a system of fixed salaries, without fees and prerequisites, be adopted. Complaint having been made by the state commissioner of railroads and telegraphs that many “clear and palpable violations of law” had been committed by railroad companies, Governor Hayes asked, in his message of 1872, that a commission of five citizens be organized, with ample power to investigate the management of railroad companies, and to report the information acquired with a recommendation of such measures as they might deem expedient. He also, believing that “publicity is a great corrector of official abuses,” recommended that it be made the duty of the governor, on satisfactory information that the public good required an investigation of the affairs of any public office or the conduct of any public officer, whether state or local, to appoint one or more citizens, who should have ample powers to make such investigation. Governor Hayes's administration of the executive office of his state won general approval, without distinction of party. At the expiration of his term, when a senator of the United States was to be elected, and several Republican members of the legislature were disinclined to vote for John Sherman, who controlled a majority of the Republican votes, Governor Hayes was approached with the assurance that he could be elected senator by the anti-Sherman Republicans with the aid of the Democratic members of the legislature; but he positively declined.

In July, 1872, Governor Hayes was strongly urged by many Republicans in Cincinnati to accept a nomination for congress. Wishing to retire permanently from political life, he declined; but when he was nominated in spite of his protests, he finally yielded his consent. In his speeches during the canvass he put forward as the principal issues an honest financial policy and civil-service reform. Several sentences on civil-service reform that he pronounced in a speech at Glendale, on 4 September, 1872, were to appear again in his letter accepting the nomination for the presidency four years later. In 1872 the current of public sentiment in Cincinnati ran against the Republican Party, and Governor Hayes was defeated in the election by a majority of 1,500. President Grant offered him the office of assistant treasurer of the United States at Cincinnati, which he declined. In 1873 he established his home at Fremont, in the northern part of Ohio, with the firm intention of final retirement from public life. In 1874 he came into possession of a considerable estate as the heir of his uncle, Sardis Birchard. In 1875 the Republican state Convention again nominated him for the governorship. He not only had not desired that nomination, but whenever spoken or written to about it, uniformly replied that his retirement was absolute, and that neither his interests nor his tastes permitted him to accept. But the circumstances were such as to overcome his reluctance. In 1873 the Democratic candidate,
William Allen (q. v.), was elected governor of Ohio. His administration was honest and economical, and he was personally popular, and his renomination by the Democratic Party in 1875 seemed to be a foregone conclusion. It was equally certain that the Democratic Convention would declare itself in favor of a circulation of irredeemable paper money, and against the resumption of specie payments. Under such circumstances the Republicans felt themselves compelled to put into the field against him the strongest available candidate they had, and a large majority of them turned at once to Governor Hayes. But he had declared himself in favor of Judge Taft, of Cincinnati, and urged the delegates from his county to vote for that gentleman, which they did. Notwithstanding this, the convention nominated Hayes on the first ballot by an overwhelming majority. When he, at Fremont, received the telegraphic announcement of his nomination, he at once wrote a letter declining the honor; but upon the further information that Judge Taft's son, withdrawing the name of his father, had moved in the convention to make the nomination unanimous, he accepted. Thus he became the leader of the advocates of a sound and stable currency in that memorable state canvass, the public discussions in which did so much to mold the sentiments of the people, especially in the western states, with regard to that important subject. The Democratic Convention adopted a platform declaring that the volume of the currency (meaning the irredeemable paper currency of the United States) should be made and kept equal to the wants of trade; that the national bank currency should be retired, and greenbacks issued in its stead; and that at least half of the customs duties should be made payable in the government paper money. The Republicans were by no means as united in favor of honest money as might have been desired, and Governor Hayes was appealed to by many of his party friends not to oppose an increase of the paper currency; but he resolutely declared his opinions in favor of honest money in a series of speeches, appealing to honor and sober judgment of the people with that warmth of patriotic feeling and that good sense in the statement of political issues which, uttered in language always temperate and kindly, gave him the ear of opponents as well as friends. The canvass, on account of the national questions involved in it, attracted attention in all parts of the country, and Governor Hayes was well supported by speakers from other states. Another subject had been thrust upon the people of Ohio by a legislative attempt to divide the school fund between Catholics and Protestants, and Hayes vigorously advocated the cause of secular education. After an ardent struggle, he carried the election by a majority of 5,500. He had thus not only won the distinction of being elected three times governor of his state, but, as the successful leader in a campaign for an honest money system, he was advanced to a very prominent position among the public men of the country, and his name appeared at once among those of possible candidates for the presidency.

While thus spoken of and written to, he earnestly insisted upon the maintenance by his party of an uncompromising position concerning the money question. To James A. Garfield he wrote in March, 1876: “The previous question will again be irredeemable paper as a permanent policy, or a policy which seeks a return to coin. My opinion is decidedly against yielding a hair-breadth.” On 29 March, 1876, the Republican state Convention of Ohio passed a resolution to present Rutherford B. Hayes to the National Republican Convention for the nomination for president, and instructing the state delegation to support him. The National Republican Convention met at Cincinnati on 14 June, 1876. The principal candidates before it were James G. Blaine, Oliver P. Morton, Benjamin H. Bristow, Roscoe Conkling, Governor Hayes, and John F. Hartranft. The name of Hayes was presented to the convention by General Noyes in an exceedingly judicious and well-tempered speech, dwelling not only upon his high personal character, but upon the fact that he had no enemies and possessed peculiarly the qualities “calculated best to compromise all difficulties and to soften all antagonisms.” Hayes had sixty-one votes on the first ballot, 378 being necessary to a choice, and his support slowly but steadily grew until on the seventh ballot the opposition to Mr. Blaine, who had been the leading candidate, concentrated upon Hayes, and gave him the nomination, which, on motion of William P. Frye, of Maine, was made unanimous. In his letter of acceptance, dated 8 July, 1876, Mr. Hayes laid especial stress upon three points, civil-service reform, the currency, and the pacification of the south. As to the civil service, he denounced the use of public offices for the purpose of rewarding party services, and especially for services rendered to party leaders, as destroying the independence of the separate departments of the government, as leading directly to extravagance and official incapacity, and as a temptation to dishonesty. He declared that a reform, “thorough, radical, and complete,” should lead us back to the principles and practices of the founders of the government, who “neither expected nor desired from the public officer any partisan service,” who meant “that public officers should owe their whole service to the government and to the people,” and that “the officer should be secure in his tenure as long as his personal character remained untarnished, and the performance of his duties satisfactory.” As to the currency, he regarded “all the laws of the United States relating to the payment of the public indebtedness, the legal-tender notes included, as constituting a pledge and moral obligation of the government, which must in good faith be kept.” He therefore insisted upon as early as possible a resumption of specie payments, pledging himself to “approve every appropriate measure to accomplish the desired end,” and to “oppose any step backward.” As to the pacification of the south, he pointed out, as the first necessity, “an intelligent and honest administration of the government, which will protect all classes of citizens in all their political and private rights.” He deprecated “a division of political parties resting merely upon distinctions of race, or upon sectional lines,” as always unfortunate and apt to become disastrous. He expressed the hope that with “a hearty and generous recognition of the rights of all by all,” it would be “practicable to promote, by the influence of all legitimate agencies of the general government, the efforts of the people of those states to obtain for themselves the blessings of honest and capable local government.” He also declared his “inflexible purpose,” if elected, not to be a candidate for election to a second term.

The Democrats nominated for the presidency Samuel J. Tilden, who, having, as governor of New York, won the reputation of a reformer, attracted the support of many Republicans who were dissatisfied with their party. The result of the election became the subject of acrimonious dispute. Both parties claimed to have carried the states of Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida. Each charged fraud upon the other, the Republicans affirming that Republican voters, especially colored men, all over the south had been deprived of their rights by intimidation or actual force, and that ballot-boxes had been foully dealt with, and the Democrats insisting that their candidates in Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina had received a majority of the votes actually cast, and that the Republican canvassing boards were preparing to falsify the result in making up the returns. The friends of both the candidates for the presidency sent prominent men into the states in dispute, for the purpose of watching the proceedings of the canvassing boards. The attitude maintained by Mr. Hayes personally was illustrated by a letter addressed to John Sherman at New Orleans, which was brought to light by a subsequent congressional investigation. It was dated at Columbus, Ohio, 27 November, 1876, and said: “I am greatly obliged for your letter of the 23d. You feel, I am sure, as I do about this whole business. A fair election would have given us about forty electoral votes at the south — at least that many. But we are not to allow our friends to defeat one outrage and fraud by another. There must be nothing crooked on our part. Let Mr. Tilden have the place by violence, intimidation, and fraud, rather than undertake to prevent it by means that will not bear the severest scrutiny.” The canvassing boards of the states in question declared the Republican electors chosen, which gave Mr. Hayes a majority of one vote in the electoral college, and the certificates of these results were sent to Washington by the governors of the states. But the Democrats persisted in charging fraud; and other sets of certificates, certifying the Democratic electors to have been elected, arrived at Washington. To avoid a deadlock, which might have happened if the canvass of the electoral votes had been left to the two houses of Congress (the Senate having a Republican and the House of Representatives a Democratic majority), an act, advocated by members of both parties, was passed to refer all contested cases to a commission composed of five senators, five representatives, and five judges of the supreme court; the decision of this commission to be final, unless set aside by a concurrent vote of the two houses of Congress. The commission, refusing to go behind the certificates of the governors, decided in each contested case by a vote of eight to seven in favor of the Republican electors, beginning with Florida on 7 February, and Rutherford B. Hayes was at last, on 2 March, declared duly elected president of the United States. Thus ended the long and painful suspense. The decision was generally acquiesced in, and the popular excitement subsided quickly.

President Hayes was inaugurated on 5 March, 1877. In his inaugural address he substantially restated the principles and views of policy set forth in his letter of acceptance, adding that, while the president of necessity owes his election to the suffrage and zealous labors of a party, he should be always mindful that “he serves his party best who serves his country best,” and declaring also, referring to the contested election, that the general acceptance of the settlement by the two great parties of a dispute, “in regard to which good men differ as to the facts and the law, no less than as to the proper course to be pursued in solving the question in controversy,” was an “occasion for general rejoicing.” The cabinet that he appointed consisted of William M. Evarts, Secretary of State; John Sherman, secretary of the treasury; George W. McCrary, Secretary of War; Richard W. Thompson, Secretary of the Navy; David M. Key, postmaster-general; Charles Devens, Attorney-General; and Carl Schurz, Secretary of the Interior. The administration began under very unfavorable circumstances, as general business stagnation and severe distress had prevailed throughout the country since the crash of 1873. As soon as the cabinet was organized, the new president addressed himself to the composition of difficulties in several southern states. He had given evidence of his conciliatory disposition by taking into his cabinet a prominent citizen of the south who had been an officer in the Confederate Army and had actively opposed his election. In both South Carolina and Louisiana there were two sets of state officers and two legislatures, one Republican and the other Democratic, each claiming to have been elected by a majority of the popular vote. The presence of Federal troops at or near the respective state-houses had so far told in favor of the Republican claimants, while the Democratic claimants had the preponderance of support from the citizens of substance and influence. President Hayes was resolved that the upholding of local governments in the southern states by the armed forces of the United States must come to an end, and that, therefore, the Federal troops should be withdrawn from the position they then occupied; but he was at the same time anxious to have the change effected without any disturbance of the peace, and without imperilling the security or rights of any class of citizens. His plan was by conciliatory measures to put an end to the lawless commotions and distracting excitements that, ever since the close of the war, had kept a large part of the south in constant turmoil, and thus to open to that section a new career of peace and prosperity. He obtained from the southern leaders in Congress assurances that they would use their whole influence for the maintenance of good order and the protection of the rights and security of all, and for a union of the people in a natural understanding that, as to their former antagonisms, by-gones should be treated as by-gones. To the same end he invited the rival governors of South Carolina, Daniel H. Chamberlain and Wade Hampton, to meet him in conference at Washington; and he appointed a commission composed of eminent gentlemen, Democrats as well as Republicans — General Joseph R. Hawley, of Connecticut; Charles B. Lawrence, of Illinois; John M. Harlan, of Kentucky; Ex-Governor John C. Brown, of Tennessee; and Wayne McVeagh, of Pennsylvania — to go to Louisiana and there to ascertain what were “the real impediments to regular, loyal, and peaceful procedures under the laws and constitution of Louisiana,” and further, by conciliatory influences, to endeavor to remove “the obstacles to an acknowledgment of one government within the state,” or, if that were found impracticable, at least “to accomplish the recognition of a single legislature as the depositary of the representative will of the people of Louisiana.” The two rival governors — S. B. Packard, Republican, and Francis T. Nichols, Democrat — stoutly maintained their respective claims; but the two legislatures united into one, a majority of the members of both houses, whose election was conceded on both sides, meeting and organizing under the auspices of the Nichols government. President Hayes, having received the necessary assurances of peace and goodwill, issued instructions to withdraw the troops of the United States from the state-house of South Carolina on 10 April, 1877, and from the state-house of Louisiana on 20 April, 1877, whereupon in South Carolina the state government passed peaceably into the hands of Wade Hampton, and in Louisiana into those of Francis T. Nichols. The course thus pursued by President Hayes was, in the north as well as in the south, heartily approved by a large majority of the people, to whom the many scandals springing from the interference of the general government in the internal affairs of the southern states had become very obnoxious, and who desired the southern states to be permitted to work out their own salvation. But this policy was also calculated to loosen the hold that the Republican Party had upon the southern states, and was therefore severely criticised by many Republican politicians.

President Hayes began his administration with earnest efforts for the reform of the civil service. In some of the departments competitive examinations were resumed for the appointment of clerks. In filling other offices, political influence found much less regard than had been the custom before. The pretension of senators and representatives that the “patronage” in their respective states and districts belonged to them was not recognized, although in many cases their advice was taken. The president's appointments were generally approved by public opinion, but he was blamed for appointing persons connected with the Louisiana returning-board. On 26 May, 1877, he addressed a letter to the Secretary of the Treasury, expressing the wish “that the collection of the revenues should be free from partisan control, and organized on a strictly business basis, with the same guarantees for efficiency and fidelity in the selection of the chief and subordinate officers that would be required by a prudent merchant,” and that “party leaders should have no more influence in appointments than other equally respectable citizens.” On 22 June, 1877, he issued the following executive order: “No officer should be required or permitted to take part in the management of political organizations, caucuses, conventions, or election campaigns. Their right to vote or to express their views on public questions, either orally or through the press, is not denied, provided it does not interfere with the discharge of their official duties. No assessment for political purposes, on officers or subordinates, should be allowed. This rule is applicable to every department of the civil service. It should be understood by every officer of the general government that he is expected to conform his conduct to its requirements.” The policy thus indicated found much favor with the people generally, and not a few men in public life heartily approved of it. But the bulk of the professional politicians, who saw themselves threatened in their livelihood, and many members of Congress, who looked upon government patronage as a part of their perquisites, and the distribution of offices among their adherents as the means by which to hold the party together and to maintain themselves in public office, became seriously alarmed and began a systematic warfare upon the president and his cabinet.

The administration was from the beginning surrounded with a variety of difficulties. Congress had adjourned on 3 March, 1877, without making the necessary appropriations for the support of the army, so that from 30 June the army would remain without pay until new provision could be made. The president, therefore, on 5 May, 1877, called an extra session of Congress to meet on 15 October But in the meantime a part of the army was needed for active service of a peculiarly trying kind. In July strikes broke out among the men employed upon railroads, beginning on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad and then rapidly spreading over a large part of the northern states. It is estimated that at one time more than 100,000 men were out. Grave disorders occurred, and the president found himself appealed to by the governors of West Virginia, of Maryland, and of Pennsylvania to aid them with the Federal power in suppressing domestic violence, which the authorities of their respective states were not able to master. He issued his proclamations on 18, 21, and 23 July, and sent into the above-mentioned states such detachments of the Federal Army as were available. Other detachments were ordered to Chicago. Whenever the troops of the United States appeared, however small the force, they succeeded in restoring order without bloodshed — in fact, without meeting with any resistance, while the state militia in many instances had bloody encounters with the rioters, sometimes with doubtful result.

In his first annual message, 3 December, 1877, President Hayes congratulated the country upon the results of the policy he had followed with regard to the south. He said: “All apprehension of danger from remitting those states to local self-government is dispelled, and a most salutary change in the minds of the people has begun and is in progress in every part of that section of the country once the theatre of unhappy civil strife; substituting for suspicion, distrust, and aversion, concord, friendship, and patriotic attachment to the Union. No unprejudiced mind will deny that the terrible and often fatal collisions which for several years have been of frequent occurrence, and have agitated and alarmed the public mind, have almost entirely ceased, and that a spirit of mutual forbearance and hearty national interest has succeeded. There has been a general re-establishment of order, and of the orderly administration of justice; instances of remaining lawlessness have become of rare occurrence; political turmoil and turbulence have disappeared; useful industries have been resumed; public credit in the southern states has been greatly strengthened and the encouraging benefit of a revival of commerce between the sections of country lately embroiled in Civil War are fully enjoyed.” He also strongly urged the resumption of specie payments. As to the difficulties to be met in this respect he said: “I must adhere to my most earnest conviction that any wavering in purpose or unsteadiness in methods, so far from avoiding or reducing the inconvenience inseparable from the transition from an irredeemable to a redeemable paper currency, would only tend to increased and prolonged disturbance in values, and, unless retrieved, must end in serious disorder, dishonor, and disaster in the financial affairs of the government and of the people.” As to the restoration of silver as a legal tender, which was at the time being agitated, he insisted that “all the bonds issued since 12 February, 1873, when gold became the only unlimited legal-tender metallic currency of the country, are justly payable in gold coin, or in coin of equal value”; and that “the bonds issued prior to 1873 were issued at a time when the gold dollar was the only coin in circulation or contemplated by either the government or the holders of the bonds as the coin in which they were to be paid.” He added: “It is far better to pay these bonds in that coin than to seem to take advantage of the unforeseen fall in silver bullion to pay in a new issue of silver coin thus made so much less valuable. The power of the United States to coin money and to regulate the value thereof ought never to be exercised for the purpose of enabling the government to pay its obligations in a coin of less value than that contemplated by the parties when the bonds were issued.” He favored the coinage of silver, but only in a limited quantity, as a legal tender to a limited amount. He expressed the fear “that only mischief and misfortune would flow from a coinage of silver dollars with the quality of unlimited legal tender, even in private transactions. Any expectation of temporary ease from an issue of silver coinage to pass as a legal tender, at a rate materially above its commercial value, is, I am persuaded, a delusion.” As to the reform of the civil service, he reiterated what he had said in his letter of acceptance and inaugural address, and insisted that the constitution imposed upon the executive the sole duty and responsibility of the selection of Federal officers who, by law, are appointed, not elected; he deprecated the practical confusion, in this respect, of the duties assigned to the several departments of the government, and earnestly recommended that Congress make a suitable appropriation for the civil-service commission, to be made immediately available. He also recommended efficient legislation for the work of civilization among the Indian tribes, and for the prevention of the destruction of the forests on lands of the United States.

The recommendations thus made by President Hayes were not heeded by Congress. No appropriation was made for the civil-service commission: on the contrary, the dissatisfaction of Republican senators and representatives with the endeavors of the administration in the direction of civil-service reform found vent in various attacks upon the president and the heads of departments. The nomination of one of the foremost citizens of New York for the office of collector of customs at that port was rejected by the Senate. The efforts of the administration to check depredations on the timber-lands of the United States, and to prevent the destruction of the forests, were denounced as an outlandish policy. Instead of facilitating the resumption of specie payments, the House of Representatives passed a bill substantially repealing the resumption act. A resolution was offered by a Republican senator, and adopted by the Senate, declaring that to restore the coinage of 412½-grain silver dollars and to pay the government bonds, principal and interest, in such silver coin, was “not in violation of the public faith, nor in derogation of the rights of the public creditor.” A “silver bill” passed both houses providing that a silver dollar should be coined at the several mints of the United States, of the weight of 412½ grains, which, together with all silver dollars of like weight and fineness coined theretofore by the United States, should be a full legal tender for all debts and dues, public and private, except where otherwise expressly stipulated in the contract, and directing the secretary of the treasury to buy not less than two million dollars' worth of silver a month, and cause it to be coined into dollars as fast as purchased. President Hayes returned this bill with his veto, mainly on the ground that the commercial value of the silver dollar was then worth eight to ten per cent. less than its nominal value, and that its use as a legal tender for the payment of pre-existing debts would be an act of bad faith. He said: “As to all debts heretofore contracted, the silver dollar should be made a legal tender only at its market value. The standard of value should not be changed without the consent of both parties to the contract. National promises should be kept with unflinching fidelity. There is no power to compel a nation to pay its just debts. Its credit depends on its honor. A nation owes what it has led or allowed its creditors to expect. I cannot approve a bill which in my judgment authorizes the violation of sacred obligations.” But the bill was passed over the veto in both houses by majorities exceeding two thirds. During the same session the House of Representatives, which had a Democratic majority, on motion of Clarkson N. Potter, of New York, resolved to institute an inquiry into the allegations of fraud said to have been committed in Louisiana and Florida in making the returns of the votes cast for presidential electors at the election of 1876. The Republicans charged that the investigation was set on foot for the purpose of ousting Mr. Hayes from the presidency and putting in Mr. Tilden. The Democrats disclaimed any such intention. The result of the investigation was an elaborate report from the Democratic majority of the committee, impugning the action of the returning boards in Louisiana and Florida as fraudulent, and a report from the Republican minority dissenting from the conclusions of the majority as unwarranted by the evidence, and alleging that the famous “cipher despatches” sent to the south by friends of Mr. Tilden showed “that the charges of corruption were but the slanders of foiled suborners of corruption.” The investigation led to no further action; the people generally acquiescing in the decision of the electoral commission, and the counting of the electoral vote by Congress based thereon, as irreversible.

President Hayes was again obliged to resort to the employment of force by the outbreak of serious disturbances caused by bands of desperadoes in the territory of New Mexico, which amounted to organized resistance to the enforcement of the laws. He issued, on 7 October, 1878, a proclamation substantially putting the disturbed portion of New Mexico under martial law, and directing the U. S. Military forces stationed there to restore and maintain peace and order.

In his message of 2 December, 1878, President Hayes found himself obliged to say that in Louisiana and South Carolina, and in some districts outside of those states, “the records of the recent [Congressional] elections compelled the conclusion that the rights of the colored voters had been overridden, and their participation in the elections not been permitted to be either general or free.” He added that, while it would be for Congress to examine into the validity of the claims of members to their seats, it became the duty of the executive and judicial departments of the government to inquire into and punish violations of the laws, and that every means in his power would be exerted to that end. At the same time he expressed his “absolute assurance that, while the country had not yet reached complete unity of feeling and confidence between the communities so lately and so seriously estranged, the tendencies were in that direction, and with increasing force.” He deprecated all interference by Congress with existing financial legislation, with the confident expectation that the resumption of specie payments would be “successfully and easily maintained,” and would be “followed by a healthful and enduring revival of business prosperity.” On 1 January, 1879, the resumption act went into operation without any difficulty. No preparation had been made for that event until the beginning of the Hayes administration. The Secretary of the Treasury, in 1877, began to accumulate coin, and, notwithstanding the opposition it found, even among Republicans, this policy was firmly pursued by the administration until the coin reserve held against the legal-tender notes was sufficient to meet all probable demands. Thus the country was lifted out of the bog of an irredeemable paper currency. The operation was facilitated by increased exports and a general revival of business. Although his first nominee for the office of collector of customs in New York had been rejected by the Senate, President Hayes made a second nomination for the same place, as well as for that of naval officer of the same port, and in a special message addressed to the Senate on 31 January, 1879, he gave the following reasons for the suspension of the incumbents, Chester A. Arthur and Alonzo B. Cornell, who had failed to conform their conduct to the executive order of 22 June, 1877: “For a long period of time it [the New York custom-house] has been used to manage and control political affairs. The officers suspended by me are, and for several years have been, engaged in the active personal management of the party politics of the city and state of New York. The duties of the offices held by them have been regarded as of subordinate importance to their partisan work. Their offices have been conducted as part of the political machinery under their control. They have made the custom-house a centre of partisan political management.” [For the other side of this disputed question, see
Arthur, Chester Alan, vol. i., pp. 100, 101.] For like reasons, President Hayes moved an influential party manager in the west, the postmaster of St. Louis. With the aid of Democratic votes in the Senate, the new nominations were confirmed. President Hayes then addressed a letter to the new collector of customs at New York, General Edwin A. Merritt, instructing him to conduct his office “on strictly business principles, and according to the rules which were adopted, on the recommendation of the civil-service commission, by the administration of General Grant.” He added: “Neither my recommendation, nor that of the Secretary of the Treasury, nor the recommendation of any member of Congress, or other influential person, should be specially regarded. Let appointments and removals be made on business principles, and by fixed rules.” Thus the system of competitive examinations, which under the preceding administration had been abandoned upon the failure of Congress to make appropriations for the civil-service commission, was, by direction of President Hayes, restored in the custom-house of New York. A like system was introduced in the New York post-office under the postmaster, Thomas L. James.

Congress passed a bill “to restrict the immigration of Chinese to the United States,” requiring the president immediately to give notice to the government of China of the abrogation of certain articles of the treaty of 1858 between the United States and China, which recognized “the inherent and inalienable right of a man to change his home and allegiance,” and provided that “the citizens of the United States visiting or residing in China shall enjoy the same privileges, immunities, or exemptions, in respect to travel or residence, as may there be enjoyed by the citizens or subjects of the most favored nation,” and reciprocally that Chinese subjects should enjoy the same advantages in the United States. The bill further limited the number of Chinese passengers that might be brought to this country by any one vessel to fifteen. President Hayes, on 1 March, 1879, returned the bill to Congress with his veto. While recognizing some of the difficulties created by the immigration of the Chinese as worthy of consideration, he objected to the bill mainly on the ground that it was inconsistent with existing treaty relations between the United States and China; that a treaty could be abrogated or modified by the treaty-making power, and not, under the constitution, by act of Congress; and that “the abrogation of a treaty by one of the contracting parties is justifiable only upon reasons both of the highest justice and of the highest necessity”; and “to do this without notice, without fixing a day in advance when the act shall take effect, without affording an opportunity to China to be heard, and without the happening of any grave unforeseen emergency, would be regarded by the enlightened judgment of mankind as the denial of the obligation of the national faith.”

The 45th Congress adjourned on 4 March, 1879, without making the usual and necessary appropriations for the expenses of the government. The house, controlled by a Democratic majority, attached to the Army appropriation bill a legislative provision substantially repealing a law passed in 1865, under President Lincoln, which permitted the use of troops “to keep the peace at the polls” on election-days. The house also attached to the legislative, executive, and judicial appropriation bill a repeal of existing laws providing for the appointment of supervisors of election and special deputy marshals to act at elections of members of Congress. The Republican majority of the Senate struck out these legislative provisions, and, the two houses disagreeing, the appropriation bills failed. President Hayes, on 4 March, 1879, called an extra session of Congress to meet on 18 March. The Democrats then had a majority in the Senate as well as in the house, and attached to the Army appropriation bill the same legislative provision on which in the preceding Congress the two houses had disagreed. President Hayes returned the bill with his veto on 29 April, 1879. He took the ground that there was ample legislation to prevent military interference at elections; that there never had been any such interference since the passage of the act of 1865, and was no danger of any; that if the proposed legislation should become law, there would be no power vested in any officer of the government to protect from violence the officers of the United States engaged in the discharge of their duties; that the states may employ both military and civil power to keep the peace, and to enforce the laws at state elections, but that it was now proposed to deny to the United States even the necessary civil authority to protect the national elections. He pointed out also that the tacking of legislative provisions to appropriation bills was a practice calculated to be used as a means of coercion as to the other branches of the government, and to make the House of Representatives a despotic power. Congress then passed the Army appropriation bill without the obnoxious clause, but containing the provision that no money appropriated should be paid for the subsistence, equipment, transportation, or compensation of any portion of the army of the United States “to be used as a police force to keep the peace at the polls at any election held within any state.” This President Hayes approved. The two houses then passed a separate bill, substantially embodying the provision objected to by the president in the vetoed Army-appropriation bill. This “act to prohibit military interference at elections” President Hayes returned with his veto. He said: “The true rule as to the employment of military force at the elections is not doubtful. No intimidation or coercion should be allowed to influence citizens in the exercise of their right to vote, whether it appears in the shape of combinations of evil-disposed persons, or of armed bodies of the militia of a state, or of the military force of the United States. The elections should be free from all forcible interference, and, as far as practicable, from all apprehension of such interference. No soldiery, either of the United States or of the state militia, should be present at the polls to perform the duties of the ordinary civil police force. There has been and will be no violation of this rule under orders from me during this administration. That there should be no denial of the right of the national government to employ its military force on any day and at any place in case such employment is necessary to enforce the constitution and laws of the United States.” The legislative, executive, and judicial appropriation bill passed by Congress contained a legislative provision not, indeed, abolishing the supervisors of election, but divesting the government of the power to protect them, or to prevent interference with their duties, or to punish any violation of the law from which their power was derived. President Hayes returned this bill also with his veto, referring to his preceding veto message as to the impropriety of tacking general legislation to appropriation bills. He further pointed out that, in the various legal proceedings under the law sought to be repealed, its constitutionality had never been questioned; and that the necessity of such a law had been amply demonstrated by the great election frauds in New York City in 1868. He added: “The great body of the people of all parties want free and fair elections. They do not think that a free election means freedom from the wholesome restraints of law, or that the place of an election should be a sanctuary for lawlessness and crime.” If any oppression, any partisan partiality, had been shown in the execution of the existing law, he added, efficient correctives of the mischief should be applied; but as no congressional election was immediately impending, the matter might properly be referred to the regular session of Congress.

In a bill “making appropriations for certain judicial expenses,” passed by Congress, it was attempted not to repeal the election laws, but to make their enforcement impossible by prohibiting the payment of any salaries, fees, or expenses under or in virtue of them, and providing also that no contract should be made, and no liability incurred, under any of their provisions. President Hayes vetoed this bill, 23 June, 1879, on the ground that as no bill repealing the election laws had been passed over his veto, those laws were still in existence, and the present bill, if it became a law, would make it impossible for the executive to perform his constitutional duty to see to it that the laws be faithfully executed. On the same ground the president returned with his veto a bill making appropriations to pay fees of United States marshals and their general deputies, in which the same attempt was made to defeat the execution of the election laws by withholding the necessary funds as well as the power to incur liabilities under them. All the appropriation bills were passed without the obnoxious provisions except the last. President Hayes appealed to Congress in a special message on 30 June, 1879, the end of the fiscal year, not to permit the marshals and their general deputies, officers so necessary to the administration of justice, to go unprovided for, but in vain. The Attorney-General then admonished the marshals to continue in the performance of their duties, and to rely upon future legislation by Congress, which would be just to them.

In his annual message of 1 December, 1879, President Hayes found occasion to congratulate the country upon the successful resumption of specie payments and upon “a very great revival of business.” He announced a most gratifying reduction of the interest on the public debt by refunding at lower rates. He strongly urged Congress to authorize the Secretary of the Treasury to suspend the silver coinage, as the cheaper coin, if forced into circulation, would eventually become the sole standard of value. He also recommended the retirement of United States notes with the capacity of legal tender in private contracts, it being his “firm conviction that the issue of legal-tender paper money based wholly upon the authority and credit of the government, except in extreme emergency, is without warrant in the constitution, and a violation of sound financial principles.” He recommended a vigorous enforcement of the laws against polygamy in the territory of Utah. He presented a strong argument in favor of civil-service reform, pointed out the successful trial of the competitive system in the interior department, the post-office department, and the post-office and the custom-house in New York, and once more earnestly urged that an appropriation be made for the civil-service commission, and that those in the public service be protected by law against exactions in the pay of party assessments. But these recommendations remained without effect.

On 12 February, 1880, President Hayes issued a second proclamation — the first having been issued in April, 1879 — against the attempts made by lawless persons to possess themselves for settlement of lands within the Indian territory, and effective measures were taken to expel the invaders. On 8 March, 1880, he sent to the House of Representatives a special message communicating correspondence in relation to the interoceanic canal, which had passed between the American and foreign governments, and expressing his own opinion on the subject as follows: “The policy of this country is a canal under American control. The United States cannot consent to the surrender of this control to any European power, or to any combination of European powers. If existing treaties between the United States and other nations, or if the rights of sovereignty or property of other nations, stand in the way of this policy — a contingency which is not apprehended — suitable steps should be taken by just and liberal negotiations to promote and establish the American policy on this subject, consistently with the rights of the nations to be affected by it. An interoceanic canal across the American isthmus will be the great ocean thoroughfare between our Atlantic and our Pacific shores, and virtually a part of the coast-line of the United States. No other great power would, under similar circumstances, fail to assert a rightful control over a work so closely and vitally affecting its interest and welfare.” Congress passed a deficiency appropriation bill, which contained provisions materially changing, and, by implication, repealing certain important parts of the election laws. President Hayes, on 4 May, 1880, returned the bill with his veto, whereupon Congress made the appropriation without re-enacting the obnoxious clauses.

In November, 1880, was held the election that put James A. Garfield into the presidential chair and proved conclusively that the Republican Party had gained largely in the confidence of the public during the Hayes administration. In his last annual message, 6 December, 1880, President Hayes again mentioned the occurrence of election disorders in a part of the Union, and the necessity of their repression and correction, but declared himself satisfied, at the same time, that the evil was diminishing. Again he argued in favor of civil-service reform, especially competitive examinations, which had been conducted with great success in some of the executive departments and adopted by his direction in the larger custom-houses and post-offices. He reiterated his recommendation of an appropriation for the civil-service commission, and of a law against political assessments. He also, to stop the interference of members of Congress with the civil service, suggested that an act be passed “defining the relations of members of Congress with regard to appointments to office by the president,” and that the tenure-of-office act be repealed. He recommended “that Congress provide for the government of Utah by a governor and judges, or commissioners, appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate — a government analogous to the provisional government established for the territory northwest of the Ohio, by the ordinance of 1787,” dispensing with an elected territorial legislature. He announced that on 17 November two treaties had been signed at Peking by the commissioners of the United States and the plenipotentiaries of the emperor of China — one purely commercial, and the other authorizing the government of the United States, whenever the immigration of Chinese laborers threatened to affect the interests of the country, to regulate, limit, or suspend such immigration, but not altogether to prohibit it, said government at the same time promising to secure to Chinese permanently or temporarily residing in the United States the same protection and rights as to citizens or subjects of the most favored nation. President Hayes further suggested the importance of making provision for regular steam postal communication with the Central and South American states; he recommended that Congress, by suitable legislation and with proper safeguards, supplement the local educational funds in the several states where the grave duties and responsibilities of citizenship have been devolved upon uneducated people, by devoting to the purpose grants of lands, and, if necessary, by appropriations from the treasury of the United States; he repeated his recommendations as to the suspension of the silver coinage, and as to the retirement from circulation of the United States notes, and added one that provision be made by law to put General Grant upon the retired list of the army, with rank and pay befitting the great services he had rendered to the country.

On 1 February, 1880, he addressed a special message to Congress in relation to the Ponca Indians, in which he pointed out the principles that should guide our Indian policy: preparation for citizenship by industrial and general education; allotment of land in severalty, inalienable for a certain period; fair compensation for Indian lands not required for allotment; and, finally, investment of the Indians, so educated and provided for, with the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. His last communication to Congress, 3 March, 1881, was a message returning with his veto a bill “to facilitate the refunding of the national debt,” which contained a provision seriously impairing the value and tending to the destruction of the national banking system. On the following day he assisted at the inauguration of his successor.

The administration of President Hayes, although much attacked by the politicians of both parties, was on the whole very satisfactory to the people at large. By withdrawing the Federal troops from the southern state-houses, and restoring to the people of those states practical self-government, it prepared the way for that revival of patriotism among those lately estranged from the Union, that fraternal feeling between the two sections of the country, and the wonderful material advancement of the south which we now witness. It conducted with wisdom and firmness the preparations for the resumption of specie payments, as well as the funding of the public debt at lower rates of interest, and thus facilitated the development of the remarkable business prosperity that continued to its close. While in its endeavors to effect a thorough and permanent reform of the civil service there were conspicuous lapses and inconsistencies, it accomplished important and lasting results. Not only without any appropriations of money and without encouragement of any kind from Congress, but in the face of the decided hostility of a large majority of its members, the system of competitive examinations was successfully applied in some of the executive departments at Washington and in the great government offices at New York, thus proving its practicability and usefulness. The removal by President Hayes of some of the most powerful party managers from their offices, avowedly on the ground that the offices had been used as part of the political machinery, was an act of high courage, and during his administration there was far less meddling with party politics on the part of officers of the government than at any period since Andrew Jackson's time. The success of the Republican Party in the election of 1880 was largely owing to the general satisfaction among the people with the Hayes administration.

On the expiration of his term, ex-President Hayes retired to his home at Fremont, Ohio. He was the recipient of various distinctions. The degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by Kenyon College, Harvard University, Yale College, and Johns Hopkins University. He was made senior vice-commander of the military order of the Loyal legion, commander of the Ohio commandery of the same order, the first president of the Society of the Army of West Virginia, and president of the 23d Regiment Ohio Volunteers association. Much of his time is devoted to benevolent and useful enterprises. He is president of the trustees of the John F. Slater education-fund, one of the trustees of the Peabody education-fund, president of the National prison-reform association, an active member of the National conference of corrections and charities, a trustee of the Western Reserve University at Cleveland, Ohio, of the Wesleyan University of Delaware, Ohio, of Mount Union College, at Alliance, Ohio, and of several other charitable and educational institutions. On the occasion of a meeting of the National prison-reform association, held at Atlanta, Georgia, in November, 1886, he was received with much popular enthusiasm, and greeted by an ex-governor of Georgia as one to whom, more than to any other, the people were indebted for the era of peace and union which they now enjoyed, and by the present governor, John B. Gordon, as the man who had “made a true and noble effort to complete the restoration of the Union by restoring fraternal feeling between the estranged sections.” See “Life, Public Services, and Select Speeches of Rutherford B. Hayes,” by James Quay Howard (Cincinnati, 1876). Campaign lives were also written by William D. Howells (New York, 1876) and Russell H. Conwell (Boston, 1876). — His wife, Lucy Ware Webb, born in Chillicothe, Ohio, 28 August, 1831; died in Fremont, Ohio, 25 June, 1889. She was the daughter of a physician, and married in 1852. Of eight children, four sons and one daughter are living. Mrs. Hayes was noted for her devotion to the wounded soldiers during the war. She refused to permit wine to be served on the White House table, and for this innovation incurred much censure in some political circles, but received high praise from the advocates of total abstinence, who, on the expiration of her husband's term of office, presented her with various testimonials, including an album filled with autograph expressions of approval from many prominent persons.  Appleton’s  1888, 1892 pp. 134-143.

HAYMAN, Samuel Brinkle, soldier, born in Chester County. Pennsylvania. 5 June, 1820. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1842, became 1st lieutenant of infantry in 1847, captain in 1855, major in 1863. and lieutenant-colonel in 1867. During the Mexican War he was in several important battles, participating in the assault and capture of the city of Mexico. He served throughout the Civil War with the Army of the Potomac, and was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at Chancellorsville. He was mustered out of the volunteer service in June, 1863, and afterward participated in the battles of Kelly's Ford, Mine Run, and the battle of the Wilderness, 6 May, 1864, where he was wounded and brevetted colonel. In March, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for gallantry at Fair Oaks. In 1865-'6 he was acting assistant provost-marshal-general, and disbursing officer at Elmira, New York. He took command at Fort Dakota in 1866, and was retired in 1872. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 143.

HAYNIE, Isham Nicolas, soldier, born in Dover, Tennessee, 18 November, 1824; died in Springfield, Illinois, in November, 1868. He moved to Illinois in early childhood, received little education, and worked on a farm to obtain means to study law, in which he was licensed to practise in 1846. He served throughout the Mexican War as 1st lieutenant of the 6th Illinois Volunteers, resumed his profession in 1849, and was a member of the legislature in 1850. He was graduated at the Kentucky laws school in 1852, and in 1856 was appointed judge of the court of common pleas at Cairo, Illinois. He canvassed the state as presidential elector on the Douglas ticket in 1860, and in 1861 raised and organized the 48th Illinois Infantry, being commissioned its colonel. He participated in the battles of Fort Henry, Port Donelson, Shiloh, where he was severely wounded, and Corinth. He was defeated as war candidate for Congress in 1862, and on 20 November of this year received the appointment of brigadier-general of volunteers. He resumed his profession in 1864, and subsequently became adjutant-general of Illinois.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 146.

HAYS, Alexander, soldier, born in Franklin, Venango County, Pennsylvania, 8 July, 1819; killed in the battle of the Wilderness, 5 May, 1864. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1844 with Winfield S. Hancock and Alfred Pleasonton. As 2d lieutenant of the 8th U.S. Infantry, he entered on the Mexican Campaign, and won special distinction in the engagement near Atlixco. In April, 1848, he resigned his commission in the army, and settled in Venango County, Pennsylvania, where he engaged in the manufacture of iron in 1848-'50, was assistant engineer on railroads in 1850-'4, and from 1854 till 1861 was a civil engineer in Pittsburg. When the war began in 1861, Hays re-entered the service as colonel of the 63d Pennsylvania Regiment, and with the rank of captain in the 16th regular Infantry, to date from 14 May, 1861. In the Peninsula he was attached with his regiment to the first brigade of Kearny's division of Heintzelman's corps, and at the close of the seven day’s contest he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel. He took part in the Maryland Campaign, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 September, 1862. He was wounded at Chancellorsville while at the head of his brigade. He commanded the 3d Division of his corps at the battle of Gettysburg, and, after Hancock was wounded, was temporarily in command, gaining the brevet of colonel in the United States Army. He was engaged at Auburn and Mine Run. When the Army of the Potomac was reorganized, Hays was placed in command of the second brigade of Birney's 3d Division of the 2d Corps. In this capacity he fought, and gallantly met his death during the terrible struggle toward the junction of the Plank and Brock roads, which was the feature of the first day's fighting in the Wilderness. General Hays was frank and brave, quick and full of energy, and was a great favorite with his men.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 146.

HAYS, William, soldier, born in Richmond, Virginia, in 1819; died in Fort Independence, Boston harbor, 7 February, 1875. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, and promoted 1st lieutenant in 1847, captain in 1853, and major in 1863. He served throughout the Mexican War with the light artillery. He was wounded at Molino del Rey, and brevetted captain and major. From 1853 till 1854 he was engaged in the Seminole Indian Wars, and was on frontier duty in 1856-'60. He commanded a brigade of horse-artillery in 1861-'2 in the Army of the Potomac, participating in the battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg, and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers in November, 1862. He was wounded and taken prisoner at Chancellorsville, 6 May, 1863, rejoined the army at Gettysburg, and in November was appointed provost-marshal of the Southern District of New York. At the expiration of his term in February, 1865, he rejoined his regiment at Petersburg, and served with the 2d Corps, and in command of the reserve artillery until the close of the war, when he was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army for gallant conduct. He was mustered out of volunteer service in 1866 with the rank of major, and served on various posts, commanding Fort Independence from 29 April, 1873, till his death.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 147.  

HAYWARD, Nathaniel, inventor, born in Easton, Massachusetts, 19 January, 1808; died in Colchester, Connecticut, 18 July, 1865. While keeping a livery-stable in Boston in 1834 he bought some India-rubber cloth for a carriage-top, and, noticing that it was sticky, began to make experiments with a view to remedying the difficulty. He sold his stable in 1835, and a few months later engaged to work for the Eagle India-rubber company of Boston, having, as he thought, succeeded in making firm rubber cloth from a mixture of rubber, turpentine, lamp-black, and other materials. In 1836 he tried to bleach some of the cloth by exposing it to the fumes of sulphur, and thus discovered the use of that substance in hardening rubber. He then adopted the plan of sprinkling his cloth with powdered sulphur and afterward exposing it to the sun, and in 1838 patented his process and assigned the patent to Charles Goodyear, thus leading to the latter's discovery of the present vulcanizing process. (See Goodyear, Charles.) Hayward continued to experiment, and, having learned from Mr. Goodyear of his discovery in 1839, endeavored to perfect the vulcanizing process, and succeeded in 1843 in making several hundred pounds of the hardened rubber. The right to use Goodyear's patent for the manufacture of shoes was assigned to him in 1844, and shortly afterward he discovered a method for giving them a high polish. He organized the Hayward rubber company, with Governor William A. Buckingham and others, at Colchester, Connecticut, in 1847, was its active manager till 1854, and its president from 1855 till his death. Mr. Hayward was active in works of benevolence and utility.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 148

HAYWOOD, Benjamin, manufacturer, born in Southwell, England, in 1792; died in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 9 July, 1878. He emigrated to the United States in 1803, and worked as a journeyman blacksmith in Pottsville. In 1833 he purchased the first steam-engine that was put up in Schuylkill County, and established a machine-shop. He became senior partner in the firm of Haywood and Snyder in 1835, and engaged on an extensive scale in building steam-engines and mining-machinery. His firm constructed the first rolls for " T " rails, and the first apparatus for sawing hot iron that was ever used in the United States. At the same time he carried on extensive mining operations. He sold his interests in Pennsylvania in 1850, moved to California, and built at Sonora the first sawmill in the state outside of San Francisco. He organized in 1852 the San Francisco Mechanics' Institute, and was its president till 1855. In the autumn of this year he sold his California business, returned to Pottsville, Pennsylvania, and purchased large interests in the Palo Alto Rolling-Mill. Mr. Haywood was one of the commissioners for organizing the Union Pacific Railroad.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 148.

HAYWOOD, Edmund Burke, physician, born in Raleigh, North Carolina, 13 June, 1825, was educated at the University of North Carolina, and took his medical degree in 1849 at the University of Pennsylvania. He began practice in Raleigh, where he now (1887) resides. In 1861 he was appointed surgeon in the Confederate Army in charge of the hospitals in Raleigh and in Richmond, Virginia, and was acting medical director of the Department of North Carolina, and president of the board to grant discharges from 1863 till the close of the war, when he returned to practice. He was president of the Medical Association of North Carolina in 1868, and from 1871 till 1877, of the State insane asylum. He was a delegate to the International Medical Congress in Philadelphia in 1876. He has contributed various professional papers to surgical and medical journals.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 148.

HAZARD, Rowland Gibson, 1801-1888, author.  State Senator, Rhode Island.  Freed captured African Americans in New Orleans.  (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 149; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 471)

HAZARD, Rowland Gibson, author, born in South Kingston. Rhode Island, 9 October, 1801. He has been engaged from his youth in mercantile and manufacturing pursuits at Peacedale, R. I., where he now (1887) resides, and has accumulated a fortune. While in New Orleans in 1841-'2, though threatened with lynching, he obtained with great effort the release of large numbers of free Negroes, who belonged to ships from the north, and who had been placed in the chain-gang. He was a member of the Rhode Island legislature in 1851-'2 and 1854-'5, and was in the state senate in 1866-'7. Brown gave him the degree of A. M. in 1845, and that of LL. D. in 1869. He is the author of "Language, its Connection with the Constitution and Prospects of Man," under the pen-name of "Heteroscian" (Providence. 1836); "Lectures on the Adaptation of the Universe to the Cultivation of the Mind " (1840); "Lecture on the Causes of the Decline of Political and National Morality" (1841); "Essay on the Philosophical Character of Channing" (1844); "Essay on the Duty of Individuals to support Science and Literature "(1855); "Essays on the Resources of the United States" (1864); "Freedom of the Mind in Willing" (New York, 1864); "Essays on Finance and Hours of Labor" (1868); and two letters addressed to John Stuart Mill on "Causation and Freedom in Willing " (London and Boston, 1869).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 149

HAZARD, Thomas (“College Tom”), 1720-1798, Rhode Island, Society of Friends, Quaker, early abolitionist leader (Drake, 1950, pp. 50, 89, 97, 191; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 149; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 472; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 419-420)

HAZARD, Thomas Robinson,
author, born in South Kingston, Rhode Island, in 1784; died in New York in March, 1876. He was educated at the Friends' school in Westtown, Chester County, Pennsylvania, and subsequently engaged in farming, and assisted his father in the woollen business. He then established a woollen mill at Peacedale, Rhode Island, and acquired a fortune. In 1836 he purchased an estate at Vaucluse, Rhode Island, and in 1840 retired from his manufacturing business. He caused many reforms to be introduced in the management of insane asylums and poor-houses in Rhode Island. He was, for years preceding his death, an enthusiastic spiritualist, and wrote much in support of their views. He is the author of “Facts for the Laboring Man” (1840); “Capital Punishment” (1850); “Report on the Poor and Insane” (1850); “Handbook of the National American Party” (1856); “Appeal to the People of Rhode Island” (1857); and “Ordeal of Life” (Boston, 1870). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 149.

HAZEN, William Babcock, soldier, born in West Hartford, Vermont, 27 September, 1830; died in Washington, D. C, 16 January, 1887. He was a descendant of Moses Hazen, noticed above. His parents moved to Ohio in 1833. William was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1855, and, after serving against the Indians in California and Oregon, joined the 8th U.S. Infantry in Texas in 1857. He commanded successfully in five engagements, until, in December, 1859, he was severely wounded in a personal encounter with the Comanches. He was appointed assistant professor of infantry tactics at the U. S. Military Academy in February, 1861, 1st lieutenant, 6 April, and promoted captain on 14 May. In the autumn of 1861 he raised the 41st Ohio Volunteers, of which he became colonel on 29 October, 1861, and commanded in the defence of the Ohio frontier and in operations in Kentucky. On 6 January, 1862, he took command of a brigade and served with distinction at Shiloh and Corinth. In the battle of Stone River, 12 October, 1862, he protected the left wing of the army from being turned by simultaneous attacks in front and flank. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, commanded a brigade in the operations that resulted in the battle of Chickamauga, and, by a well-executed movement on 27 October, at Brown's Ferry, enabled the army at Chattanooga to receive its supplies. He captured eighteen pieces of artillery at Mission Ridge, served through the Atlanta Campaign, and in Sherman's march to the sea commanded the 2d Division of the 15th Corps. He assaulted and captured Fort McAllister, 13 December, 1864, for which service he was promoted a major-general of volunteers the same day. He was in command of the 15th Army Corps from 19 May till 1 August, 1865. At the end of the war he had received all the brevets in the regular army up to major-general. He was made colonel of the 38th U.S. Infantry in 1866, was in France during the Franco-Prussian War, and was U. S. Military attaché at Vienna during the Russo-Turkish War. In the interval between those two visits, while stationed at Fort Buford, Dakota, he made charges of fraud against post-traders, which resulted in revelations that were damaging to Secretary Belknap. On 8 December, 1880, he succeeded General Albert J. Meyer as chief signal-officer, with the rank of brigadier-general. His administration was marked by the expedition of Lieutenant A. W. Greely to Lady Franklin Bay, and by another to Point Barrow, Alaska, to make meteorological and other observations in co-operation with European nations. (See Greely, A. W.) In September, 1883, after the return of Lieutenant Garlington's unsuccessful relief expedition, General Hazen urged the Secretary of War to despatch a sealer immediately to rescue Greely, and, his recommendation not having been acted upon, he severely censured Secretary Lincoln. In consequence of this, General Hazen was court-martialed and reprimanded. General Hazen introduced the "cold wave signal," promoted the use of local and railway weather signals, organized special observations for the cotton-producing states, established frost warnings, and initiated forecasts for vessels coming to this country from Europe. He published "The School and the Army in Germany and Prance, with a Diary of Siege-Life at Versailles" (New York, 1872); "Barren Lands of the Interior of the United States" (Cincinnati, 1874); and "Narrative of a Military Career" (Boston, 1885).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 150-151.

HEAD, Natt, Governor of New Hampshire, born in Hookset, New Hampshire, 20 May, 1828; died there, 12 November, 1883. His great-grandfather was a lieutenant-colonel in the war of the Revolution, losing his life at the battle of Bennington, and his grandfather served also in that war. Natt engaged in the manufacture of bricks and lumber in Hookset, and later became a railroad and general building contractor. He early connected himself with military organizations, held various offices, and sat in the legislatures of 1861 and 1862. From 1864 till 1870 he was adjutant-general of the state. When he was called to this office New Hampshire had furnished 26,000 men to the national service, but had not a complete set of the muster-rolls of a single organization, nor was there a record of the deeds of New Hampshire men on the battle-fields. General Head obtained the records of the career of every officer and enlisted man, and published them in four volumes (1865-'6), with biographical sketches of field-officers killed or who died in the service, besides sketches of the regiments and battalions. General Head also compiled the military records of the state from 1823 to 1861. When the Soldiers' Asylum at Augusta, Maine, was burned he was placed in charge of the institution during the illness of the deputy-governor, and subsequently rebuilt it. General Head was president of the New Hampshire Agricultural Society, and was prominent in furthering the agricultural interests of the state, and of the patrons of husbandry. He was chosen to the state senate in 1876 and 1877, and was president of the senate the last year. Under the new constitutional amendment of the state providing for biennial elections, he was chosen governor, to serve for two years, 1879-'80.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 152.

HEAP, Gwynn Harris, diplomatist, born in Chester, Pennsylvania, 23 March, 1817; died in Constantinople, Turkey, 6 March, 1887. His great-grandfather, George, was sent by the British government to Pennsylvania as surveyor-general. One of the earliest maps of Philadelphia was made by him, and is preserved in the Pennsylvania library in that city. In 1839-'40 Gwynn served as vice and acting consul in Tunis, where his father had been appointed consul in 1825. He was appointed a government clerk in Washington, D. C, in 1846,and in 1855-'7 was employed by the war department in Turkey in the purchase of camels. In 1861, being then a clerk in the Navy department, he volunteered for secret service at Pensacola, Florida, and in 1863-'4 had charge of the pilots of Admiral Porter's Squadron on the Mississippi. He was appointed consul at Belfast, Ireland, in 1866, and the following year sent to Tunis as consul, where he remained until 1878. In that year he was made secretary of legation and consul-general at Constantinople, occasionally serving as charge d'affaires. During his official residence in Tunis he organized the department devoted to that country in the Centennial exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. Mr. Heap compiled "A Synoptical Index to the Statutes at Large" (184950), and is the author of "Exploration of the Central Route to the Pacific" (Philadelphia, 1853) and "Itinerary of the Central Route to the Pacific" (1854).—His son, David Porter, engineer, born in San Stefano, Turkey, 24 March, 1848, was educated at Georgetown College, D. C, and at the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1864. He was assigned to the Engineer Corps, served in the Civil War in the Army of the Potomac, and was brevetted captain, 2 April, 1865, "for gallant and meritorious services." He was promoted captain, 7 March, 1867, and major of engineers, 23 June, 1882. Since the war he has been engaged in the construction of fortifications, the improvement of harbors, and other duties. In 1871 he was engaged in the exploration of the region afterward known as the Yellowstone park, and in 1876 had charge of the engineering section of the war department exhibit at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition. In 1881 he was ordered on detached service as military representative of the United States at the Paris Congress of electricians, and honorary commissioner to the Paris Electrical Exhibition. Major Heap has travelled extensively in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. He is the author of a "History of the Application of the Electric Light to Lighting the Coasts of France" (Washington, D. C, 1883); "Report of Engineer Department of the Philadelphia Exhibition" (1884); "Electrical Appliances of the Present Day" (New York, 1884); and "Ancient and Modern Lights" (Boston. 1887).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 153.

HEARST, George, senator, born in Franklin County, Missouri, 3 September, 1820. He was graduated at the Franklin County Mining-School in 1838, worked on his father's farm in his youth, and in 1850 went to California overland, and engaged in mining. He became chief partner in the firm of Hearst, Haggin, Tevis and Company, which gained large profits by speculating in mining claims, and grew to be the largest private firm of mine-owners in the United States. He acquired the reputation of being the most expert prospector and judge of mining property on the Pacific Coast, and contributed to the development of the modern processes of quartz and other kinds of mining. He also engaged largely in stock-raising and farming, and became the proprietor of the San Francisco "Examiner." He was a member of the California legislature in 1865, received the vote of the Democratic minority in the legislature for U. S. Senator in 1885, and on 23 March, 1886, was appointed by Governor Stoneman to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John F. Miller, took his seat in the U. S. Senate on 9 April, 1886, and served the remainder of the term expiring in March, 1887. When the legislature met in January, 1887, he was elected senator for the succeeding term.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 154.

HEBERT, Paul Octave, soldier, born in Bayou Goula, Herville Parish, Louisiana, 12 November, 1818; died in New Orleans, 29 August, 1880. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, in the class with William T. Sherman, George H. Thomas, and other officers who afterward became distinguished. In 1841-'2 he was assistant professor of engineering at the Military Academy, and in 18435 employed at the western passes of the mouth of the Mississippi River. He resigned from the army in 1841, was appointed chief engineer of the state of Louisiana, and in an official report opposed the "Raccourci cut-off." He held this office until the Mexican War, when he was reappointed in the army as lieutenant-colonel of the 14th Volunteer Infantry, and participated in the battles of Contreras and Chapultepec, and the capture of the city of Mexico, receiving the brevet of colonel for bravery at the battle of Molino del Reverend When the army disbanded, in 1848, he returned to his plantation at Bayou Goula, Louisiana. In 1851 he was sent as U. S. commissioner to the World's fair at Paris. He was a member of the convention that framed a new state constitution in 1852, and in 1853-'6 was governor of the state. One of the notable appointments of his term was that of General William T. Sherman as president of the Louisiana Military Academy. In 1861 he was appointed a brigadier-general of the provisional Confederate Army, and was afterward confirmed in that rank by the Confederate Congress. He was first in command of Louisiana, then of the Trans-Mississippi Department, afterward of Texas, and the Galveston defences. In 1873 he became state engineer and commissioner on the Mississippi levee.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 155.

HECKER, Friedrich Karl Franz, German revolutionist, born in Eichtersheim, Baden, 28 September, 1811; died in St. Louis, Missouri, 24 March, 1881. He went to school in Mannheim, and studied law at Heidelberg. He began practice as an advocate at Mannheim in 1838, entered politics, and was elected to the Baden assembly in 1842. His expulsion from the Prussian dominions, while upon a visit to Berlin with Itzstein in 1845, made his name known in all German lands. In 184((-'7 he was the leader of the extreme left in the Baden diet. His energy and eloquence made him popular, and he was carried by the drift of the age toward Republicanism, until he took ground with Struve as a Republican and Socialist-Democrat when the arrangements for a German parliament were under discussion. His political plans having been rejected by the majority of the constituent assembly, he appealed to the masses. Appearing at the head of columns of working-men, he unfolded the banner of the social republic, and advanced into the highlands of Baden from Constance. He was beaten by the Baden soldiery at Kaudern, 20 May, 1848, and retreated into Switzerland. There he learned that the national assembly, which had met meanwhile at Frankfort, had denounced him as a traitor. His hopes of a revolution having been dashed, with the prospect of a felon's death before him if he remained, he fled to the United States in September. The following year, at the news of the May revolution, he returned to Germany, but arrived after the rising had been suppressed. Hecker recrossed the Atlantic, became a citizen of the United States, and settled as a fanner in Belleville, Illinois. Like others of the German revolutionists, he took part in American politics, but did not make a new career for himself. He refused brilliant diplomatic positions, feeling an honorable reluctance to accept a personal gain in requital for the services he performed for the party to which he attached himself. The anti-slavery cause awakened the enthusiasm of his nature, and to the end of his life he was a powerful speaker on the Republican side. He joined the Republican Party on its formation, and in the Civil War led a regiment of volunteers in Fremont's division of the National Army. He resigned his colonelcy in 1864, and devoted himself thenceforth to agricultural occupations. During the Franco-German War he uttered words of hope and sympathy for the German cause, but, after visiting Germany in 1873, he expressed disappointment at the actual political condition.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 156.

HECKMAN, Charles Adam, soldier, born in Easton, Pennsylvania, 3 December, 1822. He was graduated at Minerva seminary, in his native town, in 1837. In the war with Mexico he served as sergeant in the 1st U. S. Voltigeurs. He was commissioned captain in the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment, 20 April, 1861, became major of the 9th New Jersey on 3 October, lieutenant-colonel on 3 December, and colonel on 10 February, 1862. On 29 November, 1862, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He served in Burnside's expedition to North Carolina, and afterward in the Army of the James, being wounded at Newbern and Young's Cross Roads. North Carolina, and Port Walthall, Virginia. He commanded the defences of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia, in the winter of 1863-4, and at Drewry's Bluff, Virginia, on 16 May, 1864, he was captured, after his brigade had five times repelled a superior force of Confederates. He was taken to Libby Prison, and afterward to Macon, Georgia, and Charleston, South Carolina, where he was one of the fifty-one officers that were placed under fire of the National guns. He was exchanged on 25 August, commanded the 18th Corps at the capture of Fort Harrison, Chapin's Bluff, and the 25th Corps in January and February, 1865. He resigned when the war was over, 25 May, 1865, and now (1887) resides in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, where he has served as a member of the board of education.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 157.

HEFLIN, Robert Stell, lawyer, born in Morgan County, Georgia, 15 April, 1815. He was educated at Fayetteville. Georgia, where his parents settled in 1832, was clerk of the county court in 1836-'!), admitted to the bar in 1840, and practised in Fayetteville and Wedowee. He was a member of the Georgia Senate in 1840-'l, of the House of Representatives in 1846 and 1849, and of the Senate in 1857 and 1860. As an uncompromising Union man he was compelled to pass through the lines to Sherman's army in August, 1864. He was appointed judge of probate in 1865, and elected to that office in 1866, was a presidential elector in 1868, and was then elected to Congress as a Republican, serving from 7 December, 1869, to 3 March, 1871.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 158.

HEG, Hans C., soldier, born in Norway in 1829; killed in the battle of Chickamauga, Georgia, 19 September, 1863. He was brought by his father to the United States when eleven years of age, and settled in Wisconsin. He went to California during the gold excitement in 1849, returned in 1851, established himself as a farmer and merchant near Milwaukee, and was elected commissioner of state-prisons in 1859. In 1861 he entered the volunteer army as a major, and was commissioned colonel of the 15th Wisconsin Infantry, a Scandinavian regiment, on 30 September, 1861. His regiment took part in the reduction of Island No. 10, and afterward in the surprise and capture of Union City, Tennessee; also in the battle of Chaplin Hills, in the pursuit of General Bragg's forces, and the contests at Stone River and Murfreesboro. On 29 April he was placed in command of a brigade, and took part in the movements of the 20 Corps, resulting in the evacuation of Shelbyville, Tullahoma, and Chattanooga, and at Chickamauga, where he fell at the head of his forces on the second day of the fight.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 158.

HEINTZELMAN, Samuel Peter, soldier, born in Manheim, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 30 September, 1805; died in Washington, D. C, 1 May, 1880. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1826, and entered the army as 2d lieutenant of infantry. He spent several years in border service. and had his first experience of war in Florida, against the Indians. He served during the Mexican War with the rank of captain. At Huamantla he won distinction for bravery, and on 9 October, 1847, he was brevetted major. He organized a battalion of recruits and convalescent soldiers at Vera Cruz, and marched them to the city of Mexico. From 1849 till 1855 he served in California, where he had some rough experience with the Coyote and Yuma Indians, and established Fort Yuma on the Colorado River. In 1859-60 he was in command of the troops on the Rio Grande against Mexican marauders. In May, 1861, he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for meritorious services against the Indians in California, and ordered to Washington to take the office of inspector-general of the forces. In May of the same year he was commissioned colonel of the 17th regular Infantry. On 17 May he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and ordered to the command of a brigade at Alexandria. He commanded a division of McDowell's army at Bull Run, and was wounded. During the organization of the army under General McClellan, in the winter of 1861-2, he retained command of his division. When the Army of the Potomac began to move, in March, 1862, Heintzelman was in command of the 3d Army Corps, was in the battle of Williamsburg on 5 May, was made major-general of volunteers on the same day, took an active part in the battle of Fair Oaks, where he commanded the 3d and 4th Corps, and for his gallantry in both the first and second day's fighting was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army. At the head of his command he took part in the seven days' fighting around Richmond, afterward joined Pope in his Virginia Campaign, and at the second battle of Bull Run his corps formed the right wing of Pope's army. During the Maryland Campaign he was in command of the defences at Washington, and later he was appointed to the command of the Department of Washington, and of the 22d Army Corps, which appointment he held during the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. He was relieved in October, 1863, and in January of the following year was put in command of the Northern Department, embracing Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois. For some time before August, 1865, he was on court-martial duty. In March of that year he was brevetted major-general in the regular army, and in September resumed command of the 17th U.S. Infantry, in New York Harbor and in Texas. On 22 February, 1869, he was retired with the rank of colonel, and on 29 April, by special act of Congress, was placed on the retired list, with the rank of major-general, to date from 22 February His public career ended with his retirement from the army.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 159-160.

HELPER, Hinton Rowan, 1829-1909, North Carolina, abolitionist leader, diplomat, writer.  Wrote anti-slavery book, The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It, 1857.  It argued that slavery was bad for the South and its economy.  The book was banned from distribution in the South.  (Dumond, 1961, p. 353; Mabee, 1970, pp. 196, 197, 219, 240, 327; Pease, 1965, pp. 163-172; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 60, 63, 114, 225-226, 333-334, 426, 682-684; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 161-162; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 517; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 420-422; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 10, p. 542)

HELPER, Hinton Rowan, author, born near Mocskville, Davie County. North Carolina, 27 December, 1829. He was graduated at Mocksville academy in 1848. In 1851 he went to California by way of Cape Horn, and spent nearly three years on the Pacific Coast. He was appointed U. S. consul at Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic, in 1861, and held this office until 1867. In 1807 he returned to Asheville, North Carolina, where he resided until he settled in New York. He has travelled extensively through North, South, and Central America, in Europe, and also in Africa. He is the projector of the " Three Americas Railway," which he proposes shall eventually form one connected line from Bering Strait to the Strait of Magellan. He was the originator and efficient promoter of the commercial commission from the United States to Central and South America. Mr. Helper was brought into notice just before the Civil War by his " Impending Crisis of the South" (New York, 1857). In this book he earnestly opposed slavery on economic grounds, although he was not friendly to the colored race. The work was used by the Republican Party as a campaign document in 1860, and 140,000 copies were sold between 1857 and 1861. His other works are "The Land of Gold" (Baltimore, 1855); "Nojoque, a Question for a Continent" (New York and London, 1867); "The Negroes in Negroland, the Negroes in America, and the Negroes Generally" (New York, 1868); and "The Three Americas Railway " (St. Louis, 1881).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 161-162.

HEMPHILL, John, senator, born in Chester District, South Carolina, in 1803; died in Richmond, Virginia, 4 January, 1862. He was graduated at Jefferson College in 1825, settled at Sumter, and edited a nullification paper in 1832-'3. He then moved to Texas, and for many years was chief justice of the supreme court of that state. In 1858 he was elected U. S. Senator, serving from 1859 till his resignation and subsequent expulsion on 6 July, 1861. Judge Hemphill was one of the fourteen senators who on 6 January, 1861, met in caucus and adopted the resolutions recommending to their states immediate secession, "a general convention to be holden in Montgomery, Alabama" In February, 1861, he was deputy to the Confederate Provisional Congress.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 162.

HENDERSON, John Brooks, 1826-1913, lawyer.  U.S. Senator from Missouri.  Appointed senator in 1863.  Member of the Republican Party.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 163-164; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 527; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 10, p. 569; Congressional Globe)

HENDERSON, John Brooks, senator, born near Danville, Virginia, 16 November, 1826. He moved with his parents to Missouri in 1836, spent his early years on a farm, and taught while receiving his education. He then studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1848, and in that year and 1856 was elected to the legislature, originating the state railroad and banking laws in 1857. He was a presidential elector in 1856 and 1860, and opposed Pierce's administration after the president’s message on the Kansas question. Mr. Henderson was a delegate to the Charleston Democratic Convention of 1860, and to the State Convention of 1861 to determine whether Missouri should secede. In June. 1861, he equipped a regiment of state militia, which he commanded for a time. On the expulsion of Trusten Polk from the U. S. Senate, in 1862, he was appointed to fill the vacancy, and in 1863 was elected for the full term ending in 1869, serving as chairman on the committee on Indian affairs. He was one of the seven Republican senators whose votes defeated the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. He was a commissioner to treat with hostile tribes of Indians in 1867, and in 1875 was appointed assistant U. S. District attorney to prosecute men that were accused of evading the revenue laws, but reflected on President Grant in one of his arguments and was HH Gen, from this office.— His wife, Mary Foote, author, born in New York about 1835, is a daughter of Judge Elisha Foote (q. v.). She was married to Mr. Henderson in Washington, D. C, moved with him to St. Louis, Missouri, and has taken a wide interest in woman's suffrage, serving as president of the State suffrage Association in 1876. In that year she organized in St. Louis the School of Design, or Industrial Art-School, and in 1879 the Woman's Exchange. From 1881 till 1885 she studied art in the Washington University, St. Louis. She has published "Practical Cooking and Dinner-Giving" (New York, 1876), and "Diet for the Sick " (1885).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 163-164.

HENDERSON, James Pickney, statesman, born in Lincoln County, North Carolina, 31 March, 1808; died in Washington, D. C., 4 June, 1858, was educated in Lincolnton, North Carolina, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1829. He moved to Mississippi in 1835, remained there till the Texas difficulties began, and, volunteering in the Texan Army, was appointed brigadier-general in 1836. On the disbanding of the troops he was appointed by President Samuel Houston Attorney-General, was subsequently Secretary of State in 1837-9, and in the latter part of this year visited England and France to procure the recognition of Texan independence. Resuming his practice in 1840, he entered into partnership with General Thomas J. Rusk, at San Antonio. He was special minister to the United States in 1844, to negotiate the annexation of the republic, and was a member of the State Constitutional Convention in 1845. He was elected governor of Texas in 1846, and, in response to the call for volunteers, took command of the Texas Corps, was distinguished at Monterey, and received the thanks of Congress and a sword for bravery in action. In 1857 he was appointed U. S. Senator as a state-rights Democrat, to fill the unexpired term of his partner, Thomas J. Rusk, who had just died. Henderson took his seat in March, 1858, but died before the conclusion of the session.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 165.

HENDERSON, Robert Miller, lawyer, born near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 11 March, 1827. He was graduated at Dickinson College, Pennsylvania, in 1845. was admitted to the bar in Carlisle in 1847, and served in the legislature in 1851-'3. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the Union Army as captain in the 36th Pennsylvania Reserves, was appointed lieutenant-colonel of volunteers in 1862, was Provost-Marshal of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, in 1863, and in 1865 was brevetted colonel and brigadier-general of volunteers for services during the war. In 1872 he became law judge of the 12th judicial District of Pennsylvania, served ten years, and was elected president judge of the same district in 1882. He has since resigned, and returned to practice.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 165.

HENDERSON, Thomas Jefferson, Congressman, born in Brownsville, Tennessee, 29 November, 1824 he was educated in the common schools of his native town, moved to Illinois, and spent one term at the University of Iowa. He was clerk of the Starr County, Illinois., commissioner's court in 1847-'9, and from 1849 till 1853 clerk of the Starr County Court. In 1855-'60 he was in the legislature, and, joining the National Army in 1862, as colonel of the 112th Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, served till the close of the war. In 1865 he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for services during the rebellion. In 1871 he became collector of internal revenue for the 5th District of Illinois. He was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1874, and has since served by successive re-elections.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 165.

HENDRICKS, William, statesman, born in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, in 1783; died in Madison, Indiana, 16 May, 1850. His father was a pioneer settler of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, and a member of the legislature of that state. The son received a common-school education, and moved to Indiana in 1814, being one of the first settlers of the town of Madison. He was chosen secretary of the first State Constitutional Convention, was elected to Congress as a Democrat on the admission of the state, and was three times re-elected, sitting as the sole representative from Wisconsin from 12 December, 1816, till 1822, when he resigned, having been elected governor of Indiana. He was elected a senator in Congress for the term beginning 5 December, 1825, and was re-elected for the succeeding term, serving till 3 March, 1837. In the Senate he served as chairman of the committee on roads and canals.—His nephew, Thomas Andrews, vice-president of the United States, born near Zanesville, Ohio, 7 September, 1819;d. in Indianapolis, Indiana, 25 November, 1885, was the son of John Hendricks, who, six months after the birth of his son, moved to Madison, Indiana, then the residence of his brother William. John Hendricks was appointed by President Jackson a deputy surveyor of public lands, and long served in that capacity. In 1832 he located a homestead on the site of the present town of Shelbyville. Here Thomas A. Hendricks passed his boyhood till he entered South Hanover College, Indiana, where he was graduated in 1841. He then went to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, studied law in the office of his uncle, Judge Thomson, was admitted to the bar in 1843, and returned to Shelbyville to practise. He attained an immediate success in his profession. In 1845 he married Eliza C. Morgan. In the same year he was sent to the legislature, where he served one term, but would not accept a re-election. In 1851 he was elected, without opposition, a member of the convention to revise and amend the Constitution of Indiana. In 1850, and again in 1852, he was elected a member of Congress as a Democrat. At the close of his second term he intended to return to his law practice, but President Pierce appointed him commissioner of the general land office, and he served in that capacity for four years. In 1860 he was nominated as Democratic candidate for the governorship of Indiana, but was defeated by Henry S. Lane. In the same year Mr. Hendricks moved from Shelbyville to Indianapolis. From 1863 till 1869 Mr. Hendricks was a member of the U. S. Senate from Indiana, and was one of the leaders on the Democratic side, serving on the committees on Claims, the Judiciary, Public lands, and Naval Affairs. He strongly combated the Republican plan of reconstruction, and opposed the amendments to the constitution as being hasty. In 1864 he advocated and voted for large appropriations to bring the war to a close, and spoke eloquently in favor of increasing the pay of the soldiers fifty per cent., because of the depreciation of the currency. In the Democratic National Convention of 1868, in New York, on the twenty-first ballot, he received 132 votes as candidate for the presidency, standing next to General Hancock, who received 135; but on the final ballot Horatio Seymour was nominated. In the autumn of that year he was again a candidate for the governorship of Indiana, but was defeated by the Republican candidate, Conrad Baker, who afterward became his law partner. At the close of his senatorial term he returned to Indianapolis, and resumed the practice of his profession. In 1872 he was elected governor of Indiana, defeating Thomas M. Brown. In July, 1874, he was permanent chairman of the State Democratic Convention at Indianapolis. In the National Democratic Convention at St. Louis in June, 1876, he received 133 votes for the presidential nomination, and, when Samuel J. Tilden was nominated, he received 730 out of 738 votes as candidate for the vice-presidency. He was a member of the National Democratic Convention at Chicago in July, 1884, and in behalf of the Indiana delegation nominated Joseph E. McDonald, of that state, for the presidency. After the nomination of Grover Cleveland, William A. Wallace, of Pennsylvania, nominated Thomas A. Hendricks for the vice-presidency, and his nomination was unanimously approved by the convention.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 166.

HENNINGSEN, Charles Frederick, soldier, born in England in 1815; died in Washington, D. C, 14 June, 1877. His parents were Swedes. He joined the Carlist Army in Spain in 1834, and rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. After the Peace Convention he returned to England, but on the renewal of the war resumed his post, and after the battle of Vielas de los Navarros was promoted colonel and given the command of the cavalry. He was afterward taken prisoner and released on parole. After serving in the Russian Army in Circassia, he joined Kossuth in the Hungarian revolution, becoming military and civil commander of the fortress of Comorn. Afterward he came to the United States as a representative of Hungarian interests, and in October, 1856, joined William Walker in Nicaragua. He was immediately made a brigadier-general, given command of the artillery, and rendered efficient service, distinguishing himself by his defence of Granada, and in the victory at Queresma. He took part in Walker's negotiations with Commodore Davis in 1857, and after the surrender to that officer returned to the United States. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the Confederate Army as colonel of the 3d Regiment of Wise's brigade, and was afterward made brigadier-general, and served in Virginia. General Henningsen was an able artillerist, and also gave much attention to improvements in small arms, superintending the construction of the first Minié rifles ever made in the United States. He published "Revelations of Russia" (Paris, 1845); "Twelve Months' Campaign with Zumalivcarregui"; "The White Slave," a novel; "Eastern Europe "; "Sixty Years Hence," a novel of Russian life; "Past and Future of Hungary "; "Analogies and Contrasts ";" Personal Recollections of Nicaragua"; and various other works, most of which were published in London.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.

HENRY, Alexander, mayor of Philadelphia, born in Philadelphia, 14 April, 1823; died there, 6 December, 1883, was the son of John Henry. He was graduated at Princeton in 1840, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1844 In 1856-7 he served in the councils, and in 1858 was elected to the mayoralty on the ticket of the People's Party, composed of Whigs and Republicans. By successive elections he served in the office until 1866, when he declined a renomination. He managed the affairs of Philadelphia during the Civil War with great ability. On the arrival of Mr. Lincoln in Philadelphia, 21 February, 1861, on his way to Washington to be inaugurated, Mayor Henry gave him welcome, and tendered him the hospitality of the city. On 16 April he issued a proclamation declaring that treason against the state or against the United States would not be suffered within the city. First as a member, and afterward as president, of the state board of centennial supervisors, Mr. Henry labored with great efficiency for the success of the International Exhibition of 1876. In addition to many other important offices, he was for many years a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania, a member of the park commission, and an inspector of the Eastern Penitentiary, which post he had hold at the time of his decease twenty-eight consecutive years.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 170

HENRY, Morris Henry, physician, born in London, England, 26 July, 1835. He was educated in London and in Belgium, came to the United States, and was graduated in medicine at the University of Vermont in 1860. He was assistant surgeon in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War, and then settled in New York City, and was surgeon-in-chief of the Emigrant Hospital, Ward's Island, in 1872-'80. He is a member of many medical societies, and has invented various surgical methods and appliances, including the application of plano-convex lenses in examining the throat and upper air-passages (1864); cutting-forceps for the removal of plaster dressings (1868); depilating-forceps (1874); and cartilage-scissors to facilitate the removal of dense tissues (1881). He is the originator and editor of the "American Journal of Dermatology," and has published numerous monographs, including " Treatment of Venereal Diseases in Vienna Hospital" (1872), and "Anomalous Localities of Chancres" (1874). He delivered an address on "Specialists and Specialties in Medicine " before the alumni of the University of Vermont in 1876.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 173.

HENRY, Gustavus Adolphus, orator, born in Cherry Spring, Scott County, Kentucky, 8 October, 1804; died in Clarksville, Tennessee, 10 September, 1880, was graduated at Transylvania University in 1825, and became a lawyer. He was a member of the Kentucky legislature in 1831-'3, and shortly afterward moved to Tennessee, where he was one of the leaders of the Whig minority. He achieved great reputation as a public speaker, and was known throughout the south as the "eagle orator of Tennessee." He was in the Tennessee legislature in 1851, was four times on the Whig electoral ticket, and in 1860 was a delegate to the convention at Baltimore that nominated Bell and Everett, afterward speaking in their behalf in the northern states. He was a member of the Confederate Senate from 1861 till the close of the Civil War, and after the fall of Vicksburg, at the request of Jefferson Davis, made public speeches to encourage the people. He was twice a candidate for governor of Tennessee, but was each time defeated by Andrew Johnson.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p.176.

HENRY, Guy Vernon, soldier, born in Fort Smith, Indian territory, 9 March, 1839, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1861, and assigned to the 1st Artillery. He was promoted to 1st lieutenant on 14 May, was on General McDowell's staff at the battle of Bull Run, and was brevetted captain, 22 October, 1862, for gallantry in an action near Pocotaligo River, South Carolina He commanded a battalion in Hunter's advance on Charleston in 1863, was acting chief of artillery of the Department of the South in June of that year, and was made colonel of the 40th Massachusetts Regiment on 9 November He commanded a brigade in the Army of the James in 1864-'5, and received the brevets of lieutenant-colonel, 29 September, 1864, and brigadier-general of volunteers, 30 June, 1864, for his services before Petersburg. After the war he became captain in the 1st Artillery, 1 December, 1865, and has since served chiefly on the frontier against hostile Indians. He suffered severely from frostbites in the Black Hills Expedition, and was wounded in the battle of Rose Bud Creek, Montana, with Sitting Bull, 17 June, 1876, losing the use of one eye. On 26 June, 1881, he was promoted to major in the 9th U.S. Cavalry, and is now (1887) stationed at Omaha, Nebraska. He has published " Military Record of Civilian Appointments in the U. S. Army" (2 vols., New York, 1865-71); "Army Catechism for Non-commissioned Officers and Soldiers" (Salt Lake City, 1881); and "Manual on Target Practice" (Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 1884).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 177

HENSON, Josiah, 1789-1883, born a slave in Maryland, led one hundred slaves to freedom, founded Community of Former Slaves in Ontario, Canada; said to be the basis for Uncle Tom in Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Founded British American Manual Labor Institute in Canada.  (Dumond, 1961, p. 337; Lobb, 1971; Mabee, 1970, p. 173; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 26, 38, 335-336, 486; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 178; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 544; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 10, p. 621)

HENSON, Josiah, clergyman, born in Port Tobacco, Charles County, Maryland, 15 June, 1787; died in Dresden, Ontario, in 1881. He was a pure-blooded Negro, and was born and bred as a slave. The story of his life served as the foundation for Mrs. Harriet B. Stowe's novel of “Uncle Tom's Cabin.” When a young man and a preacher, he took all his master's slaves to a relative in Kentucky, to prevent their passing into the hands of creditors. There they were hired out to neighboring planters. He worked most of the time for a good-natured master named St. Clair, whose young daughter read to him. His arms were crippled, like those of Uncle Tom in the novel, the result of a blow from the Maryland overseer. He paid $500 toward purchasing his freedom, but was taken to New Orleans by his master's son to be sold, when the latter was attacked with yellow fever, and the slave accompanied him back to Kentucky and nursed him through his sickness. He finally escaped with his wife, carrying his two children on his back through the swamps to Cincinnati, where he had friends among the colored people, and then across the wilderness to Sandusky, whence they were conveyed to Canada by the benevolent captain of a schooner. “Uncle Si,” as he was called, settled with his family at Colchester, Ontario. He was the captain of a company of colored men during the Canadian rebellion. Subsequently he took up a tract of land on Sydenham River, where the town of Dresden was afterward situated. There he prospered as a farmer, and was the pastor of a church. At the age of fifty-five he began to learn to read and write. He met Mrs. Stowe, and described to her the events of his life. He also wrote an “Autobiography,” which was afterward published, with an introduction by Mrs. Stowe (Boston, 1858). In 1850 he went to England, and lectured in London. He visited England again in 1852, and a third time in 1876, on which occasion he lectured and preached in various cities, and was entertained at Windsor Castle by Queen Victoria. [Appleton’s 1892]

HERRICK, Anson, 1812-1868, journalist.  Democratic Member of the U.S. House of Representatives.  Served in Congress December 1863-March 1865.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 187; Congressional Globe)

HERRICK, Anson, journalist, born in Lewiston, Maine, 21 January, 1812; died in New York City, 5 February, 1868. His father was a representative in Congress from Maine. The son received a common-school education, and at the age of fifteen was apprenticed to a printer. In 1833 he established “The Citizen" at Wiscassett, Maine, and in 1836 moved to New York City and worked as a journeyman printer till 1838, when he began the publication of the New York "Atlas," a weekly journal. In 1857 he was appointed naval store-keeper of the Port of New York, and in 1862 was elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 3 December, 1863, to March, 1865. He was a delegate in 1866 to the National Union Convention at Philadelphia.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p.187.

HERRICK, Stephen Solon, physician and surgeon, born in West Randolph, Vermont, 11 December, 1833. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1854, and taught in Kentucky and Mississippi till 1859. He then studied medicine, and was graduated M. D. at the University of Louisiana in 1861. He served as assistant surgeon in the Confederate Army in 1862-'3, and afterward in the navy of the Confederacy till the end of the war, and then returned to New Orleans to practise. He was one of the editors of the New Orleans "Medical and Surgical Journal "in 1866-7, visiting surgeon in the New Orleans Charity Hospital in 1865-'9, a member of the Louisiana board of health, and professor of chemistry in the New Orleans school of medicine in 1869-70.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 187-188.

HERRON, Francis Jay, soldier, born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 17 February, 1837. He was graduated at the Western University of Pennsylvania in 1853, and about 1856 moved to Dubuque, Iowa, where he engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1861 he organized and commanded the Governor's Grays, with which he served in the 1st Iowa Regiment, and was engaged in the battles of Dug Springs, Ozark, and Wilson's Creek. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 9th Iowa Regiment in September, 1861, commanding it through the campaigns in Missouri, Arkansas, and the Indian Territory. He was wounded and captured in the battle of Pea Ridge during the second day's engagement, but was soon exchanged. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 July, 1862, and had command of the Army of the Frontier during the battle of Prairie Grove, Arkansas, for which he was made major-general of volunteers. 29 November, 1862. Subsequently he captured Van Buren, Arkansas. After commanding the left wing of the investing forces at Vicksburg, and of the army and navy expedition that captured Yazoo City, he was in charge of the 13th Army Corps on the Texas Coast till he was assigned to command the Northern Division of Louisiana during General Banks's operations. In May, 1865, he negotiated, and in June received, the formal surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Army and all Confederate forces west of the Mississippi, and in July, 1865, was appointed one of the commissioners to negotiate treaties with the Indian tribes. He resigned his commission as major-general and also that of Indian Commissioner in August, 1865. He then practised law in New Orleans, was U. S. Marshal of the District of Louisiana from 1867 till 1869, Secretary of State of Louisiana in 1872-'3, and has since practised his profession in New York City.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 189.

HETH, William (heath), soldier, born in Virginia in 1735; died in Richmond, Virginia, 15 April, 1808. He was an officer in General Richard Montgomery's regiment during the French war, and was wounded at the battle of Quebec. At the beginning of the Revolution he joined the Continental Army; in 1777 was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 3d Virginia Regiment, and was in command till the end of the war, serving with General Benjamin Lincoln at the siege of Charleston. After the war he received a lucrative government office under General Washington.—Heath, His grandson, Henry, soldier, born in Virginia in 1825, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, and, entering the 6th U.S. Infantry, became 1st lieutenant in 1853, adjutant in 1854, and captain in 1855. In 1861 he resigned, and entered the Confederate Army as brigadier-general. In May, 1863, he was commissioned major-general. He commanded a division of General Ambrose P. Hill's corps in Virginia, and was engaged at the battle of Gettysburg and in the campaigns of 1864-'5. Since the war he has been engaged in business in South Carolina.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 190.

HEWIT, Henry Stewart, surgeon, born in Fairfield, Connecticut, 26 December, 1825; died in New York City, 19 August, 1873, was educated at Yale, and graduated in medicine from the University of New York in 1848, entering the army as acting assistant-surgeon in the autumn of this year. He was stationed at Vera Cruz during the latter part of the Mexican War, in 1849 was commissioned assistant surgeon, was stationed at Fort Yuma, California, and accompanied Captain William H. Warner on the surveying expedition in which that officer was killed by the Sierra Nevada Indians. In the spring of 1852 he resigned from the army, and, removing to San Francisco, practised medicine there three years. He then returned to New York, and established himself in his profession. In August, 1861, he re-entered the army as brigade-surgeon of volunteers, served under General Charles F. Smith, and afterward as medical director on General Grant's staff at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, and Vicksburg. He afterward served on the staff of General John M. Scofield, and was brevetted colonel in March, 1865, for gallant conduct during the war. Dr. Hewit became a Roman Catholic in 1855, and was devoted to the benevolent enterprises of his church. Settling in New York after the war, he had charge of the House of the Good Shepherd, was a director of St. Stephen's Orphan Asylum, and president of the Medical Board of the Charity Hospital.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 191-192.

HEWITT, Abrum Stevens, statesman, born in Haverstraw. New York, 31 July, 1822. He was educated first at a public school in New York City, where by a special examination he gained a scholarship at Columbia, and was graduated in 1842 at the head of his class. During his college course he supported himself by teaching, and after his graduation he remained as an assistant, being in 1843 acting professor of mathematics. In 1844 he visited Europe with his classmate, Edward Cooper, whose partner he afterward became, and whose sister he married in 1855. Meanwhile he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1845, after an examination in which twenty-four out of fifty-seven applicants were rejected. He soon gave up the practice of his profession on account of impaired eyesight, and became associated with Peter Cooper in the iron business. The firm of Cooper and Hewitt now own and control the Trenton, Ringwood, Pequest, and the Durham Ironworks. The development and management of these vast enterprises have been principally the result of Mr. Hewitt's efforts. In 1862 he went to England to learn the process of making gun-barrel iron, and at a heavy loss to his firm furnished the U. S. government with material during the Civil War. The introduction of the Martins-Siemens or open-hearth process for the manufacture of steel in this country is due to his judgment. No serious labor troubles have ever affected their works, and in times of commercial depression the furnaces have been carried on at a loss, rather than add by suspension to the distress of the community. The plan of the Cooper Union was devised by its own trustees, with Mr. Hewitt as their active head, and as secretary of this board he has directed its financial and educational details, bestowing upon it for more than a quarter of a century an amount of labor exceeding the duties of some college presidents. He left the Tammany, joined the Irving Hall Society, and was one of the organizers of the County Democracy in 1879. He was elected to Congress in 1874, and served continuously, with the exception of one term, until 1886. Mr. Hewitt was an advocate of honest financial legislation, of a moderate and discriminating tariff reform, and has been a frequent speaker on subjects connected with finance, labor, and the development of national resources. The U. S. Geological Survey owes its existence principally to an address delivered in its favor by Mr. Hewitt, and his speeches generally have commanded the attention of both parties. In October. 1886, he was nominated as the Democratic candidate for mayor of New York City, and at the subsequent election received 90,552 votes against 68,110 for Henry George and 60,435 for Theodore Roosevelt. His management of the municipal government has been marked by a rigid enforcement of the laws, and holding the heads of the various departments to a strict accountability. Mr. Hewitt was chairman of the Democratic national committee in 1876. He has taken an interest in all matters pertaining to the development of New York City, and in 1883 was chosen to be the orator at the opening of the East River Bridge. Columbia gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1887, and he was the president of its alumni association in 1883. In 1876 he was elected president of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, and his retiring address on "A Century of Mining and Metallurgy in the United States attracted favorable criticism at home and abroad. His report on "Iron and Steel" at the World's Fair held in Paris in 1867 was received with approval, and was republished at home and abroad.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 192.

HEWITT, Charles Nathaniel, physician, born in Vergennes, Vermont, 3 June, 1836. He was educated at Hobart College, and was graduated at the Albany Medical College in 1857. He practised his profession in Geneva, New York, until 1861, when he entered the U. S. Army as assistant surgeon of the 50th New York Regiment, and rose to the rank of brigade surgeon. After the war he moved to Red Wing, Minnesota, where he is professor of public health in the University of Minnesota. Dr. Hewitt devotes himself especially to surgery, and has invented a modification of the starch bandage.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 192.

HEYWOOD, Charles, officer of marines, born in Waterville, Maine, 3 October, 1839. He was appointed a 2d lieutenant in the Marine Corps from New York on 5 April, 1858, commissioned 1st lieutenant in May, 1861, and captain on 23 November, 1861. He was in active service during the Civil War, and was attached to the North Atlantic, and subsequently to the Gulf, Squadron as fleet marine-officer. He was engaged at the battle of Hatteras Inlet on 28 August, 1861, and continued to serve on the sloop " Cumberland" till that vessel was sunk on 8 March, 1862, by the Confederate ram " Merrimac." For his conduct during this engagement he was brevetted major. He was attached to the frigate " Sabine" on special service in 1863, and to the steam sloop "Hartford," the flagship of Farragut's squadron, in 1864-'5. He took part in the battle of Mobile Bay, and was brevetted for gallantry in that action. He was promoted major on 1 November, 1876. In 1886 he was on duty at the U.S. Navy-yard in Brooklyn, New York.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 194.

HEYWOOD, Ezra Hervey, 1829-1893, abolitionist, temperance activist, women’s rights advocate.  Member of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society.  Follower of William Lloyd Garrison.  (American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 10, p. 727; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 428-429; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 4, Pt. 2, p. 609)

HICKENLOOPER, Andrew, engineer, born in Hudson, Ohio, 31 August, 1837. He was educated at Woodward College, Cincinnati, but was not graduated, and in 1855 became city surveyor of that city, afterward conducting the government survey of Indian lands at Little Travers Bay. He was made captain of the 5th Ohio Independent Battery on 31 August, 1861, and was afterward chief of artillery and chief engineer of the 17th Corps, Army of the Tennessee, till after the capture of Vicksburg. He was then judge-advocate-general and afterward chief of artillery of that army, and was finally given command of a brigade in the 17th Corps. He was engaged in the principal battles of the Army of the Tennessee from Shiloh to Sherman's campaign through the Carolinas, and on 13 March, 1865, was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. After the war he was U. S. Marshal for the Southern District of Ohio in 1866-'70, elected city civil engineer of Cincinnati in 1871, and in 1877 became president of the Cincinnati Gas-light and Coke Company, of which he had been vice-president since 1872. In 1880 he was chosen lieutenant-governor of Ohio. He has published "Competition in the Manufacture and Delivery of Gas (1881), and "Incandescent Electric Lights for Street Illumination" (1886). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 195.

HICKS, Thomas Holliday, statesman, born in Dorchester County, Maryland, 2 September, 1798; died in Washington, D. C, 13" February, 1865. He worked on his father's farm in boyhood, received a plain education, and was constable and sheriff of his county until he engaged in mercantile pursuits in 1831. In 1836 he was elected to the state house of representatives. He became register of wills in 1838, in 1849 was a member of the Constitutional Convention, and from 1858 till 1862 was governor of Maryland, strongly opposing secession. His firmness and adroit management were among the efficient means of saving Maryland to the Union. He refused, in a published address, to call a special meeting of the legislature to consider an ordinance of secession, although he was formally requested to do so by a majority of the state senate, who were sympathizers with the seceding states, and, when the attack on the Massachusetts 6th Regiment was made in Baltimore, he issued a proclamation declaring that all his authority would be exercised in favor of the government. He was appointed to the U. S. Senate as a Republican on the death of James A. Pearce, was subsequently elected by the legislature, serving from 1863 till his death. His term would have ended in 1867. In the Senate he was a member of the committees on Naval Affairs.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 196-197.

HIGBY, William, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)

HIGGINSON, Thomas Wentworth Storrow, 1823-1911, author, editor, Unitarian clergyman, radical abolitionist, women’s rights advocate, secretly supported radical abolitionist John Brown, and his raid on the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, (West) Virginia, on October 16, 1859.  Served as a Colonel in the 1st South Carolina Volunteers, the first African American regiment formed under the Federal Government.  (Edelstein, 1968; Mabee, 1970, pp. 309, 312, 318, 319, 321, 336, 345, 377; Renehan, 1995; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 138, 207, 327, 337-338, 478-479; Rossbach, 1982; Sernett, 2002, pp. 205, 208, 211, 213, 325-326n3; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 199; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 1, p. 16; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 431-434; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 10, p. 757; Wells, Anna Mary. Dear Preceptor… 1963.  Higginson, Thomas, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 1870)

HIGGINSON, Thomas Wentworth, author, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 22 December, 1823, was graduated at Harvard in 1841 and at the divinity-school in 1847, and in the same year was ordained pastor of the 1st Congregational Church in Newburyport, Massachusetts. He left this church on account of anti-slavery preaching in 1850, and in the same year was an unsuccessful Free-Soil candidate for Congress. He was then pastor of a free Church in Worcester, Massachusetts, from 1852 till 1858. when he left the ministry, and devoted himself to literature. He had been active in the anti-slavery agitation of this period, and for his part in the attempted rescue of a fugitive slave (see Burns, Anthony) was indicted for murder with Theodore Parker, Wendell Phillips, and others, but was discharged through a flaw in the indictment. He also aided in the organization of parties of free-state emigrants to Kansas in 1856, was personally acquainted with John Brown, and served as brigadier-general on James H. Lane's staff in the free-state forces. He became captain in the 51st Massachusetts Regiment, 25 September, 1862, and on 10 November was made colonel of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers (afterward called the 33d U. S. Colored Troops), the first regiment of freed slaves mustered into the national service, he took and held Jacksonville, Florida, but was wounded at Wiltown Bluff, South Carolina, in August. 1863, and in October, 1864, resigned on account of disability. He then engaged in literature at Newport, Rhode Island, till 1878, and afterward at Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he has since resided. He is an earnest advocate of woman suffrage, and of the higher education for both sexes. He was a member of the Massachusetts legislature in 1880 and 1881, serving as chief of staff to the governor during the same time, and in 1881-'3 was a member of the state board of education. He has contributed largely to current literature, and several of his books consist of essays that first appeared in "The Atlantic Monthly." His first publication was a compilation with Samuel Longfellow of poetry for the sea-side, entitled "Thalatta " (Boston, 1853). He is the author of "Out-door Papers" (Boston, 1863); "Malbone, an Oldport Romance "(1869); "Army Life in a Black Regiment" (1870; French translation by Madame de Gasparin. 1884): "Atlantic Essays" (1871); "The Sympathy of Religions" (1871); "Oldport Days" (1873): "Young Folks' History of the United States " (1875; French translation, 1875; German translation, Stuttgart, 1876); "History of Education in Rhode Island " (1876): " Young Folks' Book of American Explorers" (1877); "Short Studies of American Authors" (1879); "Common-Sense about Women" (1881); "Life of Margaret Fuller Ossoli" (" American Men of Letters " series, 1884); "Larger History of the United States" to the close of Jackson's administration (New York, 1885); "The Monarch of Dreams " (1880); and " Hints on Writing and Speech-making" (1887). He has also translated the "Complete Works of Epictetus" (Boston, 1865), and edited "Harvard Memorial Biographies" (2 vols.. 1866), and "Brief Biographies of European Statesmen " (4 vols., New York, 1875-'7). Several of his works have been reprinted in England.—Thomas Wentworth's nephew, Francis John, naval officer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 19 July, 1843, was graduated at the Naval Academy in 1861, and ordered into active service. He participated in the boat expedition from the "Colorado" that destroyed the Confederate privateer "Judith" in Pensacola U.S. Navy-yard, and was present at the passage of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, acting as signal midshipman to Captain Theodoras Bailey. He took part in the blockade of Charleston. South Carolina, and the bombardment of Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie, was on board the " Housatonic" when she was blown up by a torpedo off Charleston, and commanded a detachment of launches operating by night on the communications between Morris Island and Charleston. He became lieutenant in 1862, lieutenant-commander in 1866, and commander in 1876, and is now (1887) in charge of the torpedo station at Newport, Rhode Island.—The first Stephen's great-grandson, Henry Lee, banker, born in New York City, 18 November, 1834, entered Harvard in 1851, but left before the end of his second year. He served in the Civil War, attaining the rank of major and brevet lieutenant-colonel in the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, and was severely wounded at Aldie, Virginia. in 1863. Since the war he has engaged in banking in Boston. He has devoted much of his income to the promotion of music there, and especially to the organization of „the symphony orchestra.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 199.

HILL, Ambrose Powell, soldier, born in Culpeper County, Virginia, 9 November. 1825; died near Petersburg, Virginia, 2 April, 1865. His father, Major Thomas Hill, was a politician and merchant for many years. The son was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, and. entering the 1st U.S. Artillery, was made a 2d lieutenant, 22 August, 1847. He served in Mexico during the war, and was engaged in Florida against the Seminoles in 1849-'50. On 4 September, 1851, he was promoted to 1st lieutenant of the 1st Artillery, and afterward to a captaincy. In November, 1855, he was made an assistant on the Coast Survey, and was stationed in Washington until 1 March. 1861, when he resigned. When Virginia seceded he was appointed colonel of the 13th Regiment of Virginia Volunteers, and was ordered to Harper's Ferry. At the first battle of Bull Run he arrived with his regiment among those of General Johnston's command, in time to share in the last of the fight. He was promoted to brigadier-general, and fought at the battle of Williamsburg in May, 1862. with such spirit and determination that he was made a major-general. On 25 June. 1862, he was one of the council of war held in Richmond, at which were present Generals Lee, Jackson, Longstreet, D. H. Hill, and others. In the seven days' battles around Richmond he opened the series of engagements by driving McClellan's forces from Meadow Bridge, thus clearing a way for Longstreet and A. H. Hill to advance. He occupied the centre of Lee's army in the attacks against McClellan, and gained a reputation for bravery and skill in the handling of his troops. He was active in the succeeding campaign against General Pope, and at the second battle of Bull Run, 29 and 30 July, 1862. He received the surrender of the National troops at Harper's Ferry on 17 September, 1862, and, making a forced march, arrived at Antietam in time to enable General Lee to maintain his ground. At the battle of Fredericksburg. 13 December 1862, his division formed the right of Jackson's Corps; at Chancellorsville. 5 and 6 May, 1863, it formed the centre, and participated in the flank movement that crushed Hooker's right. In the assault he was severely wounded, and had to retire from the field. For his gallantry in this battle he was promoted, 20 May, 1863, to lieutenant-general, and given command of one of the three grand corps into which the army was divided. He led his corps at Gettysburg, and in the affair at Bristow Station, October, 1863, while in command of two brigades, was repelled with severe loss. On 22 June, 1864. his corps, with Longstreet's, repelled the attack on the Weldon Railroad. A few weeks before the final attack on the Southside Railroad and the defences of Petersburg, General Hill was taken ill and granted leave of absence, but he returned before his leave expired, 31 March. On Sunday morning, 2 April, 1865, in the struggle for the possession of the works in front of Petersburg, he attempted, contrary to the wishes of General Lee, to reach Heth's division, and was shot from his horse by stragglers from the National Army. By General Lee's orders a charge was made, and his body recovered and buried in Chesterfield County. Afterward it was moved to Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia General Hill married a sister of General John Morgan, the Confederate cavalry leader, and left two daughters.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 202-203.

HILL, Benjamin Harvey, statesman, born in Jasper County, Georgia, 14 September. 1823; died in Atlanta, Georgia, 19 August, 1882. He was graduated at the University of Georgia in 1844 with the first honors, studied law, and within a twelvemonth was admitted to the bar, beginning to practise at La Grange, Georgia. He advanced rapidly in his profession, and early took an active part in politics. In 1851 he was elected to the legislature, and from that time was a recognized leader of the Whig Party. In 1856 he was nominated an elector for the state at large on the American or Know-Nothing ticket, and in his support of Millard Fillmore his reputation as an orator was greatly enhanced. In 1859 Mr. Hill was elected to the state senate as a Unionist. In 1860 his name was on the Bell and Everett electoral ticket. He was a Unionist member of the State Secession Convention, which met at Milledgeville, 10 January, 1861, and made a speech of great power against the secession ordinance, but afterward, with many other friends of the Union, thinking it best to avoid a division at home, voted for it. He was a member of the Confederate Provisional Congress of 1861, and shortly afterward was elected to the Confederate Senate, in which he continued to serve until the close of the Civil War. He was arrested in May, 1865, and confined in Fort Lafayette, New York Harbor, but was released on parole in July, and returned to his home. For some years afterward he held no office, but took an active part in politics, denouncing the Reconstruction Acts of Congress, especially in a speech that he delivered at a mass meeting in Atlanta, and that became famous in the state. His ' Notes on the Situation," opposing the reconstruction measures, attracted wide attention. Mr. Hill supported Horace Greeley for the presidency in 1872, and was a member of the convention that was held at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York, by the friends of that gentleman. In 1875 he was elected to fill a vacancy in Congress as a Democrat, and by his speech in the debate on the Amnesty Bill made a great impression. Mr. Hill was re-elected in 1876, and made a speech on 17 January, 1877, in support of the Electoral Commission Bill, insisting that it was wholly constitutional, wise in its provisions, and patriotic in its purpose. Before the close of his term in the house he was elected by the legislature of Georgia to a seat in the U. S. Senate, where he served till his death. In the Senate he made some of his finest speeches, among them that in denunciation of Mr. Mahone's coalition with the Republican Party. In the midst of his career Mr. Hill's health gave way. In 1878-'9 a slight pimple on the left side of his tongue developed into a cancer, and he was operated upon three times from 21 July, 1881, till 20 March, 1882. For a month before his death his power of articulation was almost gone, and he used a writing-pad to make known his wishes. His funeral in Atlanta was attended by an immense concourse of people, by the state officials, a delegation from both houses of Congress, and by the chancellor and faculty of the University of Georgia. Since Mr. Hill's death, a monument has been erected to him in Atlanta; it is a life-size statue of white marble, representing him as looking down from the pedestal on which he stands, and is placed at the junction of two of the finest streets of the city, in full view of his former residence.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 203.

HILL, Daniel Harvey, soldier, born at Hill's Iron-Works, York District, South Carolina, 12 July, 1821. His great-grandfather came from Ireland and settled in York, Pennsylvania, whence his grandfather, William Hill, moved to South Carolina, and established "Hill's Iron-Works" in connection with his friend, Colonel Isaac Hayne. Solomon Hill, General Hill's father, joined with Edmund Hayne, son of Colonel Isaac Hayne, in reviving the iron-works (destroyed during the Revolutionary War), which they conducted for some years, until Mr. Hill's death. The son was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1842, and went immediately to Maine to serve on the frontier during the troubles with England in reference to the boundary-line. He was in nearly every important battle in the Mexican War, and was a member of the storming party at Chapultepec, where he and Lieutenant James Stewart had a foot-race for the honor of being the first to enter a strongly occupied Mexican fort. For service in this battle, Captain Hill was brevetted major, as he had been previously brevetted captain for "gallant and meritorious conduct" at Contreras and Churubusco. Just after the Mexican War he resigned his commission, and was elected professor of mathematics in Washington College, Lexington, Virginia He held this place for six years, and for five years filled the same chair in Davidson College, North Carolina, and went thence to be superintendent of the North Carolina Military Institute at Charlotte. At the beginning of the Civil War he was made colonel of the 1st North Carolina Regiment, in command of which he fought and won the battle of Big Bethel, 10 June, 1861, soon after which he was made brigadier-general and sent to command the extreme left of General Joseph E. Johnston's army at Leesburg, Virginia He was promoted to major-general, 20 March, 1802, and distinguished himself in the Seven Days Battles on the Peninsula. During the first Maryland Campaign General Hill made a stubborn fight at Boonesboro. He also participated in the battle of Fredericksburg. During the Chancellorsville Campaign he was in command in North Carolina, and during the Gettysburg Campaign he commanded the defences of Richmond and Petersburg. On 11 July, 1863, he was commissioned lieutenant-general and placed at the head of a corps in Bragg's army. He was at Chickamauga, and shared the fortunes of the Army of Tennessee, until he surrendered with General Joseph E. Johnston in North Carolina in April, 1865. For some years after the war he edited "The Land We Love," a monthly magazine, which he founded at Charlotte, North Carolina. In 1877 he was elected president of the University of Arkansas, and he is now (1887) president of the Military and Agricultural College of Georgia at Milledgeville. General Hill is a contributor to current literature, and has published an algebra, "A Consideration of the Sermon on the Mount" (Philadelphia, 1858), and "The Crucifixion of Christ" (1860).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 203-204.

HILL, John, Congressman, born in Catskill, New York, 10 June, 1821; died in Boonton, New Jersey, 24 July, 1884. He was educated at private schools, and at an early age was clerk in the bank of which his father was cashier. In 1845 he became paymaster of the New Jersey Iron Company at Boonton, New Jersey, and afterward engaged in business there. He was postmaster of the town in 1849-'53, justice of the peace in 1856-'61, and was elected to the New Jersey Assembly in 1861, 1862, and 1866, serving as speaker during his last term. He was active in raising troops during the Civil War, and at its close was elected to Congress as a Republican, serving from 1867 till 1873, and again from 1881 till 1883. Mr. Hill was an active member of the house committee on Post-offices and Post-roads, and was earnest in promoting postal reform. When he first entered Congress he introduced a bill to abolish the franking privilege, and he was also the author of the bill providing for the issue of postal-cards. In December, 1881, he introduced a bill reducing letter postage to two cents a half an ounce, which was finally passed on 2 March, 1883, owing largely to his persistent efforts. Mr. Hill received many resolutions of thanks from various public bodies for his interest in the matter. He was an elder of the Presbyterian Church at Boonton, and was active in religious affairs.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 205.

HILL, Joshua, statesman, born in Abbeville District, South Carolina, 10 January, 1812. He moved to Georgia early in life, and was admitted to the bar of that state, beginning to practise at Madison. He was afterward chosen to Congress as an American, and served from 1857 till 23 January, 1861, when he resigned his seat, in obedience to the wishes of the Georgia Convention, though he was strongly opposed to secession. He had a few days previously made a conciliatory speech, which had been well received. During the Civil War he remained quietly on his plantation, and took no part in public affairs, save that he was a candidate for governor of his state in 1863, and was defeated by Joseph E. Brown, he took part in the proceedings of the Constitutional Convention called in pursuance of President Johnson's proclamation in 1866, and was an unsuccessful candidate for the U. S. Senate in the same year. He then moved to Washington, but in 1868, after the organization of a state government in Georgia, under the Reconstruction Acts of Congress, he was elected U. S. Senator from that state, and served till 1873. In 1872 he took an active part in the discussion with Charles Sumner on the civil rights bill.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 205.

HILLIARD, Henry Washington, lawyer, born in Fayetteville, North Carolina, 4 August, 1808. He moved with his parents to Columbia, South Carolina, at an early age, and was graduated at South Carolina College in 1826. He studied law and moved to Athens, Georgia, where he was admitted to the bar in 1829, and practised two years. In 1831 he was elected to a professorship in Alabama University, Tuscaloosa, but resigned in 1834 and practised law successfully in Montgomery. Meanwhile he was also a lay preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1838 he was elected to the Alabama Legislature, and in 1840 he was a member of the Harrisburg Whig Convention. In answer to a series of articles upon the question of the sub-treasury, by Dixon H. Lewis, under the signature of " A Nullifier," Mr. Hilliard wrote six papers signed "Junius Brutus," which were published in a Whig journal of Montgomery County. From 1842 till 1844 he was charge d'affaires in Belgium. On his return he was elected to Congress from Alabama, and served from 1845 till 1851. In 1846 he was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution. In Congress he opposed the Wilmot Proviso, and advocated the compromise measures of 1850. He was a candidate for elector on the Fillmore ticket in 1856, and in 1860 on the Bell-and-Everett ticket, visiting Mr. Everett in Boston, where he delivered an address in Faneuil Hall, he opposed secession in 1861, but after the convention of Alabama had passed the ordinance he espoused the cause of the Confederacy. He was appointed by Jefferson Davis Commissioner to Tennessee, and also accepted the commission of brigadier-general in the provisional Confederate Army, for which he raised 3,000 men. After the Civil War he resumed his law practice in Augusta, and subsequently moved to Atlanta, where he now (1887) resides. In 1876 he was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress, and he took an active part in the presidential canvass of 1872, advocating the election of Horace Greeley. In 1877 he was appointed U. S. minister to Brazil, where he remained till 1881. He has given much of his attention to literature, and has published "Roman Nights," translated from the Italian (Philadelphia, 1848); "Speeches and Addresses " (New York, 1855); and "De Vane, a Story of Plebeians and Patricians" (New York, 1865; 2d ed., Nashville, 1886).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 209.

HILLIS, David B., was colonel of the 17th Iowa Regiment in the Civil War, and received the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 209.

HILLYER, William Silliman, soldier, born in Henderson, Kentucky, 2 April, 1831; died in Washington, D. C, 12 July, 1874. He was graduated at Anderson College, Indiana, in 1847, studied law, and began practice at New Albany, Indiana, afterward attaining note at the bar. In 1855 he moved to St. Louis, where he became acquainted with Ulysses S. Grant, and recommended him for the office of county engineer of St. Louis County. In 1861 he served for some time in the National Army as a private, and then moved to New York, where he practised law. Soon after General Grant was commissioned as brigadier-general he offered Mr. Hillyer a place on his staff, and he served during the Tennessee and Vicksburg Campaigns. On 15 May, 1863, he resigned, owing to failing health, and returned to New York. He was brevetted brigadier-general in 1865, and after the close of the war was appointed a revenue-agent by President Grant. In 1874 he was nominated as general appraiser in the custom-house, but after much opposition his name was withdrawn. General Hillyer was the last surviving member of Grant's original staff.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 210.

HILTON, John Telemachus, 1801-1864, African American, abolitionist, civil rights activist (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 5, p. 615)