American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
Conscience of the Nation

Updated April 4, 2021

l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - K


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A                    B                    C                    D                    E                    F               

                      Bab-Bee         Cab-Che         Dab-Dev                               Fai-Fle
                      Bel-Bon          Chi-Cle          Dib-Dye                                Flo-Fur
                      Boo-Bro         Cli-Cox
                      Bru-Byr          Cra-Cuy

G                    H                    I                     J                     K                    L

Gag-Gid         Hab-Har                                                                             Lad-Loc
Gih-Gra         Has-Hil                                                                               Log-Lyt
Gre-Gru         Hin-Hyd

M                    N                    O                    P                    Q                    R

McA-McW                                                   Pac-Pie                                 Rad-Riv
Mad-Mid                                                      Pik-Put                                  Roa-Rya

S                     T                    U                    V                    W                    XYZ

Sac-Sha          Tab-Tho                                                       Wad-Way
She-Smi         Thr-Tyn                                                        Wea-Whe
Sno-Sti                                                                                Whi-Wil 
Sto-Sza                                                                                Wim-Wyt



Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - K

KAGI, John Henry, 1835-1859, attorney, militant abolitionist.  Second in command under John Brown on his raid on the U.S. Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry.  He was killed in the raid.  Aided fugitive slaves in Nebraska in 1855.  Participated in anti-slavery activities in Kansas, 1856-1857, where he joined John Brown’s group.

KANE, George Proctor, merchant, born in Baltimore, 21 August, 1817; died there. 23 June, 1878. His parents came from the north of Ireland. He became a grain-merchant in Baltimore, and during the famine in Ireland was active in sending food to the suffering peasantry. He held various local offices, and during the administration of Presidents Taylor and Fillmore was collector of the port of Baltimore. While marshal of police in 1861 he endeavored to protect the 6th Massachusetts Regiment from the assaults of the mob, but resisted the demand of General Butler for the surrender of arms in the possession of the city authorities. As a suspected protector of contraband traffic in arms, and head of an armed force hostile to the United States, he was arrested in June, 1861, and confined in Fort McHenry, and subsequently in Forts Warren and Lafayette. When released at the end of fourteen months he went to the south, where he remained till the close of the war. He was sheriff of Baltimore in 1873, and at the time of his death mayor.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 492.

KANE, Thomas Leiper, Brevet Brigadier General, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, lawyer, abolitionist, principal in the Underground Railroad, Union General.  Served under General Henry W. Slocum in the Twelfth Corps. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 493, Gallagher, 1993, pp. 92-93; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 258)

KANE, Thomas Leiper, soldier, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 27 January, 1822; died there, 26 December, 1883, was educated in Paris, where he associated with Auguste Comte and French Republicans, and contributed to "Le National," a democratic organ. After his return to Philadelphia he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1846, and held for several years the office of clerk of the U. S. District Court, but resigned it on account of the passage of the Fugitive-Slave Law. In 1847 he visited the Mormon settlements, and secured their confidence to such an extent, by befriending them during the miseries of their pilgrimage to Utah, that in 1858, after Brigham Young had called the people of Utah to arms to prevent the entrance of U. S. troops, and Governor Alfred Gumming (g. v.) had issued a proclamation declaring the territory to be in a state of rebellion, he went to Utah at his own expense with letters from President Buchanan, and arranged the basis of the settlement that was afterward concluded by peace commissioners. He founded and laid out the town of Kane in the northwestern part of Pennsylvania, where he raised, in April, 1861, a regiment of hunters and loggers known as the "Bucktails," which became famous for valor and endurance. He was wounded at Dranesville, where he led the advance, and at Harrisonburg he was sent to the rescue of a regiment that had fallen into an ambuscade, with 104 picked riflemen encountered three regiments of the enemy, and was wounded and taken prisoner. He was released on parole, and in August, 1862, exchanged. On 7 September, 1862, he was made a brigadier-general for gallant services in the field. At the beginning of the battle of Gettysburg he was absent on sick leave, yet he hastened to Washington for orders, took to General Meade the information that the National telegraphic cipher was known to the Confederates, joined his brigade on the morning of the second day, and held an important position on the extreme right. He resigned on 7 November, 1863, being disabled by wounds and exposure. He was the author of "The Mormons” (Philadelphia, 1850); 'Alaska" (1868); and "Coahuila" (1877).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 493.

KAPP, Friedrich, German author, born in Hamm, Prussia, 13 April, 1824; died in Berlin. 27 October, 1884. He was at the University of Heidelberg from 1842-'5, and studied law in Berlin, practising his profession in Hamm and Unna till 1848, when he moved to Frankfort-on-the-Main. He then spent some time in Belgium and Paris, and translated two works of Alexander Herzen, who entrusted him with the charge of his son. In 1850 he came to New York, where he practised law till 1870. In 1860 he was a presidential elector, and in 1867 he was appointed commissary of emigration, which office he held till his return to Germany in 1870. In 1871 he became a member of the German Diet. He received the degree of doctor of philosophy from the University of Bonn on 4 August, 1868. He was the author of "The Slave Question in the United States" (Gottingen, 1854); "Life of the American General Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben" (Berlin, 1858; New York, 1859); "History of Slavery in the United States of America" (New York, 1858); "The Trading in Soldiers of the German Princes with America, 1775-'83" (Berlin, 1864); "A History of the German Migration into America" (New York, 1867); "On Immigration and the Commission of Emigration " (1870); " Life of the American General Johann Kalb" (Stuttgart, 1862: New York, 1870); and " Frederick the Great and the United States" (Berlin, 1871). At the time of his death he was engaged in writing a history of the German book-trade, which was subsequently published (1886).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 494.

KASSON, John Adams, 1822-1910, lawyer, diplomat.  Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Iowa.  Served as a Congressman from 1863-1867, 1873-1877, 1881-1884.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 494; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 260; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 12, p. 392; Congressional Globe)

KASSON, John Adams, lawyer, born near Burlington, Vermont, 11 January, 1822. After graduation in the University of Vermont in 1842, he studied law in Massachusetts, and was admitted to the bar. He practised law in St. Louis, Missouri, until 1857, when he moved to Des Moines, Iowa. He was chairman of the Republican State Committee from 1858-'60, when he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention at Chicago. In 1861 he was appointed by President Lincoln first assistant Postmaster-General, which office he resigned in 1862, and was elected to Congress as a Republican, serving from 1863-'7. He was U. S. Postal Commissioner to Paris in 1863, and again in 1867, when he negotiated postal Conventions with Great Britain and other nations. He was a member of the Iowa House of Representatives from 1868-'73, when he was again elected to Congress, serving from 1 December, 1873, till 3 March, 1877. He was appointed U. S. minister to Austria in 1877, having first declined the mission to Spain, and remained in Vienna until 1881, when he was again elected to Congress, serving from 4 March, 1881, till his appointment on 4 July, 1884, as minister to Germany, where he was succeeded in 1885 by George H. Pendleton. He was president of the committee on the centennial celebration of the adoption of the constitution, held in Philadelphia in September, 1887.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 494.

KATTE, Walter, civil engineer, born in London, England, 14 November, 1830. He was educated at King's College school, and in 1846-'9 served his pupilage in a civil engineer's office. He came to the United States in 1850, entered the American railway service, and in 1857-'8 was resident engineer of the state canals of Pennsylvania. He was resident engineer of the western Division of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad in 1858-'9, and in 1859-'61 chief assistant engineer of the Pittsburg and Steubenville Railroad. In 1861-'2 he was connected with the U. S. Military Railway Service in Washington, Virginia, and Maryland, and in 1863 he became chief engineer of the Lewiston branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and in 1863-'5 resident engineer and engineer of bridges and buildings on the Northern Central Railroad. Mr. Katte held in 1865-'75 the offices of engineer, secretary, and general western agent of the Keystone Bridge Company of Pittsburg, closing this service as superintending engineer of the erection of the St. Louis Steel Arch Bridge. After two years in St. Louis he came to New York as chief engineer of the New York Elevated Railroad, which office he held in 1877-80, and in 1880-'6 he was chief engineer of the New York, West Shore, and Buffalo Railroad and its branches, and of the North River Construction Company. In 1886 he became chief engineer of the New York Central and Hudson River, New York and Harlem, and West Shore Railroads with their branches. Mr. Katte is a member of various societies of civil engineers.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 494.

KAUFMAN, Theodore, artist, born in Nelsen, Hanover, 18 December, 1814. He served for several years as a mercantile apprentice, and studied painting in Hamburg and Munich. He took part in the revolution at Dresden in 1848, came to this country in 1855, and fought in the National Army during the Civil War. Subsequently he resided in Boston. His works include "General Sherman near the Watchfire," "On to Liberty," "A Pacific Railway Train attacked by Indians," "Slaves seeking Shelter under the Flag of the Union," "Admiral Farragut entering Harbor through Torpedoes," and " Farragut in the Rigging."  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 494.

KAUTZ, August Valentine, soldier, born in Ispringen, Baden, Germany, 5 January, 1828. His parents emigrated to this country in 1828, and settled in Brown County, Ohio, in 1832. The son served as a private in the 1st Regiment of Ohio Volunteers in the Mexican War, and on his discharge was appointed to the United States Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1852 and assigned to the 4th U.S. Infantry. He served in Oregon and Washington Territory till the Civil War, and in the Rogue River Wars of 1853-'5, and was wounded in the latter, and in the Indian War on Puget Sound in 1856, in which he was also wounded. In 1855 he was promoted 1st lieutenant, and in 1857 commended for gallantry by General Scott. In 1859-'60 he travelled in Europe. He was appointed captain in the 6th U. S. Cavalry in 1861, and served with the regiment from its organization through the Peninsular Campaign of 1862, commanding it during the seven days until just before South Mountain, when he was appointed colonel of the 2d Ohio Cavalry. His regiment was ordered to Camp Chase, Ohio, to re-mount and refit, and he commanded that post from December, 1862, till April, 1863, when he led a cavalry brigade in Kentucky, forming a part of General Carter's division of the Army of the Ohio. He took part in the capture of Monticello, Kentucky, 1 May, 1863, and on 9 June was brevetted major for commanding in an action near there. He was engaged in the pursuit and capture of John Morgan in July, 1863, preventing him from crossing the Ohio, and afterward served as chief of cavalry of the 23d Corps. On 7 May, 1864, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to the command of the cavalry division of the Army of the James, he entered Petersburg with his small cavalry command on 9 June, 1864, for which attack he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, and he led the advance of the Wilson raid, which cut the roads leading into Richmond from the south, for more than forty days. On 28 October, 1864, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers, and in March, 1865, was assigned to the command of a division of colored troops, which he marched into Richmond on 3 April. He was brevetted colonel in the regular service for gallant and meritorious service in action on the Darbytown road, Virginia, 7 October, 1864. Also brigadier and major-general for gallant and meritorious services in the field during the war, 13 March, 1865. General Kautz was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 34th U.S. Infantry in 1866, transferred to the 15th in 1869, and commanded the regiment on the New Mexican frontier till 1674. He organized several successful expeditions against the Mescalero Apaches, who had fled from their reservation in 1864, and in 1870-'l succeeded in establishing the tribe on their reservation, where they have since remained. In June, 1874, he was promoted colonel of the 8th U.S. Infantry, and in 1875 was placed in command of the Department of Arizona. He served in California from 1878 till 1886, and is now (1887) in Nebraska. General Kautz is the author of "The Company Clerk" (Philadelphia, 1863); "Customs of Service for Non-Commissioned Officers and Soldiers" (1864); and "Customs of Service for Officers" (1866).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 495.

KAUTZ, Albert, naval officer, born in Georgetown, Ohio, 29 June, 1839, was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1861. He was appointed lieutenant, 21 April, 1861; lieutenant-commander, 31 May, 1865; commander, 3 September, 1872; and captain in 1885. In June, 1861, he was placed in command of the prize brig "Hannah Balch," off Charleston, South Carolina, ordered to Philadelphia, and was captured near Cape Hatteras by privateer " Winslow." For two months he was on parole in North Carolina, and then was imprisoned in Richmond as a retaliatory measure consequent on the imprisonment of privateers in New York City. In October, 1861, he was released on parole and went to Washington to negotiate an exchange, by means of which Admiral John L. Worden, Lieutenant George L. Selden, and himself were released from prison and restored to duty, on condition that Lieutenants Stevens, Loyal, and Butt should be sent south under a flag of truce. There were also 350 prisoners, captured at Hatteras Inlet in August, 1861, sent south under the same negotiation, for which they received 350 Union prisoners, who were captured at Hatteras Inlet in July, 1861. This was the first exchange authorized by President Lincoln. He served in the flagship "Hartford" at the passage of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Phillip, at the capture of New Orleans, 24 April, 1862, and in the various engagements with the Vicksburg batteries in June and July, 1862, being highly commended in the official despatches for "gallantry and ability." He is now (1887) stationed at the Boston U.S. Navy-yard. [Brother of General August Kautz.]
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 495.

KEARNY, Lawrence, naval officer, born in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, 30 November, 1789; died there, 29 November, 1868. He entered the U. S. Navy as a midshipman in 1807, and served, during the continuance of the embargo and non-intercourse acts, on the flotilla of gun-boats under Commodore John Rodgers. Subsequently he was on the frigates "Constitution" and " President" until 1810, when he was transferred to the " Enterprise," and in March, 1813, was promoted lieutenant. He was actively employed in the defence of the coast of South Carolina and adjacent states during the war of 1812-'15. and after its close distinguished himself in clearing the West Indies and Gulf Coast of pirates. In 1826 he was given command of the " Warren," and sent to the Levant, where he successfully attacked the Greek pirates, broke up their strongholds, and finally dispersed them, frequently capturing several vessels in a day, and at one time had more than 100 prisoners on board his vessel. On his return to the United States in 1832, he was made captain, and after various appointments on shore duty was given command of the " Potomac," and in 1841 advanced to the command of the East India Squadron. He hoisted his broad pennant on the "Constitution" in the harbor of Rio de Janeiro, the first instance of that act being performed at a foreign station. While in the east he was active in the suppression of opium smuggling, and secured the rights of American merchants in China. Learning that a commercial treaty was about to be concluded between the English and Chinese governments, he at once communicated with the officials and secured a promise on the part of the Chinese government to extend similar facilities to American merchants. In consequence of this action, the U. S. government sent Caleb dishing as special envoy to China, who negotiated the treaty that was ratified in July, 1845. While on his homeward voyage in 1843, Captain Kearny stopped at the Hawaiian Islands, and there protested against the treaty then in progress of settlement leading to the transfer of these islands to the British government. He afterward held various shore appointments, including the command of the New York Station, the presidency of one of the naval boards of inquiry, and membership in the lighthouse board. In April, 1867, he was made commodore on the retired list, and he was also a member of the New Jersey Board of Pilot Commissioners.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 496.

KEARNEY, Stephen Watts, soldier, born in Newark, New Jersey, 30 August, 1794; died in St. Louis, Missouri, 31 October, 1848, was a student at Columbia, but at the outbreak of the war of 1812 entered the army as a lieutenant in the 13th U.S. Infantry. At the assault on Queenstown Heights, on 13 October, 1812, he distinguished himself by his bravery, and on 13 April, 1813, was made captain. He was retained in the army after the war, and by successive promotions became lieutenant-colonel of the 1st Dragoons, 4 March, 1833, and brigadier-general on 30 June, 1846. At the beginning of the Mexican War he had command of the Army of the West, which set out from Bent's Fort on the Arkansas, crossed the country, and took possession of New Mexico. He established a provisional civil government in Santa Fe, and then continued his march to California, when, on 6 December, 1846, he fought the engagement at San Pasqual, where he was twice wounded. Subsequently he commanded the sailors and marines and a detachment of dragoons at the passage of San Gabriel River and the skirmish on the plains of Mesa, 8 and 9 January, 1847. For his services in this campaign he received the brevet of major-general on 6 December, 1846, and was made governor of California, holding that office from March till June, 1847. He then joined the army in Mexico, and was military and civil governor of Vera Cruz in March, and of the city of Mexico in May, 1848. Illness, caused by disease contracted in Mexico, resulted in his death. General Kearny published a " Manual of the Exercise and Manoeuvring of U. S. Dragoons" (Washington, 1837) and "Laws for the Government of the Territory of New Mexico " (Santa Fe, 1846). 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 496-487.

KEARNRY, Philip, soldier, born in New York City, 2 June, 1815; died near Chantilly, Virginia, 1 September, 1862, was graduated at Columbia in 1833, and then studied law under Peter A. Jay, but in 1837 accepted a commission in the 1st Dragoons, and was stationed at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, serving on the staff of General Henry Atkinson. He was sent to Europe by the War Department in 1839 to examine the tactics of the French cavalry service, and for the thorough accomplishment of this purpose entered the cavalry-school in Saumur. After six months of this experience he went to Algiers as a volunteer with the 1st chasseurs d'Afrique, and served with Colonel Le Pays de Bourjolli. He made the passage of the Atlas mountains, and participated in the engagements at the plains of Metidjah and of the Chelif, at the siege of Milianah, and passage of the Mousaia. His daring exploits during these campaigns attracted the attention of the French Army. In the autumn of 1840 he returned to the United States, and was almost immediately appointed aide-de-camp to General Alexander Macomb, holding this appointment until the death of the commander-in-chief. For some months he was then stationed at the cavalry barracks in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, but he was soon recalled to Washington to serve on the staff of General Winfield Scott. In 1845 he accompanied his uncle. General Kearny, on the march to the South Pass, which was the first expedition that penetrated so far from settlements into the Indian country. During the Mexican War. at the head of a magnificently equipped company of cavalry, he operated at first along the Rio Grande, but later joined General Scott on his march to Mexico. His command served as the body-guard of the general-in-chief, and Kearny was promoted captain in December, 1846. He took part in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, and at the close of the latter, as the Mexicans were retreating into the capital, Kearny, at the head of his dragoons, charged the enemy and followed them into the city of Mexico itself; but as he fell back he was shot in the left arm, which necessitated amputation. When General Oliver O. Howard lost his right arm at the battle of Fair Oaks, Kearny happened to be present when the amputation was performed, and Howard, looking up, said: "We'll buy our gloves together hereafter. A month later General Scott with his army entered the city of Mexico, but the first man who had entered, sword in hand, the gate of the captured capital was Captain Kearny, who was rewarded with the brevet of major. On his recovery he was stationed in New York on recruiting service, and was presented with a sword by the members of the Union Club. Early in 1851 he went to California, and was engaged in the campaign against the Rogue River Indians, but resigned from the army in October, 1851. He then went around the world by way of China and Ceylon, and, after spending some time in Paris, settled at Belle Grove, opposite Newark, New Jersey. In 1859 he returned to France, and, joining his old comrades of the chasseurs d'Afrique, participated in the war in Italy. At Solferino he was in the charge of the cavalry under General Louis M. Morris, which penetrated the Austrian centre, capturing the key-point of the situation. He is described on this occasion as charging "holding his bridle in his teeth, with his characteristic impetuosity." He received the cross of the Legion of Honor, being the first American that had ever been thus honored for military service. In 1861, soon after the beginning of the Civil War, he returned to the United States, and tendered his services to the National government. After their rejection by these authorities and those of New York State, his claims were pressed by New Jersey, and he was made brigadier-general on 17 May, 1861, and assigned to the command of the 1st New Jersey brigade in General William B. Franklin's division of the Army of the Potomac General Kearny was present at the battle of Williamsburg, where his timely arrival changed the repulse into a victory, and served through the engagements in the Peninsula, then with the Army of Virginia from the Rapidan to Warrenton. In May, 1862, he was given command of the 3d Division, and his commission as major-general bears date 7 July, 1862, but was never received by him. At the second battle of Bull Run he was on the right, and forced General Thomas J. Jackson's corps back against General Longstreet's men. A few days later, at Chantilly, while reconnoitering, after placing his division, he penetrated into the Confederate lines, and was shot. His remains were sent by Lee under a flag of truce to General Hooker, and found their last resting-place in Trinity churchyard, New York City. General Scott referred to General Kearny as " the bravest man I ever knew, and the most perfect soldier." See "Personal and Military History of Philip Kearny," by J. Watts De Peyster (New York, 1869).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 497.

KEATING, William Valentine, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 4 April, 1823, was graduated at St. Mary's College, Baltimore, in 1840, and, after receiving his medical degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1844, began to practise in Philadelphia, where he has since remained. In 18(50 he was elected professor of obstetrics in Jefferson Medical College, which chair he resigned, owing to impaired health, and was clinical lecturer there for several years. He was also physician at St. Joseph's Hospital and at St. Joseph's orphan asylum, and acting surgeon in the U. S. Army. After the battle of Gettysburg he was medical director of the U. S. Army Hospital on Broad and Cherry streets, Philadelphia, and previously he had been connected with the staff of the Satterlee Hospital. He edited Churchill on "Diseases of Children" (Philadelphia, 1856) and Ramsbotham's "Obstetrics" (1856).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 498.

KEENAN, William Williams, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 19 January, 1837, was graduated at Brown in 1859, and at Jefferson Medical College in 1862. He was a surgeon in the U. S. Army in 1863-'4, and. after two years of European study, returned in 1866 and established himself in Philadelphia, where he was lecturer on pathological anatomy in Jefferson Medical College for nine years, and also conducted the Philadelphia school of anatomy. Since 1884 he has been professor of surgery in the Woman's Medical College of Philadelphia, and he is also professor of artistic anatomy in the Pennsylvania academy of fine arts. He has published "Gunshot Wounds and other Injuries of Nerves" (Philadelphia, 1864); " Reflex Paralysis" (Washington. 1864); "Clinical Charts of the Human Body" (1872); "Complications and Sequels of Continued Fevers" (1876); "Early History of Practical Anatomy" (1875); besides which he has edited "Gray's Anatomy" (1887), and other works.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 500.

KEENAN, Peter, soldier, born in York, Livingston County, New York, 9 November, 1834; died at Chancellorsville, Virginia, 2 May, 1863. He was the son of poor Irish parents, but was adopted into a wealthy family. He was a resident of Philadelphia when the war began, and in the summer of 1861 went to Williamsport, and assisted in recruiting the 8th Pennsylvania Cavalry, in which he was made a captain, 19 August He was many times sent out as a scout. At Chancellorsville. where he was in command of his regiment, holding the rank of major, he was ordered by General Alfred Pleasonton, after the rout of the 11th Corps on the right wing, to charge the advancing enemy in a wood, and hold them in check until the artillery could be got into position. He charged with his regiment, which numbered fewer than 500 men, so impetuously that the Confederates were startled, and hesitated to advance from the wood, until the guns were ready to rake the column as it emerged. Keenan met an inevitable death at the head of his men, many of whom fell with him, but the sacrifice enabled General Pleasonton to hold Stonewall Jackson's corps in check and save the army from rout.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 500.

KEENE, Laura, actress, born in England in 1830; died in Montclair, New Jersey, 4 November, 1873. At an early age she developed a taste for the stage. Her first appearances were made in London, at the Lyceum, while that theatre was under the management of Madame Vestris. She was most successful in comedy. In October, 1851, she appeared as Pauline in Bulwer's "Lady of Lyons, and achieved a marked success. She came to the United States in 1852, and on 20 October made her first appearance at Wallack's Theatre, New York, performing in her favorite parts and commanding excellent houses. In 1854, after visiting Boston, Philadelphia, and other eastern cities, Miss Keene went to California, and thence to Australia. In a pecuniary sense, as well as otherwise, her visits to the gold regions were quite successful; and when in 1855 she returned to this country, she assumed the management of the Varieties Theatre in New York. Soon afterward she established a new theatre, which was known for several years by her own name, but later as the Olympic, and continued its lessee and manager until 1863. In this house she brought out, 18 October, 1858, "Our American Cousin," with Joseph Jefferson as Asa Trenchard and Edward A. Sothern as Lord Dundreary. This piece had an immense run. On 26 November, !860, she produced "The Seven Sisters,'" which had a run of 169 nights. Soon afterward Miss Keene married a Mr. Lutz. The Laura Keene Company became well known outside of New York, and it was at one of her representations of " Our American Cousin " at Ford's theatre, Washington, 14 April, 1865, that President Lincoln met his death. In 1868 she visited England. On her return she organized a travelling company, of which she retained the management, reappearing in New York in 1870, and occupying the stage until within two years of her death. Her last undertaking was the publication of a weekly art journal in New York City, which was issued for about one year. She constructed several plays, which met with only moderate success.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 500.

KEEP, John, 1781-1870, Oberlin, Ohio, educator, college trustee.  Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, Manager, 1837-38.  Opposed slavery, women’s and African American rights advocate.  Trustee of Oberlin College from 1834-1870.  Attended World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840

KEIFER, Joseph Warren, lawyer, soldier, and politician, born in Clark County, Ohio, 30 January, 1836. He was educated at Antioch College. Yellow Springs, Ohio, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1858, and began practice in Springfield. On 19 April, 1861, he enlisted in the National service, and was commissioned major of the 3d Ohio Infantry on 27 April. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel on 12 February, 1862, and on 30 September was made colonel of the 110th Ohio Infantry. During the war he was four times wounded. He was brevetted brigadier-general on 19 October, 1864, and major-general on being mustered out in June, 1865. He returned to the practice of his profession at Springfield, Ohio, declining a lieutenant-colonel's commission in the regular army, which was offered him in November, 1866. In 1868-'9 he was a member of the Ohio Senate. He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention in 1876, and was elected a member of Congress from Ohio the same year, serving from 15 October, 1877, till 3 March, 1885. He was speaker of the house during the 47th Congress, from 5 December, 1881, till 3 March, 1883, and was the orator at the unveiling of the Garfield statue in Washington, in May, 1887.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 501.

KEIM, William High, soldier, born near Reading, Pennsylvania, 25 June, 1813; died in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 18 May, 1862. He was educated at Mount Airy Military Academy, Pennsylvania, was mayor of Reading in 1848, was elected to Congress as a Democrat to fill a vacancy, and served in 1858-'9, and then became surveyor-general of the state. In 1861 he was commissioned major-general of the Pennsylvania volunteers that were sent by order of the governor, under General Robert Patterson, to defend the towns of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, Hagerstown, Maryland, Harpers Ferry, Virginia, and the upper Potomac. In the autumn of this year, Keim was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, and, joining the army under General McClellan, he commanded a Pennsylvania brigade in the Peninsular Campaign. His death was the result of camp fever.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 501-502.

KEITT, Laurence Massillon (kit), Congressman, born in Orangeburg District, S.C., 4 October, 1824; died in Richmond, Virginia, 4 June, 1864. He was graduated at the College of South Carolina in 1843, and was admitted to the bar in 1845. He was in the legislature in 1848, was chosen to Congress in 1852 as a state-rights Democrat, and served until his withdrawal in December, 1860, to become a delegate to the secession Convention of South Carolina. He was a member of the Provisional Confederate Congress in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1861, and was conspicuous in forming the provisional and permanent Confederate Constitution. In 1862 he joined the Confederate Army as colonel of the 20th South Carolina Volunteers, and was mortally wounded, at the head of his regiment, at the battle of Cold Harbor, dying in Richmond the next day.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 504.

KELLEY, Abby (Foster), 1811-1887, Pelham, Massachusetts, Society of Friends, Quaker, radical abolitionist leader, women’s rights activist, radical social reformer, orator, lecturer.  Active supporter of the American Anti-Slavery Society, doing lectures, fundraising, and participating in anti-slavery conferences and distributing petitions.  Married abolitionist Stephan S. Foster.  Member of the Underground Railroad, Worcester, Massachusetts. (Bacon, 1974; Drake, 1950, pp. 14, 158, 176-177; Dumond, 1961, pp. 191, 275-276, 286; Mayer, 1998; Morin, 1994; Sterling, 1991; Yellin, 1994)

KELLEY, Benjamin Franklin, soldier, born in New Hampton, N. II., 10 April, 1807. He moved to West Virginia in 1826, and. settling in Wheeling, engaged in merchandise till 1851, when he became freight-agent on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. In May, 1861, he raised the first Virginia Regiment for the National Army, and was commissioned its colonel. He was engaged at Philippi, near Grafton, West Virginia, and severely wounded, was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 17 May, 1861, captured Romney on 26 October, and was again victorious at Blue's Gap. He was then given the command of the Department of Harper's Ferry and Cumberland, but was relieved at his own request, in consequence of his wounds, in January, 1862. In the following summer he resumed command of the railroad district under General John C. Fremont, and in July, 1863, he was assigned to the Department of West Virginia. He was engaged in the pursuit of Lee after his passage of the Potomac, and in November, 1863, destroyed the camp of the Confederates under General John D. Imboden, near Morefield, Virginia. In August, 1864, he repulsed the Confederate forces at Cumberland, Maryland, Now Creek, and Morefield, Virginia, and on 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted major-general of volunteers. At the close of the Civil War he was appointed collector of internal revenue for the 1st District of West Virginia, in 1876 became superintendent of Hot Springs Reservation, Arkansas, and since 1883 has been examiner of pensions. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 504.

KELLEY, William Darrah, 1814-1890, lawyer, jurist, abolitionist.  Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.  Elected in 1860.  Called the “Father of the House.”  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Gates, 2013, Vol. 10, p. 510; Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 505; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 12, p. 494; Congressional Globe; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 299)

KELLEY, William Darrah, Congressman, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 12 April, 1814. His grandfather, John, was a Revolutionary officer, of Salem County, New Jersey. William lost his father at an early age, and was apprenticed first to a printer and subsequently to a jeweler in Boston, where, while following his trade, he acquired a reputation as a writer and speaker. Returning to Philadelphia in 1840 he studied law, was admitted to the bar the next year, and while practising his profession devoted much time to literary pursuits. He was Attorney-General of the state in 1845-'6, and a judge of the court of common pleas of Philadelphia from 1846 till 1850. Until 1848 Mr. Kelley was a Democrat and free-trader, but in 1854 he joined the Republican Party, became a protectionist and an ardent abolitionist, and delivered in Philadelphia in 1854 an address on "Slavery in the Territories." that became widely known. In 1860 he was a delegate to the National Republican Convention, and was elected to Congress, where he has served till the present time (1887), and is the senior member of the house in continuous service. He has been a member of numerous committees, such as those on Naval Affairs, Agriculture, and Indian Affairs, was chairman of that on Weights and Measures in the 40th Congress, and of that on the Centennial Celebration. He is often called the "Father of the House," and is popularly known as "Pig-iron Kelley-" In addition to many political speeches and literary essays, he has published " Address at the Colored Department of the House of Refuge" (Philadelphia, 1850); "Reasons for abandoning the Theory of Free Trade and adopting the Principle of Protection to American Industry" (1872); "Speeches, Addresses"; "Letters on Industrial and Financial Questions" (1872); "Letters from Europe " (1880): and " The New South " (1887).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 505.

KELLOGG, Francis W., 1810-1878, Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives.  Served in Congress 1859-1865, 1868-1869.  Raised six regiments of cavalry for the Union Army.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery. (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 505; Congressional Globe)

KELLOGG, Francis W., Congressman, born in Washington, Hampshire COUNTY, Massachusetts, 30 May, 1810; died in Alliance, Ohio, in November, 1878. After receiving a limited education he moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan, and engaged in the lumber business. In 1850-'7 he was a member of the legislature, and from 1859 till 1865 served in Congress, having been chosen as a Republican. During the Civil War he raised six regiments of cavalry for the National Army. In 1865 he was appointed collector of internal revenue for the southern District of Alabama, and was a member of Congress from 22 July, 1868, till 3 March, 1869.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 505.

KELLOGG, Orlando, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)

KELLOGG, Spencer, Utica, New York, abolitionist leader, treasurer of the New York Anti-Slavery Society (NYASS).  Vice President, American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), 1834-1835.  (Sernett, 2002, p. 52; Sorin, 1971, p. 103n)

KELLOGG, William, jurist, born in Ashtabula County, Ohio. 8 July, 1814. He received a common-school education, and. removing to Illinois in 1837, studied law, was admitted to the bar at Canton, and acquired an extensive practice in cases of disputed land-titles. He was a member of the legislature in 1849-'50, was three years a judge of the circuit court of Illinois, and in 185(5 was elected to Congress as a Republican, serving till 1863. In 1864 he was appointed by President Lincoln minister to Guatemala, but declined to serve, and in 1866 he became chief justice of Nebraska territory.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.

KELLOGG, William Pitt, senator, born in Orwell, Vermont, 8 December, 1831. He moved to Illinois in 1848, studied law in Peoria, and was admitted to the bar in 1854, beginning practice in Fulton County. He was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions of 1856 and 1860, and a presidential elector in both these years, and in 1861 was appointed chief justice of Nebraska, which office he resigned later in the year to become colonel of the 7th Illinois Cavalry. He served under General Pope in Missouri, and commanded a brigade until the evacuation of Corinth, but left the army on account of feeble health, and in April, 1865, was appointed collector of the port of New Orleans. On the reorganization of the state government, in Louisiana he was chosen to the U. S. Senate as a Republican, and served from 1868 till 1871. On 19 June, 1872, he was nominated for governor by the " custom-house" branch of the party, and in August, by an agreement with the branch that had nominated P. B. S. Pinchback, became the candidate of the whole party. The various wings of the Democratic Party united on John McEnery. The election was held on 4 November, and Kellogg, on 16 November, obtained a temporary injunction in a U. 8. Court, restraining the returning-board from announcing the result, alleging among other things that changes had been illegally made in the board for the purpose of declaring McEnery elected. Judge Edward H. Duroll rendered a final decision in Kellogg's favor; but both the rival boards were organized, two legislatures convened, each candidate was declared elected, and both were inaugurated on 14 January, 1873. A committee of Congress investigated the matter, and advised that a new election be held; but a bill to that effect was lost, and the administration recognized Mr. Kellogg as legal governor of the state. The McEnery party finally appealed to arms, alleging that the Kellogg administration was a usurpation, and after a conflict with the metropolitan police, in the streets of the city, seized the state and city buildings and property on 14 September, and compelled Governor Kellogg to take refuge in the custom-house. President Grant immediately issued a proclamation ordering the insurgents to disperse, and by 20 September order had been restored by U. S. troops, and the Kellogg government was re-established. The political excitement continued, and Civil War was prevented only by the presence of the U. S. forces; but in 1875 there was a second congressional investigation, and an agreement was made by which Governor Kellogg remained in office, while a compromise legislature was recognized as the legal one. On 25 February, 1876, Governor Kellogg was impeached by the lower house of the legislature, the principal accusation being that he had used for other purposes money that had been set apart for the payment of interest; but the case was dismissed by the senate. On 8 January, 1877, his term expired, and, as before, both the Republicans and the Democrats organized state governments. Mr. Kellogg was chosen to the U. S. Senate by the former, and admitted to his seat by vote of the senate on 30 November, 1877. He was elected to the lower house of Congress in 1882, and served from 1883 till 1885.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 507.

KELLY, James Edward, sculptor, born in New York City, 30 July, 1855. He studied at the National academy of design and at the Art students' league, and also acquired a knowledge of wood-engraving. In 1875 he opened a studio with Edwin A. Abbey, and there made numerous drawings for the magazines and Bryant and Gay's " History of the United States." In 1878 he was commissioned by a publishing-house to prepare a series of portraits of the distinguished generals of the Civil War. Among these were Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Hooker, Hancock, and Ord. In addition to making portrait studies, sketches and studies were made, from life in each case, for pictures of remarkable incidents in the careers of these officers, the models themselves furnishing all details. During the progress of this work he made the statuette of " Sheridan's Ride," which was shown in the exhibition of the National academy in 1879. He now determined to devote his attention to sculpture. In 1883 he was chosen from among many competitors to make the five bass-reliefs which surround the base of the Monmouth battle monument. The subjects selected were "Council of War at Hopewell," ' Washington rallying the Troops," " Ramsay defending his Guns." "Molly Pitcher," and "Wayne's Charge." Later he obtained the first prize in the competition for the Paul Revere monument in Boston, but the work was subsequently assigned to a local artist. In 1886 he modelled the panel "Schuyler surrendering his Plans to General Gates before the Battle of Saratoga," for the Saratoga monument. At present (1887) he is engaged on an equestrian statue of "General Grant at Donelson," made from sittings given by Grant himself in 1880, and also on similar statues of General William T. Sherman and General John A. Logan.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 507.

KELLY, Robert Morrison, journalist, born in Paris, Kentucky, 22 September, 1830. He was educated in his native town, and after teaching for several years qualified for the practice of law, and opened an office at Cynthiana in 1860. He aided in recruiting volunteers for the National Army at Camp Dick Robinson, was made captain, and successively promoted major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel of the 4th Kentucky Infantry, and commanded this regiment until its discharge, 1 September. 1865, nearly all of the time in active duty in the field. In 1866 he was appointed collector of internal revenue for the 7th District, but in 1869 he resigned to take editorial charge of the "Louisville Daily Commercial," at the head of which he continued until 1886. In 1873 he was appointed pension-agent at Louisville, which office he held until he was moved by President Cleveland.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 508.

KELLY, William, inventor, born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 22 August, 1811. He received a common-school education, and at an early age evinced a fondness for mechanics by constructing a tin steam-engine and boiler. At the age of eighteen he built a propelling water-wheel, and four years later a revolving steam-engine. Subsequently he became engaged in the commission business in Pittsburg, and also owned interests in steamboats; but in 1845, his property having been destroyed by fire, he moved to Kentucky, and there engaged in the manufacture of iron. The property known as the Eddyville iron-works, including the Suwanee furnace and the Union forge, situated on the Cumberland River in Lyon County, was purchased by him in 1840, and he soon acquired a high reputation for the excellence of his products. At the Suwanee furnace nearly one half of his metal was converted into large sugar-kettles made on cast-iron elastic moulds of his own invention, which found their way to the sugar-plantations in Louisiana and Cuba, while at the Union forge he made charcoal blooms which were sent to the rolling-mills in Cincinnati. In 1847, owing to the great cost of fuel, he began experimenting toward decarbonizing the iron by the introduction of a current of air, thereby directly converting pig-iron into steel by means of a converter, which can still be seen at the Cambria Iron-Works in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Zerah Colburn, in his history of the Bessemer process of refining iron, says: "The first experiments in the conversion of melted cast-iron into malleable steel, by blowing air in jets through the mass in fusion, appear to have been made by William Kelly, an iron-master at the Suwanee furnaces, Lyon County, Kentucky, U. S." This method, long known as " Kelly's air-boiling process," was used for the manufacture of boiler-plates before Sir Henry Bessemer was known, and it is claimed by Mr. Kelly that Bessemer obtained his original knowledge of the process that bears his name from information that was procured through English workmen in Mr. Kelly's employ. As soon as Bessemer brought out his process in England, application was at once made by Mr. Kelly for a patent in the United States, and after considerable delay, during which time the English applicant appeared in the patent-office, the commissioner decided that Mr. Kelly was the first inventor and entitled to the patent, which he at once issued to him. In 1863 a syndicate of iron-masters organized the Kelly process company, for the purpose of controlling Mr. Kelly's patents, and at once erected experimental works at Wyandotte, Michigan, (see Durfee, William P. and Zoheth S.), where steel was first made under Kelly's patents in the United States, months before the similar production under Bessemer's patents at Troy by Alexander L. Holley (q. v.). In 1866 the interests of the several patentees were consolidated under the title of the Pneumatic steel association. Application was made at the patent office in 1871 for the renewal of the Bessemer, Mushet, and Kelly patents, and the claims of the two former were rejected, while a renewal of seven years was granted to Mr. Kelly. In 1854 Mr. Kelly, finding slave labor unsatisfactory, imported through a New York tea-house ten Chinamen to take the place of Negroes in his iron-works. This is said to have been the first introduction of that kind of labor into the United States, and it excited much comment. The experiment proved successful, and arrangements were made for the further importation of fifty Chinamen, when a difficulty between the two nations prevented their coming.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 508-509.

KELTON, John Cuningham, soldier, born in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, 24 June, 1828. His great-grandfather, James, came from Ireland to Chester County, Pennsylvania, about 1735. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1851, and was employed on the frontier till 1857, and at the academy, as instructor in infantry tactics and the use of small arms, till 24 April, 1861. He served during the Civil War in 1861-'5 as assistant adjutant-general, with the exception of two months in 1861, when, as colonel of the 9th Missouri Regiment, he commanded a brigade in that state. He resigned his volunteer commission, 12 March, 1862, but was in the field during the advance upon Corinth and the siege of that place in April and May, and was on General Henry W. Halleck s staff from July of that year till July, 1865. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, colonel, and brigadier-general, U S. Army, on 13 March, 1865, "for most valuable and arduous services both in the field and at headquarters." General Kelton was in charge of the appointment bureau in the adjutant-general's office at Washington in 1865-'70, and was afterward adjutant-general of the Division of the Pacific. On 15 June, 1880, he attained the staff rank of colonel, and since 1885 he has been on duty in the adjutant-general's office at Washington. Since 1880 he has patented a modification of the locking mechanism of the Springfield rifle, reducing the number of motions required to load and fire it to four; a front sight cover and protector; a detachable  magazine; a safety-stop for revolvers, preventing accidental discharge in a cavalry combat: a pistol pack, whereby any jointed revolver can be loaded in two seconds; an automatic check-rein that enables the cavalryman to have both hands free; and a rear sight for rifles. Many of these have been adopted by the Ordnance Department. General Kelton has published " Manual of the Bayonet" (New York. 1861); and has printed privately "Fencing with Foils" (San Francisco, 1882); "Pigeons as Couriers" (1882); "Information for Riflemen" (1884); and "Select Songs for Special Occasions" (1884). He has edited " System of Horse Training" by John Grace (1884).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 509-510.

KEMPER, James Lawson, soldier, born in Madison County, Virginia, 11 June, 1823, was graduated at Washington College, Lexington, Virginia, in 1842, and was a captain in the U. S. Army during the Mexican War. He was a member of the Virginia legislature ten years, during two of which he was speaker of the house, and in 1861 entered the Confederate Army as colonel of the 7th Virginia Regiment. He was commissioned brigadier-general in May, 1862, was in many battles, and severely wounded and captured at Gettysburg, being disabled for further service. In 1874 he was governor of Virginia, and, since the conclusion of his term, he has been engaged in planting in Orange County, Virginia. While governor he published a volume of messages to the legislature (Richmond. 1876).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 512.

KENDALL, Amos, journalist, born in Dunstable, Massachusetts, 16 August, 1789; died in Washington, D. C., 11 November, 1869. His ancestor, Francis, came from England to Woburn, Massachusetts, about 1640. His parents were poor, and, after working on his father’s farm till he was sixteen years old, he entered Dartmouth with a year's preparation, and was graduated in 1811 at the head of his class, although he had been absent much during his course that he might support himself by teaching. He then studied law, and in 1814 moved to Lexington, Kentucky, where he practised, and was also tutor in the family of Henry Clay during the latter's absence to negotiate the treaty of Ghent. He was then postmaster and editor of a local paper at Georgetown, Kentucky. and in 1816 became co-editor and part owner of the " Argus of Western America," the state journal at Frankfort. He actively supported the Democratic Party, and also secured the passage by the legislature of an act setting apart half the profits of the Bank of the Commonwealth as a school fund. He warmly supported Jackson in 1824, and the latter at the beginning of his term in 1829 appointed Kendall fourth auditor of the treasury. He acquired great influence with the administration, and became one of the readiest and most powerful political writers in the capital. Some of Jackson's ablest state papers were attributed to Kendall's pen. He aided in shaping the president's anti-bank policy, was appointed a special treasury-agent to negotiate with state banks, and during the quarrel with Calhoun, foreseeing the disaffection of the "Telegraph," the administration organ, advised the president to invite Francis P. Blair to establish the "Globe" in Washington. Harriet Martineau wrote of him at this time: "I was fortunate enough to catch a glimpse of the invincible Amos Kendall, one of the most remarkable men in America. He is supposed to be the moving spring of the administration; the thinker, planner, and doer; but it is all in the dark." He was made postmaster-general in 1835, and introduced many reforms in the department, also freeing it from debt. His action in 1835 in refusing to punish the postmaster of Charleston, South Carolina, for allowing the destruction by a mob of northern newspapers, which it was alleged contained "abolition documents," created much excitement. In his next annual report he urged the passage of a law forbidding the circulation in the mails of anything touching the subject of slavery. He retired from the cabinet in 1840, and afterward refused a foreign mission that was tendered to him by President Polk. He was for several years embarrassed by a suit that was brought against him by certain mail-contractors, and which he chose to defend at his own expense, but it was finally decided in his favor. He established a bi-weekly called "Kendall's Expositor" in 1841, and the "Union Democrat," a weekly, in 1842, but both were soon discontinued. Kendall became associated with Samuel F. B. Morse in 1845 in the ownership of the latter's telegraph patents, and by his ability and enterprise aided in insuring their success. His connection with their management, after years of trial and defeat, made him a rich man, and he spent the rest of his life in Washington and at his country-seat, Kendall Green, near that city. He was active in works of philanthropy, contributed $100,000 toward building the Calvary Baptist Church in Washington in 1864, and after its destruction by fire in 1867 gave largely toward rebuilding it. He was the founder of the Washington Deaf and Dumb Asylum and its first president, and gave it $20,000. Among his other gifts were $25,000 to two mission schools, and several scholarships to Columbian College, of whose board of trustees he was for some time president. In 1860 Mr. Kendall published in the Washington "Evening Star" a series of protests against secession, and during the Civil War he earnestly supported the administration by his pen, though he still called himself a Jackson Democrat. He was the author of "Life of Andrew Jackson, Private, Military, and Civil" (New York, 1843, uncompleted); and a pamphlet entitled "Full Exposure of Dr. Charles T. Jackson's Pretensions to the Invention of the American Electro-magnetic Telegraph," which was republished with prefatory remarks by Prof. Morse (Paris, 1867). After his death appeared his autobiography, edited by William Stickney (Boston, 1872).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 513.

KENDALL, Bion Freeman, lawyer, born in Bethel, Maine, in October, 1827; died in Olympia, Washington territory, 4 January, 1863. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1852, became a clerk in one of the departments at Washington, and then acted as astronomer for the expedition that was sent under General Isaac I. Stevens to explore a route for the Pacific Railroad. He afterward became a lawyer in Olympia, W. T., where he attained note in his profession, and was secretary of the legislature, also engaging in the lumber business. At the beginning of the Civil War he made a four months' trip in the southern states, and reported to General Scott on the condition, resources, and war material of each. Soon afterward he was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Washington Territory, and also edited a newspaper there. He was assassinated by a man whose father Kendall had attacked in his journal.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 513.

KENDRICK, Henry Lane, educator, born in Lebanon, New Hampshire, 20 January, 1811. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1835, and assigned to the 2d U.S. Infantry. For the next twelve years he was assistant professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and geology at West Point, and in the meantime was transferred to the 2d Artillery and made captain, 18 June, 1846. He saw active service during the war with Mexico, taking part in the battle of Cerro Gordo, the siege of Vera Cruz, and the defence of Puebla, for gallant and meritorious conduct in which he was brevetted major, 12 October, 1847. After the close of the war he was stationed chiefly in the west, taking part in several expeditions against the Indians, and for five years commanding a post in New Mexico until 1857, when he was appointed professor of chemistry, mineralogy, and geology in the U. S. Military Academy. On 28 February, 1873, he was made colonel, and on 13 December, 1880, at his own request, having been forty-five years in the service, with the reputation of being, perhaps, the kindest-hearted and most popular professor ever employed at West Point, he was retired. In 1859 he was a member of the board of assay commissioners at the U. S. Mint in Philadelphia, and on 23 September, 1861, he was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, but declined. He received the degree of A. M. from Dartmouth in 1844, and that of LL. D. from the University of Missouri in 1868, and from the University of Rochester in 1869. His portrait has been added to the collection in the library of the U. S. Military Academy.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 515.

KENLY, John Reese, soldier, born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1822. He was educated in the private schools of his native city, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1845. He joined the " Eagle Artillery" of Baltimore, rose to the rank of lieutenant, and at the beginning of the Mexican War raised a company of volunteers. Captain Kenly took part in the battles that preceded the fall of Monterey, and when Colonel William H. Watson fell during that engagement he rallied and reformed the battalion. He returned to Baltimore on the expiration of his term of enlistment, but at once received a commission as major and returned to active service. After the war the general assembly of Maryland voted him the thanks of the state for gallantry in the field. He continued the practice of his profession until the beginning of the Civil War, when he was commissioned colonel, 11 June, 1861, and given the command of the 1st Maryland Regiment. In May, 1862, being stationed at Front Royal, he aided in checking the Confederate advance, and in saving the force under General Banks from capture. In this action Colonel Kenly was severely wounded and taken prisoner, but was exchanged on 15 August, and for his services at Front Royal was made brigadier-general on 22 August 1862. He was assigned to the command all the troops in Baltimore outside the forts, joined McClellan after the battle of Antietam, and rendered efficient service at Hagerstown and Harper's Ferry. In 1863 General Kenly led the Maryland brigade at the recapture of Maryland Heights, Harper's Ferry, and from that date until the close of the war he held various brigade commands in the 1st and 8th Army Corps. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers on 13 March, 1865, and after he was mustered out the general assembly of Maryland again passed a vote of thanks to him, and the corporation of Baltimore presented him with a sword. Since the close of the war General Kenly has devoted himself to his profession and to literature. He has written "Memoirs of a Maryland Volunteer," in the Mexican War (Philadelphia, 1873).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 515.

KENNA, John Edward, senator, born in Valcoulon, West Virginia, 10 April, 1848. After working on a farm he entered the Confederate Army as a private, served chiefly in Missouri, was wounded in 1864, and was surrendered at Shreveport, Louisiana, in 1865. He afterward attended St. Vincent's College at Wheeling, studied law at Charleston. West Virginia, and was admitted to the bar, 20 June, 1870. He was prosecuting attorney for Kanawha County in 1872-'7, and in 1875 was elected by the bar, under statutory provision, to hold the circuit courts of Lincoln and Wayne Counties. He was chosen to Congress as a Democrat, serving from October, 1877, until March, 1883, and had been re-elected when he was elected U. S. Senator to succeed Henry G. Davis, and took his seat in December.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 515-516.

KENNEDY, Alfred L., physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 25 October, 1818. He was educated in his native city, studied civil and mining engineering and also medicine, being graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1848, then studied physiology and physiological chemistry in Paris and Leipsic, and geology and botany in Paris. Returning to Philadelphia, he began the practice of medicine in 1853, but in 1865 retired and settled in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. He was made assistant professor of chemistry in the Pennsylvania Medical College in 1839, lecturer on chemical physics in 1840, and on general and medical botany and medical jurisprudence and toxicology in 1842. He was also appointed lecturer on medical chemistry in the Philadelphia school of medicine in 1843, and on industrial botany in 1849 and agricultural chemistry in 1852 in the Franklin Institute in the same city. In 1849 he was elected professor of medical chemistry in the Philadelphia College of medicine. In 1842 he had established the Philadelphia school of chemistry, and remained at its head until 1853. when it became under a new charter the Polytechnic College of the state of Pennsylvania. He was then chosen its president. He was vice-president of the American Agricultural Congress in 1876, and the same year held the same post in the Pennsylvania Agricultural Society. During the war he acted as a volunteer surgeon of the 2d Army Corps in the Gettysburg Hospital, and in 1863 was commissioned colonel of volunteer engineers. Dr. Kennedy has published "Practical Chemistry a Branch of Medical Education, etc." (Philadelphia, 1852).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 516.

KENNEDY, Crammond, lawyer, born in North Berwick, Scotland, 29 December, 1842. After attending school in his native country, he came to New York in 1856, and in 1857-60 delivered addresses on religious subjects to large audiences in that city and elsewhere, being widely known as " the boy preacher." He studied in Madison University in 1861-'3, and in the latter year was ordained as chaplain of the 79th New York Regiment, the "Highlanders." He was brevetted major for services in east Tennessee and the Wilderness, lectured in England and Scotland on the Civil War in 1864-'5, and in 1865-'7 was connected with the Freedmen's Commission. He became editor and proprietor of the "Church Union" in 1869, and in that year was associated with Henry Ward Beecher in establishing the "Christian Union," of which he became managing editor in 1870. He then studied law, was graduated at Columbia Law-School in 1878, and has since practised his profession in New York and in Washington, D. C. He has published "James Stanley," a prize Sunday-school book, issued anonymously (Nashville, Tennessee, 1859); "Corn in the Blade," poems (New York, 1860); "Close Communion or Open Communion?" (1869); and a prize essay on "The Liberty of the Press" (1876).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 515.

KENNEDY, John Alexander, superintendent of police, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 9 August, 1803; died in New York City, 20 June, 1873. His father was a native of the north of Ireland, and had been for many years a teacher in Baltimore. The son received a good education, and while still young moved to New York City and began business with his brother. In 1849 he was appointed a commissioner of emigration, and in 1854 he was elected a member of the common council. Subsequently he was appointed superintendent of Castle Garden, and did much to protect emigrants against swindlers. In 1860 he became superintendent of the Metropolitan police. During the draft riots he was severely beaten by a mob, while protecting the office of the provost-marshal at Third Avenue and Forty-sixth Street, on the morning of 14 July, 1863, and never fully recovered from his wounds. Upon returning to duty he was appointed provost-marshal of New York City, as well as superintendent of police, and continued to serve in this double capacity during the Civil War. He made many enemies through his efforts to enforce the metropolitan excise law. He resigned on 11 April, 1870, was president of a street-railroad company for about two years, and then held the office of collector of assessments till his death.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 516-517.

KENNEDY, John H., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  Philadelphia Society of the American Colonization Society.  Assistant to head Ralph Gurley.  (Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 125-126, 174, 175)

KENNEDY, John Pendleton, author, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 25 October, 1795; died in Newport, Rhode Island., 18 August, 1870. He was graduated at Baltimore College (now University of Maryland) in 1812, and in 1814 fought at Bladensburg and North Point. Subsequently he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1816. He was elected to the Maryland house of delegates in 1820, and re-chosen the two years following. In 1823 he was appointed secretary of legation to Chili, but withdrew his acceptance before the mission sailed. He was a warm advocate of the administration of John Quincy Adams, and wrote diligently in its support, strenuously opposing the extension of slavery. He also wrote a review (Baltimore, 1830) of Churchill C. Cambreleng's report on commerce and navigation, combating its anti-protective arguments. This was widely circulated, and the following year Kennedy was sent as a delegate to the National Convention of the Friends of Manufacturing Industry, and was one of the committee appointed to draft an address setting forth the protectionist view. In 1838 he was elected to Congress, and in 1840 he was one of the electors on the Harrison ticket. In the latter year he was again sent to Congress, and appointed chairman of the Committee on Commerce, in which capacity he drew up a report upon the reciprocity treaties and their effects on the shipping interest of the country. On President Tyler's abandonment of the Whigs, Mr. Kennedy was selected, at a meeting of the members of that party in both houses of Congress, to draft a "manifesto" condemning the course of the chief magistrate. In 1842 he was once more returned to Congress. At the next election he was defeated by a small vote, but in 1846 was elected to the Maryland House of Delegates, and made speaker. In 1852 Mr. Kennedy was appointed Secretary of the Navy, and it was mainly to his efforts that the success of Commodore Perry's Japan Expedition and of Dr. Kane's second arctic voyage was due. On the accession of Franklin Pierce to the presidency, Mr. Kennedy retired finally from politics. At the beginning of the Civil War he warmly espoused the national cause, and at its close advocated the election of General Grant. After the war he made three visits to Europe, chiefly with the view of benefiting his health, but without success, as his death  occurred soon after his return. While he was abroad he became a friend of William M. Thackeray. On one occasion, in Paris, when "The Virginians " was in course of publication in monthly numbers in London, Thackeray spoke of his disinclination to supply the printer with "copy" for the next chapter, and said, jestingly, " I wish you would write one for me." "Well," said Kennedy, "so I will, if you will give me the run of the story." The result was that Kennedy wrote the fourth chapter of the second volume of "The Virginians," which accounts for the accuracy of the descriptions of the local scenery about Cumberland, with which Kennedy was familiar, and which Thackeray had never seen. During the last of his sojourns abroad he acted, in 1867, as U. S. Commissioner to the Paris Exhibition. He took great interest in the Peabody Institute in Baltimore, and the donor largely availed himself of his advice in its organization. Mr. Kennedy also bequeathed to the institute his library and papers. He received the degree of LL. D. from Harvard in 1863. In 1818-'19 he issued in Baltimore, with Peter H. Cruse, "The Red Book," a fortnightly satirical publication. His novels are "Swallow Barn," a story of rural life in Virginia (Philadelphia, 1832); "Horse-Shoe Robinson, a Tale of the Tory Ascendency" (1835): and "Rob of the Bowl, a Legend of St. Inigoes," describing the province of Maryland in the days of the second Lord Baltimore (Philadelphia, 1838). The three were afterward issued in a new illustrated edition (New York, 1852). His other works include: "Annals of Quodlibet," a political satire (1840), and "Memoirs of the Life of William Wirt" (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1849; 2d ed., revised, 1850). By his will Mr. Kennedy provided for the publication of a uniform edition of his entire works, which has since appeared (10 vols., New York, 1870). Among his various speeches, reports, addresses, etc.. that have been printed are " Address before the Baltimore Horticultural Society " (1833); "A Discourse on the Life and Character of William Wirt" (Baltimore, 1834); "A Discourse at the Dedication of Green Mount Cemetery" (1839): "A Defence of the Whigs" (1844); and "Discourse on the Life and Character of George Calvert, the First Lord Baltimore" (Baltimore, 1845). The complete edition of his works also contains "Mr. Ambrose's Letters on the Rebellion " (New York. 1865), and "At Home and Abroad, a Series of Essays, with a Journal in Europe in 1867-8 " (1872). See his life by Henry T. Tuckerman (New York, 1871), and " Tribute to the Memory of Hon. John Pendleton Kennedy," delivered by Robert C. Winthrop, 8 September, 1870. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 517.

KENNEDY, Anthony, senator, born in Baltimore, Maryland, 21 December, 1811, moved with his parents to Charlestown, Virginia, in 1821, received a classical education, studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He never practised his profession, but subsequently became a cotton-grower and manufacturer. From 1839 till 1843 he was a member of the Virginia legislature, and in 1847 the Whig candidate for Congress. In 1850 he refused the consul-generalship to Cuba, and in 1851, after marrying for his second wife, Margaret, daughter of Christopher Hughes, moved to Baltimore, where he was elected to the U. S. Senate, serving from 12 May, 1858, till 3 March, 1863. In the convention of 1867 he took an active part in framing the present constitution of Maryland.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 517.

KENNER, Duncan F., planter, born in New Orleans in 1813; died there, 3 July, 1887. He became  a wealthy sugar-planter, served for several terms in the Louisiana legislature, and was a member of the State Constitutional Conventions of 1845 and 1852, presiding over the latter. He was a member of the Confederate Congress, and chairman of its Ways and Means Committee, and in 1864 was sent by Jefferson Davis as special commissioner to England and France, to secure the recognition of the southern Confederacy. Much of his property was confiscated on the capture of New Orleans in 1862, but at his death he was again a millionaire. He was fond of horses, and owned one of the largest stock-farms in the United States.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 519.

KERNAN, Francis, senator, born in Wayne, Steuben County, New York, 14 January. 1816. He was graduated at Georgetown College. D. C., in 1886, studied law, and moved to Utica in 1839, where he was admitted to the bar in July, 1840. He was reporter of the court of appeals from 1854 till 1857, and was chosen member of assembly in 1860. He was elected from the Oneida District to Congress in 1862 over Roscoe Conkling, the Republican candidate, and served from 1863 till 1865. In 1864 he was a candidate for re-election, but was defeated by Mr. Conkling. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention in 1867, and also of the commission to report to the legislature proposed amendments to the constitution, which were adopted in 1874. He was the Democratic candidate for governor in 1872, but was defeated by General John A. Dix. Mr. Kernan was elected senator from New York in January, 1875, and served from 4 March, 1875, to 4 March, 1881. His " Reports" were published in four volumes (Albany, 1855-'7).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 525.

KERSHAW, Joseph Brevard, soldier, born in Camden, South Carolina, 5 January, 1822. He was educated at academies in South Carolina, admitted to the bar in 1843, and was a member of the state senate in 1852-'7, and of the state convention of 1860. He raised the 2d South Carolina Regiment for the Confederate Army, and commanded it at the first battle of Bull Run in July, 1861. He was made brigadier-general, 13 February, 1862, commanded a brigade in McLaws's division through the Peninsula Campaign of that year, and afterward held the sunken road at Fredericksburg against the assault of the National troops. His command led the attack of Longstreet's corps at Gettysburg, where he lost more than half his brigade. After engaging in the battle of Chickamauga and the siege of Knoxville, he returned to Virginia in 1864 as major-general, and commanded a division in the final campaigns of Lee's army. He held the National forces in check at Spottsylvania until the arrival of Lee, was at Cold Harbor, in Early's valley campaign, and in the rear of Lee's army at Sailor's Creek, where he surrendered on 6 April, 1865. He was then imprisoned at Fort Warren till July, 1865, when he resumed his law-practice in Camden, South Carolina, and was a member of the state senate in 1865-'6, serving in the latter year as president. In 1870 he prepared for the conservative convention the resolutions that were adopted by that body, recognizing the recent constitutional amendments as accomplished facts and entitled to obedience. In 1877 he was elected judge of the 5th Circuit of the state, which office he now (1887) holds.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 527.

KETCHAM, John H., Congressman, born in Dover, Dutchess County, New York, 21 December, 1881. He received a good education, became interested in agriculture, and in 1856-'7 was a member of the state assembly, serving in the senate in 1860-'l. He became colonel of the 150th New York Regiment in 1862, brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, 6 December, 1864, and major-general, 13 March, 1865, and received the full commission of brigadier-general of volunteers on 1 April. He resigned to take his seat in Congress, to which he had been elected as a Republican, and served from 1865 till 1873. He was one of the representatives that were designated by the house to attend the funeral of General Scott in 1866, and during his service was a member of the committees on expenditures in the post-office department and military affairs. In 1874-'7 he was one of the commissioners for the District of Columbia, and in 1876 he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention. He was elected again to Congress in 1876, and has since served by successive re-elections. His present term will expire in 1889.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 528.

KETCHAM, Leander Smith, jurist, born in Marion, Wayne County, New York, 31 August, 1818; died in Clyde, Wayne County, New York, 27 March, 1870. He studied law while supporting himself, and in 1842 began to practise in Clyde. In 1852-'60 he was surrogate and judge of probate, and afterward engaged in agriculture. Not one of his decisions was reversed during the eight years of his service. Judge Ketcham rendered efficient service in raising troops during the Civil War, and was a member of the State Constitutional Convention of 1867.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 528.

KETCHUM, William Scott, soldier, born in Norfolk, Connecticut, 7 July, 1813; died in Baltimore, Maryland, 28 June, 1871. His father, Daniel, was a major in the regular army. The son was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1834, served in garrisons on the frontier and in the war against the Seminoles in Florida, and became in February, 1842, a captain in the 6th U.S. Infantry. From 1842 till 1861 he was engaged in garrison duty on the western frontier and Pacific Coast, and was promoted major in the 4th U.S. Infantry in June, 1860. He became acting inspector-general of the Department of the Missouri in March, 1861, with headquarters at St. Louis. In February, 1862, he was made brigadier-general of volunteers, and given charge of the organization of recruits in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and later served in the War Department. During the latter part of the Civil War he was connected with the quartermaster's department, and after being brevetted major-general, on 13 March, 1865, he was mustered out of the volunteer service. He then served on special duty in the adjutant-general's department until 1870, when he was retired.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 528.

KEY, David McKendree, postmaster-general, born in Greene County, Tennessee, 27 January, 1824. His father, a clergyman, moved to Monroe County in 1826. The son worked on a farm with few opportunities for education until he was twenty-one. He then entered Hiwassee College, Tennessee, where he was graduated in 1850, and in that year was also admitted to the bar. In 1853 he moved to Chattanooga, where he has since resided. He was a presidential elector in 1856 and 1860. Although he opposed secession, he yielded to the action of his state, and joined the Confederate Army as lieutenant-colonel of the 43d Tennessee Infantry, serving throughout the war. At its close he wrote a letter to Andrew Johnson, whose supporter he had been before the war, and received a free pardon. In 1870 he was a member of the state constitutional convention and chancellor of the third division, holding the latter office till 1875, when he was appointed by Governor James D. Porter, U. S. Senator to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Andrew Johnson, serving from 6 December, 1875, till 29 January, 1877. He was appointed Postmaster-General in President Hayes's cabinet in 1877, and served till 1880, resigning to become judge of the eastern and middle Districts of Tennessee, which post he now (1887) holds.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 529.

KEY, Thomas Marshall, lawyer, born in Washington, Kentucky, 8 August, 1819; died in Lebanon, Ohio, 15 January, 1869. He was graduated at Yale in 1838, studied law, and settled in practice in Cincinnati, Ohio. For many years he served in the Ohio Senate, where he had much influence. He at first opposed the Civil War, but afterward actively supported the government, and was sent by Governor William Dennison as a commissioner to Governor Beriah Magoffin, of Kentucky, to persuade him not to aid the Confederates, he served upon the staff of General McClellan, and after the war took an active part in Ohio politics. He was the author of the first Congressional bill for the emancipation of slaves in any part of the United States, and wrote the bill for the emancipation of slaves in the District of Columbia.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 530

KEYES, Erasmus Darwin (keeze). soldier, born in Brimfield, Massachusetts, 29 May, 1810. He moved to Kennebec County, Maine, in youth, and was appointed from that state to the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1832. He was assigned to the 3d U.S. Artillery, served in Charleston Harbor during the nullification troubles of 1832-'3, and in 1837-41 was aide to General Winfield Scott. He became captain, 30 November, 1841, served in garrison till 1844, and then as instructor of artillery and cavalry at West Point till 1848, after which he was again on frontier and garrison duty till 1860. During this time he commanded a battery of artillery against hostile Indians in the northwest, took part in several engagements, and was promoted major on 12 October, 1858. He was military secretary to General Scott from 1 January, 1860, till 19 April, 1861, on 14 May became colonel of the 11th U.S. Infantry, and on 17 May was made brigadier-general of volunteers. He was in New York and Boston, dispatching and recruiting troops, till 3 July, and then served in the defences of Washington, in the battle of Bull Run, and in the Peninsula Campaign, commanding the 4th Corps of the Army of the Potomac from March, 1862, and being promoted to major-general of volunteers on 5 Mav. He was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army on 31 May for his conduct in the battle of Fair Oaks. He organized a raid to White House, Virginia. 7 January, 1863, commanded the expedition to West Point, Virginia, on 7 May, and was engaged in another under General John A. Dix toward Richmond in June and July. He served on the board for retiring disabled officers from 15 July, 1863, till 6 May, 1864, when he resigned, and moved to California. He was president of the Mexican Gold-Mining Company in 1867-'9, and vice-president of the California Vine-Culture Society in 1868-'72. General Keyes has published " Fifty Years' Observation of Men and Events" (New York, 1884).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 530.

KEYSER, Peter Dirck, surgeon, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 8 February, 1835. He studied at Delaware College until 1851, when he entered the chemical laboratory of Prof. Frederick A. Genth, and there made analyses of minerals, the results of which were published in the "American Journal of Science," and were afterward incorporated in Dana's "Mineralogy." In 1856 he went to Germany and pursued professional studies for two years. Soon after the beginning of the Civil War he became captain in the 91st Pennsylvania Regiment, and served with the Army of the Potomac until after the battle of Fair Oaks. Failing health then led to his resignation, and he returned to Germany, where he studied at the University of Munich, and then at that of Jena, receiving there the degree of M. D. in 1864. On his return he was appointed acting assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army, and was detailed to the Cuyler Hospital in Germantown, Pennsylvania. In 1865 he resigned from the service to enter on his private practice, and was called to the charge of the Philadelphia Eye and Ear Infirmary.   
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 531.

KIDDOO, Joseph B., soldier, born in Pennsylvania about 1840; died in New York City, 19 August, 1880. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted as a private in the 2d Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was engaged in the siege of Yorktown and in the battles of Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, and Malvern Hill. He was promoted major of the 101st Pennsylvania Volunteers, and engaged in the battles of South Mountain, Antietam, and Fredericksburg, and served as colonel at Chancellorsville. In October, 1863, he was appointed major of the 6th and in June, 1864, colonel of the 22d U. S. Colored Troops, being present at the siege of Petersburg with the Army of the James. He was severely wounded in October, 1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general of U. S. volunteers, and colonel and brigadier-general, U. S. Army. On 28 July, 1866, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 43d U. S. Infantry, but owing to his wounds he was unable to serve, and he was retired on 15 December, 1870, with the full rank of brigadier-general in the regular army.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 532-533.

KIEKNAN, James Lawlor, physician, born in New York City in 1837; died there, 26 November, 1869. He was graduated at the medical department of the University of New York in 1857, became a teacher in the public schools of New York, and was editor of the "Medical Press" in that city from 1859 till 1861, when he volunteered as assistant surgeon in the 69th New York Regiment. He subsequently became surgeon of the 6th Missouri Cavalry, serving with Fremont in Missouri and at the battle of Pea Ridge; but he resigned in 1863, owing to severe wounds that he received near Port Gibson, where he was captured, but escaped. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, 1 August, 1863, but his resignation was accepted to take effect 3 February, 1864, and his name was not sent to the senate for confirmation. He served as surgeon of the U. S. Pension Bureau, and after the war became U. S. consul to Chin Kiang, China.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 534.

KILBURN, Charles Lawrence, soldier, born in Lawrenceville, Tioga County, Pennsylvania, 9 August, 1819. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1842 and appointed a lieutenant of artillery, served in the occupation of Texas and the Mexican War, doing good service at Monterey and Buena Vista, and after the war became captain and commissary of subsistence. He was promoted major on 11 May, 1861, made lieutenant-colonel and assistant commissary-general on 9 February, 1863, colonel on 29 June, 1864, and served as chief commissary of various departments. At the close of the Civil War he was brevetted brigadier-general. After the war he served as chief commissary of the Department of the Atlantic, and then of the Military Division of the Pacific until he was retired on 20 May, 1882.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 534.

KILPATRICK, Hugh Judson, soldier, born near Deckertown, New Jersey, 14 January, 1836; died in Valparaiso, Chili, 4 December, 1881. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1861, was appointed a captain of volunteers on 9 May, promoted 1st lieutenant of artillery in the regular army on 14 May, 1861, and was wounded at Big Bethel and disabled for several months. In August, 1861, he assisted in raising a regiment of New York Cavalry, of which he was made lieutenant-colonel. He went to Kansas in January, 1862, in order to accompany General James H. Lane's expedition to Texas as chief of artillery. On the abandonment of the expedition he rejoined his regiment in Virginia, and was engaged in skirmishes near Falmouth, the movement to Thoroughfare Gap, raids on the Virginia Central Railroad in July, 1862, various skirmishes in the northern Virginia Campaign, and the second battle of Bull Run. In an expedition to Leesburg on 19 September, 1862, he commanded the cavalry brigade. After several months of absence on recruiting service, during which he became colonel, he returned to the field, and commanded a brigade of cavalry in the Rappahannock Campaign, being engaged in Stoneman's raid toward Richmond, and in the combat at Beverly Ford. He was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 June, 1863, and commanded a cavalry division in the latter part of the Pennsylvania Campaign. He was in command at the battle of Aldie, and was brevetted for bravery on that occasion. He took part in the battle of Gettysburg, earning there the brevet of lieutenant-colonel in the U. S. Army, and in the subsequent pursuit of the enemy was engaged in constant fighting at Smithsburg, Hagerstown, Boonsborough, and Falling Waters. In the operations in central Virginia, from August till November, 1863, he commanded a cavalry division, and took part in an expedition to destroy the enemy's gunboats "Satellite” and "Reliance" in Rappahannock River, the action at Culpeper on 13 September, and the subsequent skirmish at Somerville Ford, the fights at James City and Brandy Station, and in the movement to Centreville and the action of 19 October at Gainesville. In March, 1864, he was engaged in a raid toward Richmond and through the peninsula, in which he destroyed much property and had many encounters with the enemy, beginning with the action at Ashland on 1 March. In May, 1864, he took part in the invasion of Georgia as commander of a cavalry division of the Army of the Cumberland, and was engaged in the action at Ringgold and in the operations around Dalton until, on 13 May, he was severely wounded at the battle of Resaca. His injuries kept him out of the field till the latter part of July, when he returned to Georgia, and was engaged in guarding the communications of General Sherman's army, and in making raids, which were attended with much severe fighting. He displayed such zeal and confidence in destroying the railroad at Fairburn that Sherman suspended a general movement of the army to enable him to break up the Macon Road, in the hope of thus forcing Hood to evacuate Atlanta. Kilpatrick set out on the night of 18 August, 1864, and returned on the 22d with prisoners and a captured gun and battle-flags, having made the circuit of Atlanta, torn up three miles of railroad at Jonesborough, and encountered a division of infantry and a brigade of cavalry. In the march to the sea he participated in skirmishes at Walnut Creek, Sylvan Grove, Rocky Creek, and Waynesborough. In the invasion of the Carolinas his division was engaged at Salkehatchie, South Carolina, on 3 February, 1865, near Aiken on 11 February, at Monroe's Cross Roads, North Carolina, on 10 March, near Raleigh on 12 April, at Morristown on 13 April, and in other actions and skirmishes. He was brevetted colonel for bravery at Resaca. promoted captain in the 1st Artillery on 30 November, 1864, and on 13 March, 1865, received the brevet of brigadier-general for the capture of Fayetteville, North Carolina, and that of major-general for services throughout the Carolina Campaign. He commanded a division of the cavalry corps in the Military Division of Mississippi from April to June, 1865, was promoted major-general of volunteers on 18 June, 1865, and resigned his volunteer commission on 1 January, 1866. He was a popular general, inspiring confidence in the soldiers under his command, and gained a high reputation as a daring, brilliant, and successful cavalry leader. He resigned his commission in the regular army in 1867. In 1865 he had been appointed minister to Chili by President Johnson, and he was continued in that office by President Grant, but was recalled in 1868. He then devoted himself chiefly to lecturing, and took an active interest in politics as an effective platform speaker on the Republican side. In 1872 he supported Horace Greeley, but returned to his former party in 1876, and in 1880 was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress in New Jersey. In March, 1881, President Garfield appointed him again to the post of minister to Chili. During his last diplomatic mission he had a conflict with Stephen A. Hurlbut, U. S. minister to Peru, and disregarded Secretary Blaine's instructions to interfere in behalf of the Calderon government in the latter country. His remains were brought from Chili for burial in West Point, New York, in October, 1887. See "Kilpatrick and our Cavalry," by John Moore (New York, 1865).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.

KILTY, Augustus Henry, naval officer, born in Annapolis, Maryland, 25 November, 1807; died in Baltimore, 10 November, 1879. He was appointed a midshipman in 1821, served on the "Franklin" and the "Constitution," became a passed midshipman on 28 April, 1832, was in the West Indies for the next three years, and then on shore duty till he was commissioned lieutenant on 6 September, 1837. Afterward he was sent to the East Indies. He also served in the Mediterranean, in Brazil, and on the coast of Africa, was commissioned commander on 14 September, 1855, and in 1861 was ordered to St. Louis to organize the Mississippi Flotilla. He commanded the gun-boat "Mound City" at Island No. 10 and at Fort Pillow, where his vessel was sunk, but was afterward raised and repaired. In June, 1862, he commanded an expedition to White River, Arkansas, and on 17 June he attacked and captured Fort St. Charles with the support of a land force. Near the close of this action he lost over one hundred of his crew by an explosion, caused by a shot which entered the steam drum, and was himself so badly scalded that the amputation of his left arm was necessary. He received his commission as captain on 16 July, 1862, was made a commodore on 25 July, 1866, and commanded the Norfolk U.S. Navy-yard till 1870, when he was retired from active service with the rank of rear-admiral.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 535-536.

KIMBALL, Edgar Allan, soldier, born in Pembroke, New Hampshire, in 1821; died in Suffolk, Virginia, 12 April, 1863. He was trained as a printer, and became the proprietor and editor of the "Age," a liberal Democratic newspaper published at Woodstock, Vermont He was appointed a captain of infantry in the U. S. Army on 9 April, 1847, and served till his regiment was disbanded on 26 August, 1848, earning the brevet of major at Contreras and Churubusco. He was the first man to scale the walls of Chapultepec, and received the surrender of the castle from General Bravo. After his return he was for some time employed in the office of a New York journal. In the beginning of the Civil War he joined a New York regiment of zouaves, and was commissioned major of volunteers on 13 May. 1861. At the battle of Roanoke Island, North Carolina, on 7 February, 1862, he carried the enemy's works, and on 14 February he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and soon afterward succeeded to the command of the regiment. He participated in the reduction of Fort Macon, and in the battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg. While the regiment was encamped at Suffolk he was killed by Colonel Michael Corcoran, who, according to one account, was kept back while passing through the lines on urgent business, and shot the officer who detained him. Another version is, that Corcoran either mistook, or pretended to mistake, the rival leader for an assassin.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 636.

KIMBALL, James Putnam, geologist, born in Salem, Massachusetts, 26 April, 1836. He was educated at the Lawrence scientific school of Harvard, the universities of Berlin and Gottingen, and the Freiberg School of Mining. Subsequently he followed a practical course in engineering, mining, and metallurgy at Freiberg, Saxony. On his return to the United States he became connected with the state geological surveys of Wisconsin and Illinois. He was professor of chemistry and economic geology at the New York State Agricultural College at Ovid in 1861-2, and then became assistant adjutant-general of volunteers, with the rank of captain. In this capacity he served during the Civil War as chief of staff to General Marsena E. Patrick, participating in the campaigns of the Army of the Potomac. He afterward served on the general staff under McClellan, Burnside, Hooker, and Meade, successively. Failing health led to his resignation from the army in 1863, and then making New York City his residence he resumed the practice of his profession. In 1874 he became honorary professor of geology at Lehigh University, and thenceforth until 1885 resided in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania He was appointed in June, 1885, director of the U. S. Mint, at the head of the bureau in Washington, under the control of which all the mints and assay-offices of the United States were placed in 1873. Dr. Kimball is a member of scientific societies, and was vice-president of the American Institute of Mining Engineers in 1881-'2. His publications, mostly on geological and metallurgical subjects, have been contributed to American and foreign technical journals, and also include his official reports to the National government as director of the mint.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 536-537.

KIMBALL, Joseph Horace, 1813-1836, author, abolitionist.  Anti-slavery agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS).  Editor of the Herald of Freedom newspaper of the New Hampshire Anti-Slavery Society.  He was sent to the British West Indies with abolitionist James A. Thome to observe and report on Black emancipation there.  They published Emancipation in the West Indies: a Six Months’ Tour in Antigua, Barbadoes, and Jamaica in 1837.  (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 537; Dumond, 1961, pp. 188, 393n25)

KIMBALL, Joseph Horace, author, born in Pembroke, New Hampshire, in 1813; died in Pembroke, New Hampshire, 11 April, 1838. He resided in Concord, New Hampshire, where he edited "The Herald of Freedom," an antislavery journal. After a visit to the West India Islands he published jointly with two friends "Emancipation in the West Indies: a Six Months' Tour in Antigua, Barbadoes, and Jamaica in 1837" (New York, 1838). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 537.

KIMBALL, Nathan, soldier, born in Indiana, he served in the Mexican War as captain of volunteers, and at the beginning of the Civil War was appointed colonel of a regiment of Indiana infantry. He took part in operations in Cheat Mountain in September, and at the battle of Greenbrier in October, 1861, commanded a brigade at the battle of Winchester, and was commissioned as a brigadier-general of volunteers on 15 April, 1862. At Antietam his brigade held its ground with desperate courage, losing nearly six hundred men. At Fredericksburg he was wounded in the thigh. Subsequently General Kimball served in the west, commanding a division at the siege of Vicksburg in June and July, 1863, and at the battle of Franklin on 30 November, 1864. He was brevetted major-general on 1 February, 1865, and mustered out of the service on 24 August, 1865.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 537.

KIMBER, Abby, Pennsylvania, delegate to the (Garrisonian) American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society (PASS), Eastern Branch, Philadelphia, and Officer of the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society (PFASS).  Attended World Anti-Slavery Convention in London, 1840.  Helped Passmore Williamson in the fugitive slave case in Philadelphia in 1855. (Dumond, 1961, p. 286; Sinha, 2016, pp. 289, 528; Yellin, 1994, p. 332)

KIMBERLY, Lewis Ashfield, naval officer, born in Troy, New York, 2 April, 1830. He was appointed a midshipman in the U.S. Navy from Illinois, 8 December, 1846, commissioned lieutenant in 1855, and lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862. He served on the frigate "Potomac" of the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron in 1861-'2, and on the "Hartford" in 1862-'4, taking part in all the engagements in which that vessel participated. Captain Percival Drayton, in his official report of the battle of Mobile Bay, said: "To Lieutenant-Commodore Kimberly, the executive officer, I am indebted not only for the fine example of coolness and self-possession which he set to those around him, but also for the excellent condition to which he had brought everything belonging to the fighting department of the ship, in consequence of which there was no confusion anywhere, even when, from the terrible slaughter at some of the guns, it might have been looked for." Kimberly was commissioned commander, 25 July, 1866; captain, 3 October, 1874: commodore, 27 September, 1884; and rear-admiral, 26 January, 1887. He was on shore duty from 1878 till 1887, when he was ordered from the command of the Boston U.S. Navy-yard to that of the Pacific Station.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 537-538.

KING, Austin Augustus, 1802-1870, statesman, lawyer, jurist.  Democratic Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Missouri.  Served as Congressman December 1863-March 1865, and as Governor of Missouri.  Voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. III, p. 538; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 382; Congressional Globe)

KING, Austin Augustus, statesman, born in Sullivan County, Tennessee., 20 September. 1801; died in St. Louis, Missouri, 22 April, 1870. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1822, and in 1830 moved to Missouri, where he continued to practise. In 1834 he was chosen to the legislature, and he was re-elected in 1836. In 1837 he was appointed judge of the circuit court, holding the office till 1848, when he was chosen governor of Missouri, his term expiring in 1853. In 1860 he was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention at Charleston, where he made an effective speech in behalf of Stephen A. Douglas. He subsequently took the ground that the war for the Union was unnecessary. In 1862 he was restored to his old place as circuit judge, but shortly afterward resigned to take a seat in the 38th Congress, to which he had been elected, serving from 7 December, 1863, till 3 March, 1865. He then devoted himself to the practice of his profession and the cultivation of his farm.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 538.

KING, Charles, soldier, son of General Rufus King, born in Albany, New York, 12 October, 1844, was educated at Columbia and at the U. S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in June, 1866, and assigned to the 1st U.S. Artillery. He was transferred to the 5th U.S. Cavalry, 1 January, 1871, and from 4 September. 1860, till 24 October, 1871. was assistant instructor of tactics at the U. S. Military Academy. He served as aide-de-camp to General William H. Emory from November, 1871, till January, 1874, and as acting judge-advocate, Department of the Gulf, for about the same period. He was principally engaged on frontier duty from 1874 till 1877, and was severely wounded at Sunset Pass, Arizona, 1 November, 1874. He was regimental adjutant from 5 October, 1876, till 28 January, 1878, and was promoted captain, 1 May, 1879. On the 14th of the following month he was compelled to retire from active service on account of his wounds, and in 1880 he accepted the chair of military science in the University of Wisconsin. Captain King is the author of "The Colonel's Daughter" (Philadelphia, 1882); "Famous and Decisive Battles" (1884); "Marion's Faith" (1885); and "The Deserter" (1887). 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.

KING, Daniel Putnam, statesman, born in Danvers, Massachusetts, 8 January, 1801; died there, 26 July, 1850. He was a descendant of William Kinge, who came in 1635 from England to Salem, Massachusetts Daniel was graduated at Harvard in 1823, and began the study of law, but found it uncongenial, and turned his attention to agriculture. After filling various municipal offices in his native town, he was elected to the legislature in 1835, and after serving two years was returned as senator from Essex County. He held this office for four years, and during the latter half of the term was president of the senate. Again in 1842 he was a member of the state house of representatives and speaker of that body. In 1842 Mr. King was elected to Congress as a Whig, and he kept his seat until the end of his life, taking an active part in debate in opposition to the war with Mexico. Robert C. Winthrop delivered a memorial address on his death.—His son, Benjamin Flint, lawyer, born in Danvers, Massachusetts, 12 October, 1830; died in Boston, 24 January, 1868, entered Harvard in the class of 1848, and afterward practised law in partnership with Joseph Story. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted in the 44th Massachusetts Regiment, and in 1863 was an officer in the 18th U. S. Colored Troops. The following year he was appointed judge-advocate on the staff of General George L. Andrews, and was afterward detailed as provost-marshal. He returned to his regiment in 1864, and he was honorably discharged from the service that year, when he resumed his law practice in Boston.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp.

KING, Dexter S., Boston, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Abolition Society, Vice-President, 1839-, 1846--50-, Manager, 1842-, Executive Committee, 1842-, 1846-, 1850, President, 1844-45

KING, Henry Lord Page, born on St. Simon's Island, Georgia, 25 April, 1831; died in Fredericksburg, Virginia, 13 December, 1862, was graduated at Yale in 1852, and at the Harvard law-school in 1855. He was aide-de-camp on the staff of General Lafayette McLaws, was in the seven days' fight before Richmond, at Antietam, Harper's Ferry, and Fredericksburg, where he was killed. [Son of Thomas Butler King].  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 547.

KING, Horatio, postmaster-general, born in Paris, Oxford County, Maine, 21 June, 1811. His grandfather, George King, fought in the war of the Revolution. Horatio received a common-school education, and at the age of eighteen entered the office of the Paris, Maine, "Jeffersonian," where he learned printing, afterward becoming owner and editor of the paper. In 1833 he moved it to Portland, where he published it until 1 January, 1838. In 1839 he went to Washington, D. C., having been appointed clerk in the post-office department, and was gradually promoted. In 1854 he was appointed first assistant postmaster-general, and in January, 1861, while acting as Postmaster-General, he was questioned by a member of Congress from South Carolina with regard to the franking privilege. In his reply Mr. King was the first officially to deny the power of a state to separate from the Union. He was then appointed Postmaster-General, serving from 12 February until 7 March, 1861. On retiring from office he remained in Washington during the Civil War, serving on a board of commissioners to carry into execution the emancipation law in the District of Columbia. Since his retirement from office Mr. King has practised in Washington as an attorney before the executive department and international commissions. He was active in procuring the passage of three acts in 1874, 1879. and 1885 respectively, requiring the use of the official "penalty envelope," which has secured a large saving to the government. He also took an active part in the work of completing the Washington Monument, serving as secretary of the Monument Society from 1881. Mr. King has been a frequent contributor to the press, and has published "An Oration before the Union Literary Society of Washington " (Washington, D. C, 1841), and "Sketches of Travel; or, Twelve Months in Europe" (1878). —His son, Horatio Collins, lawyer, born in Portland, Maine, 22 December, 1837, was graduated at Dickinson in 1858, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in New York City in 1861. He served in the armies of the Potomac and Shenandoah during the Civil War from August. 1862, till October, 1865, when he resigned with the rank of brevet-colonel. He then practised law until 1870, when he became connected with the press. In 1883 he was appointed judge-advocate-general of New York, he is the author of "The Plymouth Silver Wedding" (New York, 1873); "The Brooklyn Congregational Council" (1876); "King's Guide to Regimental Courts-Martial" (1882); and edited "Proceedings of the Army of the Potomac " (1879-'87).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 539-540.

KING, John Alsop, 1788-1867, statesman, lawyer, soldier, political leader, diplomat, U.S. Congressman, Governor of New York, son of Rufus King.  He opposed compromises on issues of slavery, especially the Fugitive Slave Law.  Supported admission of California as a free state.  Active in the Whig Party and later founding member of the Republican Party in 1856.  Elected Governor of New York in 1856, serving one term.  (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 543-544; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 394)

KING, John Alsop, statesman, born in New York City, 3 January, 1788; died in Jamaica, New York, 7 July, 1867, was, with his brother Charles, placed at school at Harrow during his father's residence in England. Thence he went to Paris, and then returned to New York, where he was admitted to the bar. In 1812, when war with Great Britain was declared, he gave his services to the country, and was later a lieutenant of cavalry stationed in New York. Soon after the war he moved to Jamaica, New York, near his father's home, and was for several years practically engaged in farming. He was elected in 1819 and in several subsequent years to the assembly of the state, and, with his brother Charles, opposed many of the schemes of De Witt Clinton. He was, however, friendly to the canal, and was chosen to the state senate after the adoption of the new constitution. From this he resigned in order that he might, as secretary of legation, accompany his father on his mission to Great Britain. The failure of the latter's health obliged him to return, and his son remained as charge d'affaires until the arrival of the new minister. Returning home to his residence at Jamaica, he was again, in 1838, sent to the assembly, and in 1849 he took his seat as a representative in Congress, having been elected as a Whig. He strenuously resisted the compromise measures, especially the Fugitive-Slave Law, and advocated the admission of California as a free state. He was an active member of several Whig nominating conventions, presided over that at Syracuse, N.Y., in 1855, where the Republican Party was formed, and in 1856, in the convention at Philadelphia, warmly advocated the nomination of General Fremont. He was elected governor of New York in 1856, entered on the duties of the office, 1 January, 1857, and especially interested himself in internal improvements and popular education. On the expiration of his term he declined a renomination on account of increasing age, and retired to private life, from which he only emerged, at the call of Governor Morgan, to become a member of the Peace Convention of 1861. He was a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and was active in its diocesan conventions. [Son on Rufus King].  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 543-544.

KING, John H., soldier, born in Michigan about 1818. He was appointed 2d lieutenant, 1st U.S. Infantry, in the regular army, 2 December, 1837; 1st lieutenant, 2 March, 1839; captain. 31 October, 1846; and major, 15th U.S. Infantry, 14 May, 1861. He was stationed in Florida and on the western frontier up to 1846, and was at Vera Cruz in 1847. During the Civil War he was in command of battalions of the l5th, 16th, and 19th Regiments, U. S. Army, in 1862, and was engaged with the 15th and 16th at the battle of Shiloh, the advance on Corinth, the march to the Ohio River, and the battle of Murfreesboro. From April, 1863, he commanded a brigade of regular troops until the end of the war. He was also in the battles of Chickamauga, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kenesaw Mountain, and Peach Tree and Utoy Creeks, and commanded a division for thirty days during the Atlanta Campaign. He was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 November, 1862, and brevet major-general, 31 May, 1865. He was also brevetted colonel, U. S. Army, for gallantry at Chickamauga, Georgia, brigadier-general for meritorious services at Ruff's Station, Georgia, and major-general for gallantry in the field during the war. He was commissioned colonel of the 9th U.S. Infantry, 30 July. 1865, and on 6 February, 1882, he was retired from active service.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 540.

KING, Leicester, 1789-1856, Warren, Ohio, abolitionist leader, political leader, businessman, jurist, leader of the anti-slavery Liberty Party.  Manager, 1837-1839, and Vice President, 1839-1840, American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS).  Ohio State Senator, 1835-1839.  Member, Whig Party.  U.S. Vice Presidential candidate, Liberty Party, in 1848.  (Dumond, 1961, p. 302; Mitchell, 2007, p. 24; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 50)

KING, Preston, 1806-1865, U.S. Congressman, U.S. Senator, politician.  Son of founding father Rufus King.  Opponent of the extension of slavery into the new territories acquired from Mexico after 1846.  Supporter of the Wilmot Proviso in Congress.  Co-founder of Free Soil Party.  Opposed the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854.  U.S. Senator, 1857-1863.  Supported Lincoln and the Union.  Later organized Republican Party and supported William H. Seward, Thurlow Weed and John Frémont.  (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III pp. 541-542, American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 12, p. 708; Encyclopaedia Americana, 1831, Vol. VII, pp. 326-328; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 396)

KING, Preston, senator, born in Ogdensburg, New York, 14 October, 1800; drowned in Hudson River, 12 November, 1865. He was graduated at Union in 1827, studied law, and practised in St. Lawrence County, New York. He entered politics in early life, was a   strong friend of Silas Wright, and an admirer of Andrew Jackson, and established the "St. Lawrence Republican " at Ogdensburg in 1830, in support of the latter. He was for a time postmaster there, and in 1834-'7 a member of the state assembly. He was a representative in Congress in 1843-'7 and in 1849-'53, having been elected as a Democrat, but in 1854 joined the Republican Party, was its candidate for Secretary of State in 1855, and in 1857-'63 served as U. S. Senator. Early in 1861, in the debate on the naval appropriation bill, Mr. King said that the Union could not be destroyed peaceably, and was one of the first to give his opinion thus plainly. In closing, he said: "I tell these gentlemen, in my judgment this treason must come to an end—peacefully, I hope: but never, in my judgment, peacefully by the ignominious submission of the people of this country to traitors—never. I desire peace, but I would amply provide means for the defence of the country by war, if necessary." After the expiration of his term, Mr. King resumed the practice of law in New York City. He was a warm friend of Andrew Johnson, and, as a member of the Baltimore Convention of 1864, did much to secure his nomination for the vice-presidency. After his accession to the presidency, Mr. Johnson appointed Mr. King collector of the Port of New York. Financial troubles and the responsibilities of his office unsettled his mind, and he committed suicide by jumping from a ferry-boat into the Hudson River.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 541-542.

KING, Rufus, journalist, born in New York City, 26 January, 1814; died there, 13 October, 1876, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1833, and appointed to the Engineer Corps. He resigned from the army, 30 September, 1836, and became assistant engineer of the New York and Erie Railroad. From 1839 till 1843 he was adjutant-general of the state of New York. He was then associate editor of the "Albany Evening Journal," and of the Albany "Advertiser" from 1841 till 1845. when he moved to Wisconsin, and was editor of the Milwaukee " Sentinel" until 1861. He also served as a member of the convention that formed the constitution of Wisconsin, regent of the state university, and a member of the board of visitors to the U. S. Military Academy in 1849. He was U. S. minister to Rome from 22 March till 5 August, 1861, but resigned, as he had offered his services in defence of the Union. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers, 17 May, 1861, and commanded a division at Fredericksburg, Groveton, Manassas, Yorktown, and Fairfax, remaining in the army until 1863, when he was reappointed minister to Rome, where he resided until 1867. During the next two years he acted as deputy comptroller of customs for the Port of New York, but for some time before his death he had retired from public life on account of failing health. [Son of Charles King]. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 544-545.

KING, Thomas Starr, clergyman, born in New York City, 17 December, 1824; died in San Francisco, California, 4 March, 1863. He was the son of a Universalist clergyman, and his early life was spent in various towns where his father preached. In 1835 the family settled in Charlestown, Massachusetts, where, after the death of his father, he became a clerk in a dry-goods store. In 1840 he was appointed assistant teacher in the Bunker Hill Grammar School, and his time outside of his regular duties was spent in study. Two years later he became principal of the West Grammar-school of Medford, Massachusetts, where he studied for the ministry under Hosea Ballou. Subsequently he was clerk in the U.S. Navy-yard at Charlestown, and in September. 1845, he delivered his first sermon in Woburn. He then preached for a Universalist Society in Boston, and in July, 1846, he was called to his father's former church in Charlestown. In 1848 he accepted a call from the Hollis Street Unitarian Church, where he continued for eleven years. During this term of ministry he grew steadily in power and reputation. He was not considered as profoundly learned; he was not a great writer; nor could his unrivalled popularity be ascribed to his fascinating, social, or intellectual gifts. "It was," says Dr. Henry W. Bellows, "the hidden, interior man of the heart, the invisible character behind all the rich possessions, intellectual and social, of this gifted man. that gave him his real power and skill to control the wills, and to move the hearts, and to win the unbounded confidence and affection of his fellow-beings." Mr. King also at this time acquired great popularity as a lecturer in the northern states. His first lecture was on "Goethe," and it was followed by one on "Substance and Snow," which almost equalled in popularity that of Wendell Phillips on "The Lost Arts”. The subjects which he afterward selected, such as "Socrates," "Sight and Insight," and "The Laws of Disorder," obtained almost as great a reputation. His name soon became associated with the White Mountains, for it was there that he spent most of his summers, drawing in those inspirations, descriptive of natural scenery, which abound in his discourses, and he was familiar with every ravine and peak of that region. In 1853 he began to print accounts of his explorations in the "Boston Transcript," and, having visited it for ten years in winter as well as summer, he embodied the results of his experience in a volume entitled "The White Hills, their Legends. Landscape, and Poetry" (Boston, 1859; new ed., 1887). In 1860 he left Boston, and accepted a call to San Francisco, California As in the east, he was soon asked to lecture in California and Oregon. Letters of his experience found their way to the Boston papers, and, as the White Mountains became known largely through his efforts, so too he was one of the first to call public attention to the beauties of the Yosemite Valley. In the presidential canvass of I860, when the suggestion of a Pacific republic was made, "taking the constitution and Washington for his text, he went forth appealing to the people." He spoke on "Webster and the Constitution," "Lexington and the New Struggle," and "Washington and the Union," and his magnificent eloquence swept everything before it. Mr. King urged the paramount duty of actively supporting the Union; "for," he contended, "whatever of theory, of party, of personal ambition, or of prejudice, in this great hour, may have to pass away, it seems to be the will of the American people that the grand inheritance of the fathers of the republic shall not pass away." To him credit is given for having preserved California to the Union, and later, when the Civil War had begun, he was active in his labors with the Sanitary Commission. Meanwhile he was occupied with the building of a new church, and in September, 1862, the corner-stone was laid. On Christmas, 1863, the church was finished, and it was dedicated on 10 January, 1864. Before March came, he was stricken with diphtheria, and after a few days' illness died. His remains were buried in the church that he had built, and remained there until 1887, when, on the sale of the church property, the sarcophagus was transferred to the Masonic Cemetery. A movement for the purpose of erecting a monument in Golden Gate Park, to cost $50,000, has taken shape in San Francisco during the present year (1887), and the collection of funds is now in progress throughout California. Mr. King received the degree of A. M. from Harvard in 1850. Several volumes of his sermons appeared posthumously, including "Patriotism and 0ther Papers " (Boston, 1805); "Christianity and Humanity." with a memoir by Edwin P. Whipple (1877); and "Substance and Snow" (1877). See also "A Tribute to Thomas Starr King," by Richard Frothingham (1865).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 547.

KING, Reverend William, clergyman.  Scotch Presbyterian minister.  Founded Colony of Former Slaves in Kent County under the Elgin Association.  Took slaves to Canada.  (Dumond, 1961, p. 337)

KING, William Rufus, vice-president of the United States, born in Sampson County, North Carolina, 6 April, 1780; died near Cahawba, Dallas County, Alabama, 18 April, 1853. His father, William King, served as a member of the North Carolina Convention that was called to adopt the constitution of the United States, and was also for many terms a delegate to the general assembly. The son was graduated at the University of North Carolina in 1803, studied law with William Duffy, of Fayetteville, and was admitted to practice in 1806. The same year he was elected a member of the state legislature, and was appointed by that body solicitor for the Wilmington District, he served for two years in that capacity, and on resigning was again returned to the legislature for the years 1808-'9. The following year Mr. King was elected to a seat in Congress as a War-Democrat, and, though the youngest member of that body, became conspicuous for his zealous support of President Madison. He remained a member of Congress until 1816, when he accepted the appointment of secretary of legation to Naples in association with William Pinckney, afterward accompanying Mr. Pinckney to Russia in the same capacity. On his return from Europe in 1818, Mr. King moved to Dallas County, Alabama, and served as a delegate to the convention that organized a state government. On the adoption of the state constitution, he was elected U. S. Senator, and served until 1844, when President Tyler appointed him minister to France. The proposed annexation of Texas was at that time exciting the opposition of England, and it was believed that France might be persuaded to join in the protest. Mr. King, who earnestly favored the undertaking, insisted on receiving from Louis Philippe a frank avowal of his policy. The reply was satisfactory, and annexation took place without opposition from any of the European powers. In 1846 Mr. King was recalled at his own request, and in 1848 he was appointed U. S. Senator in place of Arthur P. Bagby, who had been made minister to Russia. In 1849 he was elected for the full term of six years, and in 1850 he served as President of the Senate. In 1852 Mr. King was elected Vice-President of the United States on the ticket with Franklin Pierce, but failing health forced him to visit Cuba in 1853, where the oath of office was administered by special act of Congress. He returned to this country, but with health so completely shattered that he died the day after reaching home. President Pierce paid a tribute to Mr. King's memory in his annual message, and the usual resolutions were passed in both houses of Congress. Mr. King was about six feet high, and remarkably erect in figure. He was a fine talker and a most interesting companion. —His elder brother, Thomas D., soldier, born in Duplin County, North Carolina, 22 September, 1779; died in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 24 February, 1854, was educated at the University of North Carolina, and was frequently elected to the legislature, in which he served in both houses. He became major in the 43d U. S. Infantry on 4 August, 1813, and remained in the service until peace was declared in 1815.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 548.

KING, William Sterling, soldier, born in New York City, 6 Oct, 1818; died in Roxbury, Massachusetts, 29 June, 1882. His father, KEisha W. King, a lawyer of New York City, was for several years a member of the state assembly. William was educated at Yale and in Union College, where he was graduated in 1837. He then studied law, and practised his profession in New York City from 1839 till 1843. About that time he moved to North Providence, Rhode Island., and in 1852 settled at Roxbury, Massachusetts, where he remained until the close of his life. In 1855 he was elected a member of the Massachusetts legislature. At the beginning of the Civil War he was commissioned captain in the 35th Massachusetts Regiment, and commanded it at South Mountain and Antietam, where he received wounds, from the effects of which he never entirely recovered. He was soon promoted to be major and then colonel, and in 1862-'3 became chief of staff of the 2d Division, 9th Army Corps, provost-marshal of Kentucky, and military commander of the District of Lexington, Kentucky. In 1864 he received a commission as colonel of the 4th Massachusetts Artillery, and in 1865 was made brigadier-general of volunteers by brevet. After he was mustered out of service Governor Andrew appointed him chief of Massachusetts State Police, and later he filled successively the offices of assessor of U. S. Internal Revenue, and registrar of probate and insolvency. In 1875-'6 he was again a member of the Massachusetts legislature and chairman of the military committee.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 548.

KINGSBURY, Charles P., soldier, born in New York City in 1818; died in Brooklyn, New York, 25 December, 1879. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, and, entering the army as 2d lieutenant of ordnance, served as assistant and in command of various arsenals until he was sent with the army of occupation to Texas. Subsequently during the Mexican War he was General Wool's chief ordnance officer, and was on the staff of General Taylor at Buena Vista. In April, 1861, he was superintendent of the U. S. Armory at Harper's Ferry, when it was burned to prevent it from falling into the hands of the Confederate troops. He was chief of ordnance, ranking as colonel, in the Army of the Potomac in 1861-'2, served through the Virginia Peninsular Campaign, and was engaged in the Seven Days' battles before Richmond. He was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, and in July of that year was placed in charge of the U. S. Arsenal at Watertown, Massachusetts. In December, 1870, he was retired on his application, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He is the author of "Treatise on Artillery and Infantry " (New York, 1849), and also contributed to various periodicals. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 548-549.

KINNEY, Coates, poet, born near Penn Yan, Yates County, New York, 24 November, 1826. He was partly educated at Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio, studied law with Thomas Corwin, and was admitted to the bar in Cincinnati. After practising about three years he engaged in journalism, editing the daily Cincinnati "Times " and the " Ohio State Journal." He was a paymaster in the U. S. Army from June, 1861, till November, 1865, and was mustered out with the commission of brevet lieutenant-colonel of volunteers. He was a delegate to the convention that nominated General Grant for the presidency in 1868, and its Ohio secretary. In 1882-'3 he was senator from the 5th District in the Ohio legislature, and delivered a speech against "The Official Railroad Pass." He has published "Ke-u-ka and Other Poems" (Cincinnati, 1855), and has written several minor lyrics, of which "The Rain on the Roof," which has been set to music, is the most popular.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 551.

KINNEY, John Fitch, jurist, born in New Haven, Oswego County, New York, 2 April, 1816. After receiving an academic education, he studied law and settled in Marysville, Ohio, where he was admitted to the bar in 1837. In 1839 he moved to Mount Vernon, Ohio, practising law there till 1844, and then moved to Lee County, Iowa. He became secretary of the legislative council for Iowa Territory, and also district attorney, and on the admission of Iowa as a state was appointed a judge of the supreme court, holding this office two years, after which he was elected to the same office by the legislature for a term of six years. In 1853 he was appointed by President Pierce chief justice of the Supreme Court of Utah, to which office he was again appointed in 1860. He was elected a delegate to Congress as a Democrat, and served from 7 December, 1863, till 3 March, 1865.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 551.

KINNEY, Jonathan Kendrick, lawyer, born in Royalton, Windsor County, Vermont, 26 October, 1843. He is a great-grandson of the Reverend Jonathan Kinney, and was educated in the common schools of his native town, and at the Royalton academy. He served in the volunteer army in the Civil War, and at its close engaged in business in the west, and later entered the Harvard law-school, where he was graduated in 1875. He has since practised his profession, reported cases, and contributed to legal periodicals. He has published "A Digest of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States" (Boston, 1887), and edited the "Law of Railways," by Isaac F. Redfield (1887).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 551.

KINSELLA, Thomas, journalist, born in Ireland in 1832; died in Brooklyn, New York, 11 February, 1884. He came to this country when a boy, learned the printer's trade, and in 1861 became editor of the Brooklyn, New York, "Eagle." He supported Andrew Johnson, and favored the nominations of Horace Greeley in 1872, Samuel J. Tilden in 1876, and General Hancock in 1880. In 1866 he was made postmaster of Brooklyn, and he afterward held other local offices. He was a member of Congress in 1871—'3, and he was also one of the original Brooklyn Bridge Trustees, and president of the Faust Society and the St. Patrick's. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 552.

KIRBY, Edmund, soldier, born in Brownville, New York, in 1840; died in Washington, D. C. 28 May, 1863, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1861, and assigned to the 1st Artillery. He was made 1st lieutenant on 14 May, 1861, and, succeeding to the command of his battery on the capture of Captain James B. Ricketts at Bull Run, he retained it till his death. He was engaged with this battery through the Peninsula and Maryland Campaigns, on the march to Falmouth, Virginia, and at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, in which last engagement he was mortally wounded. For his gallantry in this battle he was given on his death-bed the commission of brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from 23 May, 1863.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 553.

KIRK, Edward Norris, soldier, born in Jefferson County, Ohio, 29 February, 1828; died 29 July, 1863. He settled in Sterling, Illinois, and assisted in raising and organizing the 4th Illinois Regiment, of which he was chosen colonel. He commanded a brigade at Shiloh, and at the siege of Corinth, on 29 November, 1862, was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, and commanded a brigade in Johnson's division of McCook's corps at the battle of Stone River in January, 1883, where he was wounded.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 553-554.

KIRKHAM, Ralph Wilson, soldier, born in Springfield, Massachusetts. 20 February, 1821. His great-grandfather, Henry Kirkham, served in the French and Indian Wars of 1755-'63, and his grandfather participated in the American Revolution, and was severely wounded at the battle of Trenton, 26 December, 1776. Ralph was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1842. After serving on garrison and frontier duty, he participated in the Mexican War, where he was brevetted 1st lieutenant for gallant and meritorious conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, 27August, 1847, and wounded in the battle of Molino del Rey, 8 September, 1847. He was brevetted captain for gallant and meritorious conduct in the storming of Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847, assisted in the capture of Mexico, 13-14 September, 1847, and honorably mentioned in General Scott's despatches. While in Mexico he was one of a party of six American officers and an Englishman who ascended to the summit of Popocatepetl, the original number that set out upon the expedition being about one hundred. This mountain bad never been ascended since the time of Cortez, A. D. 1519. From 6 November, 1848, till 1 October, 1849, he was acting assistant adjutant-general, with headquarters at St. Louis, Missouri. He was quartermaster of the 6th U.S. Infantry, 1 October, 1849, till 16 November, 1854, when he was ordered to the Pacific Coast. He built adobe barracks at Fort Tejon and a military post at Walla Walla, constructed a military road from the latter place to Fort Colville, Washington Territory, participated in frontier Indian Wars, and was ordered to San Francisco, where he served as quartermaster until his resignation in 1870. During the Civil War he served as chief quartermaster of the Department of the Pacific in 1861, and subsequently of the Department of California, and was acting chief of commissariat in 1866. On 13 March, 1860, he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, colonel, and brigadier-general, U. S. Army, for faithful and meritorious services in the quartermaster's department during the Civil War. In 1870-'l he visited the far east with William H. Seward. He now (1887) resides in Oakland, California, where he has one of the best libraries on the Pacific Coast, especially upon military subjects.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 555.

KIRKLAND, Joseph, author, born in Geneva, New York, 7 January, 1830, received a common school education, and since 1856 has resided in Illinois. He was successively private, lieutenant, and captain in the 12th Illinois Volunteer Infantry in 1861-2, and major in 1863, and served in the Army of the Potomac. After the war he engaged in coal-mining in central Illinois and Indiana, where he made the social studies that have given their bent to his writings. Mr. Kirkland is a lawyer by profession, and is also engaged in literary work. He has published "Zury, the Meanest Man in Spring County," a story of western life (Boston, 1887). 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 556.

KIRKWOOD, Samuel Jordan, 1813-1894, statesman, political leader.  Governor of Iowa, 1860-1864, 1876-1877.  U.S. Senator, 1865-1867, 1877-1881.  Secretary of the Interior, 1881-1882.  Anti-slavery senator.  Early leader in the Republican Party.  Strong supporter of Abraham Lincoln and the Union.  (Clark, 1917; Lathrop, 1893; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 557; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 5, Pt. 2, p. 436)

KIRKWOOD, Samuel Jordan, senator, born in Harford County, Maryland, 20 December, 1813. His only schooling was received at an academy in Washington, D. C., and ended when he was about fourteen years old. He moved to Ohio in 1835, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1843. From 1845 till 1849 he was prosecuting attorney of Richland County, and in 1850-'l was a member of the state constitutional convention. He moved to Iowa in 1855, engaged in milling and farming, and in 1856 served in the state senate. He was elected governor of Iowa in 1859, and re-elected in 1861. He placed in the field nearly or quite fifty regiments of infantry and cavalry, all but the first being enlisted for three years, and throughout the war there was no draft in Iowa, as her quota was always filled by volunteers. He was offered in 1862 the appointment of U. S. minister to Denmark, and, in the hope of his acceptance, Mr. Lincoln held the appointment open until the expiration of Mr. Kirkwood's term as governor, but he then made his refusal final. In 1866 he was elected U. S. Senator as a Republican, to fill the unexpired term of James Harlan. In 1875 he was for a third time governor of the state, and the next year was re-elected U. S. Senator, serving till 1881, when he resigned to enter the cabinet of President Garfield as Secretary of the Interior. Since 1882 he has held no public office.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 557.

KISLINGBURY, Frederick Foster, soldier, born in Ilsley, near Windsor Castle, England, 25 December, 1847; died at Cape Sabine, Greenland, 1 June, 1884. When a mere boy he came to this country with his parents and settled at Rochester, N. Y. He received a common-school education, and began a mercantile career, which was cut short by his enlistment in a cavalry regiment during the Civil War. He served two years, and after the war was stationed at Detroit as chief clerk of the Department of the Lakes. A few years later he was placed in command of a band of scouts engaged in fighting the Indians, and later he became 2d lieutenant in the 11th U.S. Infantry, serving on the plains. When, in 1881, the U. S. government decided to send an expedition to the far north (see Greely, Adolphus W.), Lieutenant Kislingbury was among the first to volunteer, was made the second officer in the expedition, and participated in the scientific work of the next two years. In May, 1884, the supplies became exhausted. There had been one death early in the year, and others now followed in rapid succession, and when the relief vessels reached the cape, 22 June, 1884, only seven of the party were found alive. One of the last to die was Lieutenant Kislingbury. His remains were taken to Rochester, New York, and buried in Mt. Hope Cemetery. He was a member of the Knights of Pythias, and a lodge of that order has been formed in Rochester as a monument to his memory. General Greely has joined other members of the party in testifying to his courage, ability, and enterprise.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 558.

KITCHING, John Benjamin, merchant, born in Horsforth, England, 20 April, 1813; died in New York City, 19 July, 1887. He came to the United States in 1824, entered the business-house of Tomlinson and Booth, and afterward established himself independently. He rendered the telegraph important pecuniary aid in its early history, and  was among those who were interested in the success of the Atlantic cable. Mr. Kitching spent a large amount of money in the ship "Ericsson," which was intended to demonstrate the superiority of the method of propulsion by air-engines; but on the trial-trip an accident occurred, causing the sinking of the vessel. In 1840 he moved to Brooklyn and was associated in the founding of several banks and in the establishment of the Polytechnic and Packer Institutes. Later he was one of the promoters of the Manhattan Market and the Garfield National Bank in New York City. In 1873 he was instrumental in founding St. John's School in New York City, which was conducted by his son-in-law, the Reverend Theodore Irving, and since the death of the latter by Mrs. Irving, Mr. Kitching's daughter.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 558-559.

KITCHING, John Howard, soldier, born in New York City, 16 July, 1840; died in Dobb's Ferry, New York, 11 January, 1865, was educated in private schools in Brooklyn and New York, and at the beginning of the Civil War enlisted as a private in the Lincoln Cavalry. Soon afterward he received a captain's commission in the 2d New York Artillery, and participated in all the battles of the Peninsular Campaign. In the autumn of 1862 he was made lieutenant-colonel of the 135th New York Volunteers, which was afterward changed to the 6th Artillery, and in April, 1863, he was appointed colonel of his regiment. Subsequently he was almost constantly in command of a brigade, and on 1 August, 1864. received the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers. During 1863-'4 he was stationed with the artillery reserve at Harper's Ferry, Brandy Station, and elsewhere in that vicinity. In May, 1864, he joined the Army of the Potomac, and participated in the overland Campaign until July, 1864, when the 6th Corps was detached from the army and sent to Washington, where Colonel Kitching continued to act as a brigade commander in charge of the defences of the capital. Later he had command of a provisional division in the Army of the Shenandoah, and in the battle of Cedar Creek received wounds from the effects of which he died some months afterward. See " More than Conqueror: or Memorials of Colonel J. Howard Kitching"  [Son of John Benjamin Kitching]. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 559.

KNAPP, Isaac, 1804-1843, Boston, Massachusetts, printer, newspaper editor and publisher, abolitionist.  Helped William Lloyd Garrison found abolitionist newspaper, Liberator, in 1831.  Served as editor and publisher of the Liberator until 1841.  Knapp published numerous anti-slavery and abolitionist books, reports and articles.  Manager, 1833-1837, and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society, December 1833.  He was indicted in Raleigh, North Carolina, for circulating the paper there.  Co-founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society (NEASS) on January 1,1832, in Boston.  Published and distributed numerous anti-slavery pamphlets.  (Rodriguez, 2007, p. 463; Sinha, 2016; Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833; The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. II. New York: James T. White, 1892)

KNEELAND, Samuel, naturalist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, 1 August, 1821. He was graduated at Harvard in 1840, and at the medical department in 1843, taking the Boylston prize for his thesis on "Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever," and again, in 1844, for his essay on "Hydrotherapy." Subsequently he spent two years in professional studies in Pans, and then began the practice of his profession in Boston, meanwhile serving as demonstrator of anatomy in Harvard Medical school during 1845-'7, and as physician to the Boston dispensary. He then passed some time in Brazil, and also visited the Lake Superior copper region. During the Civil War he entered the army as acting assistant surgeon from Massachusetts, was assigned to duty with General Burnside, and accompanied the expedition to New Berne in March, 1862, after the capture of that place being assigned to duty at the Craven Street Hospital in New Berne, and at the hospital in Beaufort, North Carolina. In October, 1862, he was commissioned surgeon of the 45th Massachusetts Regiment, and served in that capacity in New Berne till the regiment was discharged in July, 1863. He then entered the corps of surgeons of volunteers, and was placed in charge, successively, of the University Hospital in New Orleans, and of the Marine Hospital in Mobile. In 1866 he was mustered out of the service with the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel. He then returned to Boston, and became associated in the work of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, holding the office of instructor in 1867-'9 and professor of zoology and physiology in 1869-'78, also acting as secretary of the corporation in 1866-'78, and of secretary of the faculty in 1871-8. Dr. Kneeland then returned to literary work and lecturing, which he has since followed in Boston and to the Philippine Islands. He has travelled extensively in search of information concerning earthquakes and volcanic phenomena, having made visits to the Hawaiian Islands and to Iceland in 1874, at the time of its millennial celebration, for this purpose. He is a member of numerous scientific societies, and has held the office of secretary to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and to the Boston Society of Natural History. Dr. Kneeland has contributed largely to current medical literature, and was the author of many articles, mostly on zoological and medical subjects, in the " American Cyclopaedia." He edited the " Annual of Scientific Discovery" (1866-'9); a translation of Andry's "Diseases of the Heart" (Boston, 1847); and Smith's "History of the Human Species" (1852). His own works include "Science and Mechanism" (New York, 1854); "The Wonders of the Yosemite Valley and of California" (Boston, 1871); and "An American in Iceland " (1876).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p.

KNIPE, Joseph Farmer, soldier, born in Mount Joy, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 30 November, 1823. He was educated in a private school, served in the ranks through the war with Mexico, and then engaged in mercantile business in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, until 1861, when he organized the 46th Pennsylvania Regiment, and was commissioned its colonel. He was promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers 29 November, 1862, and served in the Army of the Potomac, and in that of the Cumberland, commanding a brigade and then a division, till the fall of Atlanta, when he became chief of cavalry of the Army of the Tennessee. General Knipe received two wounds at Winchester, Virginia, two at Cedar Mountain, Georgia, and one at Resaca, Georgia. He was mustered out of service in September, 1865, and is now (1887) superintendent of one of the departments in the military prison at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 563.

KNOTT, James Proctor, Congressman, born near Lebanon, Marion County, Kentucky, 29 August, 1830. He studied in the neighboring schools and in Shelbyville, whither his father, Joseph Percy Knott, had moved. When he was sixteen years old he began to study law, and in May, 1850, went to Memphis, Scotland County, Missouri, and was employed in the county clerk's office until he was twenty-one, when he was licensed to practise. In 1858 he was elected to the legislature, and at once made chairman of the judiciary committee. During this session articles of impeachment were preferred against Judge Albert Jackson, and Mr. Knott and Charles Hardin, afterward governor of Missouri, were chosen as managers. Pending the trial, which was held in June, 1859, a vacancy occurred in the office of Attorney-General, and Mr. Knott was appointed to fill it at the unanimous request of the senate and the governor's cabinet. In 1860 he was elected to the same office by a flattering majority. At the beginning of the Civil War Mr. Knott was arrested by General Nathaniel Lyon, and, refusing to take an oath that he regarded as too stringent, was sent as a prisoner to the St. Louis Arsenal, but after a time released, remaining under surveillance until March, 1862. In 1861, as he refused to take the test-oath that was prescribed for officials, his office was declared vacant, and he was disbarred from practice. In 1862 he moved to Lebanon, Kentucky, where he practised law, and in 1866 was elected to Congress. He was not at first allowed to take his seat, but was finally admitted. His first speech was on the admission of John Young Brown to a seat, and was directed against the constitutionality of the test oath, its applicability to members of Congress, and its retrospective operation. He was re-elected in 1868, and served on the committee on the District of Columbia and the committee on private land claims. In his speech against the bill for the improvement of Pennsylvania avenue he obtained a hearing by giving a humorous turn to the debate, and the bill was laughed out of congress. It was toward the end of the same Congress that he made his " Duluth " speech, which gave him a reputation as a humorist. Mr. Knott was not in the 42d and 43d Congresses, but after a vigorous canvass he was elected, and served from 1875 till 1883. He was appointed by Speaker Kerr chairman of the judiciary committee, and in the second session he also became chairman of the special committee on the powers and privileges of the house in reference to counting the votes for president. In the 45th Congress he was reappointed by Speaker Randall as chairman of the committee on the Judiciary, and again in the 46th and 47th Congresses. In 1882 Mr. Knott declined a renomination, and in 1883 was elected governor of Kentucky.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 564.

KNOWLES, Lucius James, inventor, born in Hardwick, Massachusetts, 2 July, 1819; died in Washington, D. C, 25 February, 1884. He spent his early life on his father's farm, until he attained the age of fourteen, when for a time he studied in a high-school. Three years later he became a clerk in a store in Shrewsbury. He had already begun to invent and construct machinery, and now part of the store was transformed into a machine-shop. Here he spent much of his time in the investigation of new discoveries, and in testing them by experiments. Many of the improvements in reed-instruments that have since come into general use were invented in this way. In 1840 he put into operation several working models of steam-engines, and during his experiments invented the Knowles safety steam-boiler feed-regulator. He also turned his attention to magnetism and electricity, studying these subjects with special reference to motive power, and for a time the discovery of photography occupied his attention. He then proceeded to the manufacture of a variety of machinery and materials used in that art, continuing so for two years. His next invention was a machine for spooling thread, which he began to manufacture in New Worcester. Later he turned his attention to the production of fine numbers of thread, composed of six cords, and. after two years of experimenting, he was successful in producing six-cord spool-cotton equal to the English. In 1847 he began the manufacture of cotton warps at Spencer under the firm-name of Knowles and Sibley, and two years later the business was transferred to Warren, Massachusetts. He began to produce woollen goods in 1853, but in 1859 disposed of his interests. He thenceforth devoted his attention chiefly to the development of his inventions. The manufacture of his patent safety steam-boiler feeder was then begun, and in 1858 he began to construct his patent steam-pump. Soon afterward he procured patents for steam pumping-engines, an automatic boiler-feeder, and a fancy loom for producing all kinds of narrow textile fabrics. In 1860 he disposed of one half of the steam-pump business, and since that time, with gradual increase of plant, the Knowles pump-works have become the most extensive of their kind in the United States, but ultimately were disposed of to the George P. Blake manufacturing company of Boston. In 1861 he began the manufacture of the tape-binding loom under the different patents that had been secured by him in preceding years, and under his management this business grew very rapidly. Mr. Knowles was elected a member of the Massachusetts legislature in 1862 and 1865, of the senate in 1869, and received the degree of A. M. from Williams in 1865.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 564-565.

KNOWLTON, Ebenezer, 1815-, Pittsville, New Hampshire, abolitionist, clergyman.  Member of the Maine House of Representatives and the U.S. House of Representatives, 1855-1857.  Early member of the Republican Party.  Lifelong opponent of slavery and temperance activist.  Founder of Bates College in Lewiston, Maine.  Coordinator of Free Will Baptist newspaper, Morning Star.

KNOX, Samuel, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)

KNOX, Samuel Richardson, naval officer, born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, 38 August, 1811; died in Everett, Massachusetts, 20 November, 1883. His father and grandfather were Boston pilots. After a voyage in a merchant vessel that was commanded by his brother, he entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman on 1 April, 1828, served in the Mediterranean and Pacific fleets, and was on furlough and engaged in exploring the northwest coast of North America from November, 1833, till March. 1837. In 1837-'8 he accompanied Lieutenant Charles Wilkes in surveys of Savannah and May Rivers and George's bank and shoals, commanding the schooner " Hadassah." He served in 1838-'42 on the Wilkes Exploring Expedition, as commander of the " Flying Fish." His schooner approached nearer to the south pole than any other vessel in the squadron. Knox's highland, in latitude 70° 14' S., was named in his honor. He was promoted lieutenant on 1 September, 1841, and during the Mexican War commanded a landing party of marines and sailors at the capture of the castle of San Juan de Ulloa, Vera Cruz, led a shore party at the assault on Tuspan. and afterward commanded the " Flirt" and the " Wasp." In 184952 he surveyed the coasts of California and Oregon. He was retired on 13 September, 1855, but in the beginning of the Civil War was engaged in blockading service off Galveston, Texas, where he had a skirmish with the enemy's batteries, and at Barataria and the mouth of the Mississippi, chasing two armed steamers up that river. He was made a captain on the retired list on 4 April, 1867.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 568.

KNOX, Thomas Wallace, traveller, born in Pembroke, N, H., 20 June, 1835. He was educated at the academies in Pembroke and Pittsfield, New Hampshire, became a teacher, and established an academy in Kingston, New Hampshire. In 1860 he went to Colorado to seek gold, and there became a reporter, and afterward city editor of the Denver "Daily News," and correspondent for various eastern newspapers. He went in the beginning of the Civil War to the southwest, and served as a volunteer aid in two campaigns. He sent letters to the New York "Herald”, and, after receiving a wound in a skirmish in Missouri, went to New York to become a journalist and general writer. His letters from the seat of war were republished under the title of "Camp-Fire and Cotton-Field" (New York, 1865). In 1866 he went on a journey around the world as a newspaper correspondent. In Siberia, where he accompanied an expedition that was sent out bv an American company to build a telegraph-line, he travelled 3,600 miles in sledges and 1,400 miles in wagons. The narrative of his journey was republished under the title of "Overland through Asia" (Hartford, 1870). He went to Ireland in 1875, and telegraphed the score of the international rifle-match at Dollymount by means of a device of his invention, indicating, by the use of Morse signals, the spot in which each ball struck the target. This he developed into a system of topographical telegraphy, which he sold to the U. S. government for the transmission of weather maps. In May, 1877, he set out on a second voyage around the world, arriving at Paris in time to serve as a member of the international jury at the Paris universal exposition of 1878. Besides the works already mentioned, he is the author of " Underground Life" (Hartford, 1873); 'Baksheesh" (1875); "The Boy Travellers in China and Japan" (New York, 1879); followed bv a similar volume on ' Siam and Java," for which the king of Siam conferred on him the order of the white elephant (1880); "How to Travel" (1880); "The Young Nimrods in North America," "The Boy Travellers in Ceylon and India," and "Pocket-Guide for Europe" (1881); "The Young Nimrods in Europe, Asia, and Africa," " The Boy Travellers in Egypt and the Holy Land," and "Pocket-Guide around the World "(1882); " The Boy Travellers in Africa" (1883); "The Voyage of the ‘Vivian ' to the North Pole" (1884); "Lives of Blaine and Logan " (Hartford, 1884); "Marco Polo for Boys and Girls " and "The Boy Travellers in South America" (New York, 1885); "Robert Fulton and Steam Navigation" (1886); "Life of Henry Ward Beecher" (Hartford, 1887); "Decisive Battles since Waterloo" (New York. 1887); "Dog Stories and Dog Lore"; and "The Boy Travellers on the Congo (1887).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 558.

KOERNER, Gustav, jurist, bornin Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany, 20 November, 1809. He was graduated in law at Heidelberg in 1832, came to the United States in 1833, and studied American jurisprudence at Transylvania University in 1834-'o, after which he practised his profession in Belleville, Illinois, where he now (1887) resides. He was a member of the legislature in 1842-'3, and judge of the Supreme Court of Illinois from 1845 till 1851. From 1853 till 1857 he served as lieutenant-governor of the state, he was instrumental in raising the 43d Illinois Regiment in 1861, but, before its organization was completed, he was appointed colonel of volunteers in August, 1868, and assigned as aide to General Fremont, upon whose removal he was assigned to General Henry W. Halleck's staff, but resigned in April, 1862, owing to impaired health. In July, 1862, he was appointed U. S. minister to Spain, which post he resigned in January, 1865. He was a member for the state at large of the Chicago Conventions that nominated Lincoln in 1860 and Horace Greeley in 1872. In 1867 he was appointed president of the board of trustees that organized the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at Bloomington, Illinois, and in 1870 became president of the first board of Railroad Commissioners of Illinois. He is the author of "Collections of the Important General Laws of Illinois, with Comments (in German, St. Louis, 1838); "From Spain" (Frankfort-on-the Main, 1860): "Das deutsche Element in den Vereinigten Staaten. 1818-1848 " (Cincinnati, 1880; 2d ed.. New York, 1885); and a number of pamphlets.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, pp. 570-571.

KOLTES, John A., soldier, born in Rhenish Prussia in 1823; died near Gainesville, Virginia, 30 August, 1862. He came to this country in 1846, and served throughout the Mexican War as orderly sergeant. After its close he became an officer of the Marine Corps, and was subsequently employed in the U. S. Mint in Philadelphia. At the opening of the Civil War he raised and commanded a regiment of Germans. He was killed at the battle of Gainesville, Virginia He had been acting brigadier-general in General Adolph Von Steinwehr's division for four months, and his friends who had secured his promotion to this rank were carrying his commission, when they met his body as it was borne from the battle-field.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 572.

KOUNS, Nathan Chapman, author, born in Fulton, Callaway County, Missouri, 17 December, 1833. His paternal ancestors, who came to this country with Lord Baltimore, were from Strasbourg. Mr. Kouns was educated chiefly at home, and at St. Charles College, Missouri, where he was graduated in 1852. He studied law, was admitted to the bar, and practised until he entered the Confederate Army, in which he served during the Civil War, being several times wounded. He afterward returned to the practice of the law, and in January, 1887, was appointed by the Supreme Court of Missouri librarian of the state library at Jefferson City. He is the author of "Dorcas, Daughter of Faustina" (New York, 1863), and " Arius, the Libyan" (1883), and of two other works that are still in manuscript.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 574

KOUNTZ, John S., soldier, born in Richfield, Lucas County, Ohio, 25 March, 1846. He attended school in Maumee City, Ohio, until the age of fourteen, and in September, 1861 enlisted as a drummer-boy in the 37th Ohio Infantry. At the battle of Mission Ridge, Tennessee., 25 November, 1803, when the drum-corps was ordered to the rear he threw away his drum, seized a musket, and was severely wounded in the first assault, being left in the field under the enemy's guns until he was rescued by his company. This episode is the subject of a poem by Mrs. Kate B. Sherwood, entitled "The Drummer Boy of Mission Ridge," which attained a wide reputation. He remained in the hospital of Louisville until he was honorably discharged from the service on 25 April, 1864, and on his return to civil life he attended school for one year, after which he was treasurer of Lucas County from 1872 till 1874, and county recorder in i875-'8. He has been connected with the Grand Army of the republic since its organization in 1800, and was elected its commander-in-chief on 25 July, 1884. In the presidential contest that occurred during his official term he issued an order to bar politics from this organization. He is now (1887) president of the Toledo Fire-underwriters' Association.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 574.

KROEGER, Adolph Ernst, author, born in Schwabstedt, duchy of Schleswig, 28 December, 1837; died in St. Louis, 8 March, 1882. He was the son of a clergyman who came to this country with his family in 1848 and settled at Davenport, Iowa. Young Kroeger first went into a banking-house, but in 1857 moved to New York City and was connected with one of the daily papers as translator for three years. During the Civil War he served on the staff of General Fremont, and at its close settled in St. Louis. Both by translations of the works of Fichte, Kant, and Leibnitz, and by numerous essays in different periodicals, he largely contributed to a better understanding of German literature in this country, and increased the number of those that are interested in it. He wrote regularly for the St. Louis "Journal of Speculative Philosophy." He published Fichte's "Science of Knowledge" (Philadelphia, 1868), the same author's " Science of Rights " (1869), and translated his " Science of Morals," but his translation still remains in manuscript. He also issued "The Minnesingers of Germany," containing translations of Walter von der Vogelweide and others (New York, 1873), and "Our Forms of Government and the Problems of the Future" (1862).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 576.

KURTZ, John D., soldier, born in the District of Columbia about 1822; died in Georgetown, D. C, 16 October, 1877. He was graduated from the U. S. Military Academy, 1 July, 1842, and entered the Corps of Engineers. He was employed in repairing fortifications in North Carolina and the forts in Charleston Harbor, served on a commission to devise a project for the improvement of the harbor in 1852, and was promoted 1st lieutenant in March, 1853, and captain, 1 July, 1856, serving from 1852 till 1856 as assistant to the chief engineer in Washington, and then on harbor works in New England till the Civil War. He was promoted major, 8 March, 1863, brevet lieutenant-colonel and brevet colonel, 13 March, 1865, and lieutenant-colonel, 8 August, 1866. He served during the Civil War as chief engineer of the Department of Annapolis from June till July, 1861, and of the Shenandoah in August, 1861. and then as assistant to the chief of engineers at Washington, D. C, till 1869, having charge of the bureau during the absence of the chief engineer. Afterward he was employed as superintending engineer of various works, including the defences of Delaware Bay and River in 1870-'7, the Delaware Breakwater in 1871-'2, and the foundation of the Washington Monument from 26 September, 1876, till his death.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. III, p. 579.