American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
Conscience of the Nation

Updated April 4, 2021

l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - A

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A                    B                    C                    D                    E                    F               

                      Bab-Bee         Cab-Che         Dab-Dev                               Fai-Fle
                      Bel-Bon          Chi-Cle          Dib-Dye                                Flo-Fur
                      Boo-Bro         Cli-Cox
                      Bru-Byr          Cra-Cuy

G                    H                    I                     J                     K                    L

Gag-Gid         Hab-Har                                                                             Lad-Loc
Gih-Gra         Has-Hil                                                                               Log-Lyt
Gre-Gru         Hin-Hyd

M                    N                    O                    P                    Q                    R

McA-McW                                                   Pac-Pie                                 Rad-Riv
Mad-Mid                                                      Pik-Put                                  Roa-Rya

S                     T                    U                    V                    W                    XYZ

Sac-Sha          Tab-Tho                                                       Wad-Way
She-Smi         Thr-Tyn                                                        Wea-Whe
Sno-Sti                                                                                Whi-Wil 
Sto-Sza                                                                                Wim-Wyt


Encyclopedia of Civil War Biography - A

, born 1811, African American, former Virginia slave, anti-slavery orator.  Wrote Light and Truth of Slavery: Aaron’s History, 1845.  (Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 1, p. 1.)

AARON, Samuel, 1800-1865, Morristown, New Jersey, educator, clergyman, temperance activist, abolitionist.  Manager, American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), 1840-1842.  Vice President, 1839-1840, Executive Committee, American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society.  (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 1.  Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936)

AARON, Samuel, educator, born in New Britain, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in 1800; died in Mount Holly, New Jersey, 11 April, 1865. He was left an orphan at six years of age, and became the ward of an uncle, upon whose farm he worked for several years, attending school only in winter. A small legacy inherited from his father enabled him at the age of sixteen to enter the Doylestown, Pennsylvania, Academy, where he fitted himself to become a teacher, and at the age of twenty was engaged as an assistant instructor in the classical and mathematical school in Burlington, New Jersey. Here he studied and taught, and soon opened an independent day school at Bridge Point, but was presently invited to become principal of Doylestown Academy. In 1829 he was ordained, and became pastor of a Baptist Church in New Britain. In 1833, he took charge of the Burlington High School, serving at the same time as pastor of the Baptist Church in that city. Accepting in 1841 an invitation from a church in Norristown, Pennsylvania, he remained there three years, when he opened the Treemount Seminary near Norristown, which under his management soon became prosperous,
and won a high reputation for the thoroughness of its training and discipline. The financial disasters of 1857 found Mr. Aaron with his name pledged as security for a friend, and he was obliged to sacrifice all his property to the creditors. He was soon offered the head-mastership of Mt. Holly, New Jersey, North Carolina, a large, well-established school for boys, where, in company with his son as joint principal, he spent the remainder of his life. During these years he was pastor of a church in Mt. Holly. He prepared a valuable series of text-books introducing certain improvements in methods of instruction, which added greatly to his reputation as an educator. His only publication in book form, aside from his text-books, was entitled “Faithful Translation” (Philadelphia, 1842). He was among the early advocates of temperance, and was an earnest supporter of the anti-slavery cause from its beginning. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 1.

ABADIE, Eugene H.,
surgeon, born in France, about 1814; died in St. Louis, 12 December, 1874. He entered the Medical Corps of the U.S. Army in 1836, with the rank of assistant surgeon. In 1853 he was promoted surgeon, and as such served through the Civil War, receiving the brevet rank of colonel in March, 1865. His first service was with the Creek Nation, then recently removed from their hereditary lands in Georgia, and until the Seminole War he was engaged with the migrating tribes. After this service he was stationed at the forts in New York Harbor, and at various regular posts in the interior until the war with Mexico, where he was on duty in 1848, but was ordered to Point Isabel, Texas, in 1849. Changing from station to station as the exigencies of the service demanded, he was in Texas when the U.S. forces in that state were surrendered by General Twiggs, and before the close of 1861 he was paroled as a prisoner of war and permitted to go north. He was stationed at West Point in 1862-’64, during which period he was detailed to serve on medical boards in Philadelphia and New York. In 1865, he became chief medical officer of the Military Division of West Missouri in 1866 Medical Director of the Department of Missouri, and lastly acting assistant medical purveyor at St. Louis. At the time of his death he had seen more years of actual service than any, save two, of the army surgeons.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 1

ABBOT, Henry Larcom, soldier, born in Beverly, Massachusetts, 13 August, 1831. He was graduated at West Point in 1854, and made brevet second lieutenant of Topographical Engineers. His first service was in the office of the Pacific Railroad Surveys in Washington, whence in 1855 he was transferred to the Pacific Railroad Survey of the route between California and Oregon, and afterward served on the Hydrographic Survey of the delta of the Mississippi River. During the Civil War he was principally engaged as a military engineer, and rose by successive steps until brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, and made lieutenant-colonel of engineers, 31 March, 1880. He served in various actions, and was wounded at Bull Run in 1861. Since the close of the war he has been engaged in superintending the defences of the East River; in command of the engineer post and depot at Willet's Point, New York, and of the engineer battalion and the engineer school of application, the latter of which he has created. He was a member of the expedition to Sicily to observe the solar eclipse in 1870, member of the engineer board on the U. S. military bridge equipage and drill, of one on a plan for the protection of the alluvial region of the Mississippi against overflows, and of various other boards connected with fortifications and river and harbor improvements. He invented and developed the U. S. system of submarine mines for coast and river defence, 1869 to 1886. He has published “Vol. VI., Pacific Railroad Reports” (Washington, 1857); “Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi,” jointly with Captain. A. A. Humphreys (Philadelphia, 1861); “Siege Artillery in the Campaign against Richmond” (Washington, 1867); “Experiments and Investigations to develop a System of Submarine Mines for defending Harbors of the United States” (1881); jointly with boards and commissioners, “United States Bridge Equipage and Drill” (1870); “Reclamation of the Alluvial Basin of the Mississippi River” (1875); “Report of Gun-Foundry Board” (1884); and “Report of the Board on Fortifications or other Defences” (1886).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 4

ABBOTT, Gorham D., Boston, Massachusetts.  Member of the American Colonization Society, Boston Auxiliary.  Active in leadership of Society.  Published The Colonizationist and Journal of Freedom, a monthly magazine.  (Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 201, 204)

ABBOTT, Joseph Carter, journalist, born in Concord, New Hampshire, 15 July, 1825; died in Wilmington, North Carolina, 8 October, 1882. He studied at Phillips Andover Academy, and subsequently under private instruction, covering the usual college course. He then read law in Concord, and was admitted to the bar in 1852, at which time he had already edited the “Daily American” for six months. He continued to edit this journal until 1857, and in the meantime (1855) he was appointed adjutant-general of New Hampshire, and in that capacity effectively reorganized the State militia. In 1859-'61 he assumed the editorship of the Boston “Atlas and Bee,” but continued to discharge his duties as adjutant-general. He early joined the “Know Nothing” Party, and during all these years was a frequent contributor to the magazines, being particularly interested in historical matters. He was a member of the commission for adjusting the boundary between New Hampshire and Canada. When the Civil War broke out he showed great energy and efficiency in raising and organizing troops until, yielding to the desire for active service, he obtained a commission as lieutenant-colonel of the 7th Regiment, New Hampshire Volunteers. On various occasions he distinguished himself, but especially at the attack on Fort Fisher, North Carolina, where his brigade stormed successively several positions where the Confederates made a stand. He was promoted colonel 22 July, 1863, and commanded his regiment in active service until the summer of 1864, when he was placed in charge of a brigade and brevetted brigadier-general. After the war he moved to Wilmington, North Carolina, where he was a member of the constitutional convention, was elected U. S. Senator by the Republicans for a partial term ending in 1871, served as collector of the port under President Grant, and was inspector of ports under President Hayes. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 7

ABBOTT, Robert Osborne, surgeon, born in Pennsylvania in 1824; died in Brooklyn, New York, 16 June, 1867. He entered the army in 1849 U.S. assistant surgeon, and in that capacity accompanied Magruder's battery to California. He subsequently served in the East, and also in Florida and Texas. During 1861 he was assistant to the chief medical purveyor in New York. In 1862, he was made medical director of the Fifth Army Corps, and later in the same year was appointed medical director of the Department of Washington, having charge of all the hospitals in and around the capital, together with all the hospital transports. The incessant and arduous duties of this office, which he held until November, 1860, seriously impaired his health. A six months' sick-leave failed to restore it, and he died a victim of over-work.    
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 7-8

ABERCROMBIE, John Joseph, soldier, born in Tennessee in 1802; died in Roslyn, New York, 3 January, 1877. He was graduated at West Point in 1822, served as adjutant in the 1st U.S. Infantry from 1825 to 1888, and was made captain in 1836. He served in the Florida Ear, and was brevetted major for gallant conduct at the battle of Okeechobee. He was engaged in frontier duty in the west until the Mexican War. For gallantry at the battle of Monterey, where he was wounded, he received the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was at the siege of Vera Cruz and at Cerro Gordo, and served in 1847 as aide-de-camp to General Patterson. When the Civil War broke out he was stationed in Minnesota. He took part in the Shenandoah Campaign and was in command at the action of Falling Waters. He served through the Peninsular Campaign as brigadier-general of volunteers, was wounded at Fair Oaks, and was present at Malvern Hill and in several skirmishes on the retreat to Harrison's Landing. He was engaged in the defence of Washington in 1862 and 1863, had charge of depots at Fredericksburg in May, 1864, and took part in the defence against Hampton's Legion in June, 1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general at the close of the war, and retired 12 June, 1865.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p.  8

ABERT, John James, soldier, born in Shepherdstown, Virginia, 17 September, 1788; died in Washington,. D. C., 27 September, 1863. He was the son of John Abert, who came to this country with Rochambeau in 1780. Young Abert was graduated at West Point in 1811, but at once resigned, and was then employed in the war office. Meanwhile he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in the District of Columbia in 1813. In the War of 1812 he volunteered as a private soldier for the defence of the capital. He was reap pointed to the army in 1814 as topographical engineer, with the rank of major. In 1829 he succeeded to the charge of the topographical bureau at Washington, and in 1838 became colonel in command of that branch of the engineers. He was retired in 1861 after "long and faithful service." Colonel Abert was associated in the supervision of many of the earlier national works of engineering, and his reports prepared for the government are standards of authority. He was a member of several scientific societies, and was one of the organizers of the national Institute of science, which was subsequently merged into the Smithsonian Institute. His sons served with distinction in the U. S. Army during the Civil War.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p.  8

ABERT, James William, soldier, born in Mount Holly, New Jersey, 18 November, 1820, was graduated at West Point in 1842. After service in the U.S. Infantry he was transferred to the Topographical Engineers, and was engaged on the survey of the northern lakes in 1843-'44. He then served on the expedition to New Mexico, and published a report (Senate documents, 1848). From 1848 to 1850 he was assistant in drawing at West Point, and from 1851 to 1860 he was engaged in the improvement of western rivers, except during the Seminole War in 1856-'58, when he was in Florida. During the Civil War he served on the staffs of General Patterson and General Banks in the Virginia Campaign of 1861–62. He was severely injured at Frederick, Maryland, in 1862, and subsequently served on General Gillmore's staff, having attained the rank of major in 1863. He resigned on 25 June, 1864. For a short time he was an examiner of patents in Washington, and later he became professor of mathematics and drawing in the University of Missouri, at Rolla. He is a contributor to current literature in science, art, and history.
[son of John James Abert; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp.  8-9

ABERT, Silvanus Thayer, civil engineer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 22 July, 1828. He was educated at Princeton, and in 1848 began his engineering career in the government service on the construction of the James River and Kanawha Canal. For eleven years he was actively engaged on government work at various localities. In 1859 he was appointed engineer in charge of all the works of construction at the Pensacola U.S. Navy-yard. During the Civil War he served at first on the staff of General Banks in his Virginia Campaign, and later under General Meade with the Army of the Potomac. From 1865 to 1866 he was engaged on the surveys of the Magdalena River for the Colombian government. On his return he again joined the engineering Corps, and has been occupied on numerous government surveys. Since 1873 he has been in charge of the geographical division extending from Washington, D. C., to Wilmington, North Carolina. Colonel Abert is the author of numerous valuable reports on his work, and has also published “Notes, Historical and Statistical, upon the Projected Route for an Interoceanic Ship Canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans” (Cincinnati, 1872).
[son of John James Abert; Appleton’s 1887] p. 9

ABERT, William Stretch, soldier, born in Washington, D.C., 1 February, 1836; died in Galveston, Texas, 25 August, 1867. He was appointed lieutenant in the artillery in 1855, and at the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 was stationed at Fort Monroe, Virginia He was appointed captain in the Cavalry in 1861, and fought in the battles of Williamsburg and Hanover Court House. Later he joined General McClellan's staff, and was at Antietam. From November, 1862, to October, 1864, he was assistant inspector-general at New Orleans under General Banks, after which he served in the defences of Washington as colonel of the 3d Massachusetts Artillery. Subsequent to the war he was with his regiment in Texas, and became assistant inspector-general of the District of Texas. In June, 1867, he was advanced to the rank of major in the 7th U. S. Cavalry. He received several brevets, the highest of which was that of lieutenant-colonel.
[son of John James Abert; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 9

ADAMS, Alvin, expressman, born in Andover, Vermont, 16 June, 1804; died in Watertown, Massachusetts, 2 September, 1877. In 1840 he established an express route between New York and Boston, making his first trip on 4 May. A few months later, under the firm-name of Adams & Company, he associated with himself Ephraim Farnsworth, who took charge of the New York office. On the death of the latter, soon afterward, William B. Dinsmore succeeded to his place, and for several years subsequently the business was limited to New York, New London, Norwich, Worcester, and Boston. In 1854 the corporation of Adams Express Company, was formed by the union of Adams & Company, Harnden & Company, Thompson & Company, and Kinsley & Company, with Mr. Adams as president. Its business then rapidly extended throughout the south and west, and in 1870 to the far west. Mr. Adams was associated with the organization of the pioneer express throughout the mining camps of California in 1850; but on the consolidation of the companies in 1854, Adams & Company disposed of their interest to the California Express Company. During the Civil War the facilities that were afforded by Adams Express Company were of the greatest value to the national government. Mr. Adams accumulated a large fortune. See “History of the Express Business,” by A. L. Stimson (New York, 1881). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 11-12.

ADAMS, Charles Follen, author, born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, 21 April, 1842. He received a common-school education, and at the age of fifteen entered into mercantile pursuits. At the age of twenty-two he enlisted in the 13th Massachusetts Infantry; was in all the battles in which his regiment participated, was wounded at Gettysburg, taken prisoner; released, and detailed for hospital duty. Since 1872 he has been known as a writer of German dialect poems, chiefly humorous. The first that appeared was “The Puzzled Dutchman” in “Our Young Folks” in 1872. This was followed by various others of which “Leedle Yawcob Strauss” (1876) became immediately a favorite. Mr. Adams is a frequent contributor to periodical literature, and has published in a volume “Leedle Yawcob Strauss and other Poems” (Boston, 1877).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I, p. 12.

ADAMS, Charles Francis, 1807-1886, Vice President, Anti-Slavery Free Soil Party, newspaper publisher and editor.  Son of former President John Quincy Adams.  Grandson of President John Adams.  Opposed annexation of Texas, on opposition to expansion of slavery in new territories.  Formed “Texas Group” within Massachusetts Whig Party.  Formed and edited newspaper, Boston Whig, in 1846. (Adams, 1900; Duberman, 1961; Goodell, 1852, p. 478; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 32-33; Pease, 1965, pp. 445-452; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 51, 298; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 12-13. Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 40-48)

ADAMS, Charles Francis, diplomatist, son of John Quincy Adams, born in Boston, 18 August, 1807; died there, 21 November, 1886. When two years old he was taken by his father to St. Petersburg, where he learned German, French, and Russian. Early in 1815 he travelled all the way from St. Petersburg to Paris with his mother in a private carriage, a difficult journey at that time, and not unattended with danger. His father was soon afterward appointed minister to England, and the little boy was placed at an English boarding-school. The feelings between British and Americans was then more hostile than ever before or since, and young Adams was frequently called upon to defend with his fists the good name of his country. When he returned after two years to America, his father placed him in the Boston Latin school, and he was graduated at Harvard College in 1825, shortly after his father's inauguration as president of the United States. He spent two years in Washington, and then returned to Boston, where he studied law in the office of Daniel Webster, and was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 1828. The next year he married the youngest daughter of Peter Chardon Brooks, whose elder daughters were married to Edward Everett and Reverend Nathaniel Frothingham. From 1831 to 1836 Mr. Adams served in the Massachusetts legislature. He was a member of the Whig Party, but, like all the rest of his vigorous and free-thinking family, he was extremely independent in politics and inclined to strike out into new paths in advance of the public sentiment. After 1836 he came to differ more and more widely with the leaders of the Whig Party with whom he had hitherto acted. In 1848 the newly organized Free-Soil Party, consisting largely of Democrats, held its convention at Buffalo and nominated Martin Van Buren for president and Charles Francis Adams for vice-president. There was no hope of electing these candidates, but this little party grew, six years later, into the great Democratic Party. In 1858 he was elected to Congress by the Republicans of the 3d District of Massachusetts, and in 1860 he was reelected. In the spring of 1861 President Lincoln appointed him minister to England, a place which both his father and his grandfather had filled before him. Mr. Adams had now to fight with tongue and pen for his country as in school-boy days he had fought with fists. It was an exceedingly difficult time for an American minister in England. Though there was much sympathy for the U. S. government on the part of the workmen in the manufacturing districts and of many of the liberal constituencies, especially in Scotland, on the other hand the feeling of the governing classes and of polite society in London was either actively hostile to us or coldly indifferent. Even those students of history and politics who were most friendly to us failed utterly to comprehend the true character of the sublime struggle in which we were engaged— as may be seen in reading the introduction to Mr. E. A. Freeman's elaborate "History of Federal Government, from the Formation of the Achaean League to the Disruption of the United States" (London, 1862). Difficult and embarrassing questions arose in connection with the capture of the Confederate commissioners Mason and Slidell, the negligence of Lord Palmerston's government in allowing the "Alabama" and other Confederate cruisers to sail from British ports to prey upon American commerce, and the ever manifest desire of Napoleon III, to persuade Great Britain to join him in an acknowledgment of the independence of the confederacy. The duties of this difficult diplomatic mission were discharged by Mr. Adams with such consummate ability as to win universal admiration. No more than his father or grandfather did he belong to the school of suave and crafty, intriguing diplomats. He pursued his ends with dogged determination and little or no attempt at concealment, while his demeanor was haughty and often defiant. His unflinching firmness bore clown all opposition, and his perfect self-control made it difficult for an antagonist to gain any advantage over him. His career in England from 1861 to 1868 must be cited among the foremost triumphs of American diplomacy. In 1872 it was attempted to nominate him for the presidency of the United States, as the candidate of the liberal Republicans, but Horace Greeley secured the nomination. He was elected in 1869 a member of the board of overseers of Harvard College, and was for several years president of the board. He has edited the works and memoirs of his father and grandfather, in 22 octavo volumes, and published many of his own addresses and orations. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 12-13.

ADAMS, John Huy, 1822-1881, politician, businessman, abolitionist, Illinois State Senator, 1854-1870.  Helped in founding of the Republican Party.  Friend of Abraham Lincoln.  Father of famous social reformer and activist, Jane Adams.  (Adams, 1910; Berson, 2004; Elshtain, 2002; Knight, 2005; Linn, 2000)

ADAMS, John Quincy, 1767-1848, Massachusetts, sixth U.S. President (1825-1829), U.S. Congressman (1831-1848), U.S. Secretary of State, lawyer, anti-slavery leader, activist, abolitionist, son of second U.S. President John Adams.  Opposed the Missouri Compromise of 1819, which allowed the expansion of slavery in southern states.  Fought against the “Gag Rule” in Congress, which prevented discussion of the issue of slavery in the U.S. House of Representatives.  The Gag Rule was revoked in 1844.  (Adams, 1874; Bemis, 1956; Cable, 1971; Dumond, 1961, pp. 238, 243-244, 367-370; Filler, 1960, p. 57, 80, 82, 96, 98, 102, 104, 105, 107, 108, 164, 168, 208; Goodell, 1852; Hammond, 2011, pp. 25, 175, 176, 240, 248, 272, 273, 276, 380; Mason, 2006, pp. 3., 90, 93, 98, 165, 185, 187, 190, 200, 205, 214-222, 263n31, 383n32, 289n47; Miller, 1996; Mitchell, 2007, pp. 3, 6, 8, 10, 18-19, 24, 33, 39, 45, 137, 197, 248; Pease, 1965, pp. 260-267; Remini, 2002; Richards, 1986; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 40-41, 49, 45, 132, 153-154, 305; Wilson, 1872, Vol. 2, pp. 161-164; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 24-28. Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 84-92.)

Biography from Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography:

ADAMS, John Quincy, sixth president of the United States, born in Braintree, Massachusetts, 11 July, 1767; died in Washington, D. C., 23 February, 1848. He was named for his mother's grandfather, John Quincy. […]
After an absence of eight years, John Quincy Adams was called back to his native land to serve as Secretary of State under President Monroe. A new era in American politics was dawning. The war which had just been concluded has sometimes been called our second war of independence; certainly the year 1815, which saw the end of the long strife between France and England, marks an important era in American history. Our politics ceased to be concerned mainly with foreign affairs. So suddenly were men's bones of political contention taken away from them that Monroe's presidency is traditionally remembered as the “era of good feeling.” So far as political parties were concerned, such an epithet is well applied; but as between prominent individuals struggling covertly to supplant one another, it was anything rather than an era of good feeling. Mr. Adams's principal achievement as Secretary of State was the treaty with Spain, whereby Florida was ceded to the United States in consideration of $5,000,000, to be applied to the liquidation of outstanding claims of American merchants against Spain. By the same treaty the boundary between Louisiana and Mexico was established as running along the Sabine and Red Rivers, the upper Arkansas, the crest of the Rocky mountains, and the 42d parallel. Mr. Adams defended the conduct of General Jackson in invading Spanish Florida and hanging Arbuthnot and Ambrister. He supported the policy of recognizing the independence of the revolted colonies of Spanish America, and he was the principal author of what is known as the “Monroe Doctrine,” that the American continent is no longer open to colonization by European powers. His official report on weights and measures showed remarkable scientific knowledge. Toward the close of Monroe's first term came up the first great political question growing out of the purchase of Louisiana: Should Missouri be admitted to the union as a slave-state, and should slavery be allowed or prohibited in the vast territory
beyond? After the Missouri compromise had passed through Congress, and been submitted to President Monroe for his signature, two questions were laid before the cabinet. First, had Congress the constitutional right to prohibit slavery in a territory? and, secondly, in prohibiting slavery “forever” in the territory north of Mason and Dixon's line, as prolonged beyond the Mississippi River, did the Missouri Bill refer to this district only so long as it should remain under territorial government, or did it apply to such states as might in future be formed from it? To the first question the cabinet replied unanimously in the affirmative. To the second question Mr. Adams replied that the term “forever” really meant forever; but all his colleagues replied that it only meant so long as the district in question should remain under territorial government. Here for the first time we see Mr. Adams taking that firm stand in opposition to slavery which hereafter was to make him so famous. 
Although now an ex-president, Mr. Adams did not long remain in private life. The greatest part of his career still lay before him. Owing to the mysterious disappearance of William Morgan, who had betrayed some of the secrets of the Masonic order, there was in some of the northern states a sudden and violent prejudice against the Freemasons and secret societies in general. An “anti-mason party” was formed, and by its votes Mr. Adams was, in 1831, elected to Congress, where he remained, representing the same District of Massachusetts, until his death in 1848. He was shortly afterward nominated by the anti-masons for the governorship of Massachusetts, but was defeated in the legislature, there being no choice by the people. In Congress he occupied a perfectly independent attitude. He was one of those who opposed President Jackson's high-handed treatment of the bank, but he supported the president in his firm attitude toward the South Carolina nullifiers and toward France. In 1835, as the French government delayed in paying over the indemnity of $5,000,000 which had been agreed upon by the treaty of 1831 for plunder of American shipping in the Napoleonic wars, Jackson threatened, in case payment should be any longer deferred, to issue letters of marque and reprisal against French commerce. This bold policy, which was successful in obtaining the money, enlisted Mr. Adams's hearty support. He defended Jackson as he had defended Jefferson on the occasion of the embargo; and this time, as before, his course was disapproved in Massachusetts, and he lost a seat in the U. S. Senate. He had been chosen to that office by the state senate, but the lower house did not concur, and before the question was decided the news of his speech in favor of reprisals turned his supporters against him. He was thus left in the House of Representatives more independent of party ties than ever, and was accordingly enabled to devote his energies to the aid of the abolitionists, who were now beginning to appear conspicuously upon the scene. At that time it was impossible for the opponents of slavery to effect much. The only way in which they could get their case before Congress was by presenting petitions for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia. Unwilling to receive such petitions, or to allow any discussion on the dreaded question, Congress in 1836 enacted the cowardly “gag-rule,” that “all petitions, memorials, resolutions, or papers relating in any way or to any extent whatsoever to the subject of slavery or the abolition of slavery, shall, without being either printed or referred, be laid upon the table; and that no further, action whatever shall be had thereon.” After the yeas and nays had been ordered on this, when Mr. Adams's name was called he rose and said: “I hold the resolution to be a direct violation of the constitution of the United States, the rules of this house, and the rights of my constituents.” The house sought to drown his words with loud shrieks and yells of “Order!” “Order!” but he raised his voice to a shout and defiantly finished his sentence. The rule was adopted by a vote of 117 to 68, but it did more harm than good to the pro-slavery party. They had put themselves in an untenable position, and furnished Mr. Adams with a powerful weapon which he used against them without mercy. As a parliamentary debater he has had few if any superiors; in knowledge and dexterity there was no one in the house who could be compared with him; he was always master of himself, even at the white heat of anger to which he often rose; he was terrible in invective, matchless at repartee, and insensible to fear. A single-handed fight against all the slave-holders in the house was something upon which he was always ready to enter, and he usually came off with the last word. Though the vituperative vocabulary of the English language seemed inadequate to express the hatred and loathing with which the pro-slavery party regarded him, though he was more than once threatened with assassination, nevertheless his dauntless bearing and boundless resources compelled the respect of his bitterest opponents, and members from the south, with true chivalry, sometimes confessed it. Every session he returned to the assault upon the gag-rule, until the disgraceful measure was rescinded in 1845. This part of Mr. Adams's career consisted of a vast number of small incidents, which make a very interesting and instructive chapter in American history, but cannot well be epitomized. He came to serve as the rallying-point in Congress for the ever-growing anti-slavery sentiment, and may be regarded, in a certain sense, as the first founder of the new Democratic Party. He seems to have been the first to enunciate the doctrine upon which Mr. Lincoln afterward rested his great proclamation of emancipation. In a speech in Congress in 1836 he said: “From the instant that your slave-holding states become the theatre of war—civil, servile, or foreign—from that instant the war powers of the constitution extend to interference with the institution of slavery in every way in which it can be interfered with.” As this principle was attacked by the southern members, Mr. Adams from time to time reiterated it, especially in his speech of 14 April, 1842, on the question of war with England and Mexico, when he said: " Whether the war be civil, servile, or foreign, I lay this down as the law of nations: I say that the military authority takes for the time the place of all municipal institutions, slavery among the rest. Under that state of things, so far from its being true that the states where slavery exists have the exclusive management of the subject, not only the president of the United States, but the commander of the army has power to order the universal emancipation of the slaves.”  
After the rescinding of the gag-rule Mr. Adams spoke less frequently. In November, 1846, he had a shock of paralysis, which kept him at home four months. On 21 February, 1848, while he was sitting in the House of Representatives, came the second shock. He was carried into the speaker's room, where he lay two days, and died on the 23d. His last words were: “This is the last of earth; I am content.” See “Life and Public Services of John Quincy Adams,” by William H. Seward (Auburn, 1849); “Life of John Quincy Adams,” by Josiah Quincy (Boston, 1858); “Diary of John Quincy Adams,” edited by Charles F. Adams, 12 vols., 8vo (Philadelphia, 1874-'7); and “John Quincy Adams,” by John T. Morse, Jr. (Boston, 1882). 
The steel portrait of Mr. Adams, facing page 24, is from a picture by Marchant, in the possession of the New York Historical Society. The mansion represented on page 26 is the Adams homestead at Quincy, in
which the presidents lived, now the summer residence of Charles Francis Adams.  Source: Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 24-28.

Chapter: “John Quincy Adams. - William H. Seward. - Salmon P. Chase,” by Henry Wilson, in History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, 1872.

On the 21st of February, 1848, John Quincy Adams was stricken with apoplexy in his seat in the House of Representatives. He was borne to the Speaker's room, where, two days afterward, the aged statesman died. It was, in his own touching words, his "last of earth," a striking but fitting close of a long and illustrious career. Indeed, had it been left for him to choose the mode of his departure, he could hardly have chosen a death in richer harmony with his life. On the very spot of his grandest triumphs, under the roof that had so often resounded with his ringing words, “the old man eloquent " passed away.

Though Mr. Adams was distinguished above all others in his earnest, persistent, and finally triumphant vindication of the right of petition and freedom of speech, he was not, at least until near the close of life, in hearty accord with Abolitionists, with whom he never affiliated, from whom he often received severe criticisms and censures, and to whom he sometimes applied words indicating little confidence in their plans, if in their purposes, of action. Yet he was a trusted leader in their great fight for freedom of speech, while it was his voice that first enunciated the doctrine --novel to all, and greatly distasteful to slaveholders--of the right of the government, under the war power, to emancipate the slaves; very right on which President Lincoln based the Proclamation of Emancipation.

As, however, he drew near the close of life, his views changed. If his abhorrence of slavery did not increase, his anxiety for the future of his country deepened, and he became more and more cognizant of the machinations of those who seemed determined either to make the government entirely subservient to the behests of the Slave Power or to destroy it. His long participation in public affairs, his intimate relations with public men his protracted observation of statesmen and their measures, his consummate knowledge of the schemings and the indirect purposes of too many, who, with fair professions, sought merely to promote their own personal and. partisan ends, protected him from, what deceived others, and prepared him to interpret both the utterances and the silences of those who spake as loudly and as intelligibly in his ear by the latter as by the former. John Minor Botts, in his history of the rise, progress, and disastrous failure of the great Rebellion, states that the policy and avowed purposes of Mr. Calhoun converted him, and that the open and brazen avowals that the acquisition of Texas was mainly sought to extend and perpetuate slavery made Mr. Adams an Abolitionist. Mr. Botts gives the substance of an interview, after he had expressed sentiments he had not been understood to entertain. Upon the adjournment of the House," he said,” we walked down together, and I took occasion to refer to his remarks, which I do not now precisely recollect, and said that I thought he did not intend to say all that his language could imply. ‘Yes,' he replied, ' I said it deliberately and purposely.' ‘But’ said I, ' Mr. Adams, you are not an Abolitionist.' ‘Yes, I am,' said he. ' I never have been one until now; but when I see the Constitution of my country struck down by the South for such purposes as are openly avowed, no alternative is left me. I must oppose them with all the means within my reach. I must fight the Devil with his own fire; and, to do this effectually, I am obliged to co-operate with the Abolition Party, who have been hateful to me heretofore. If the South had consulted her true interest, and followed your counsel on the Twenty-first Rule and on the Texas­ question, their institutions would never have been endangered by the North; but, if matters are to take the shape foreshadowed by Mr. Calhoun and others of the Democratic Party, then no one can foretell what may be the consequences.'”

Nor did Mr. Adams express his convictions in equivocal and mealy words. In August, 1847, he wrote to Governor Slade of Vermont that the existence of slavery was “a moral pestilence” which "preyed on the human race "; that it was "the great evil now suffered by the race of men,--an evil to be extinguished by the will of man himself and by the operations of that will." He declared his belief, that, “if the will of the free portion of this North American people could be organized for action, the people of the whole American Union would ipso facto become free." He avowed himself in favor of an improvement in "the popular education," which, he said, " shall administer to the soul of every male child born within the free portion of these States the principle of that oath which it is said the Carthaginian Hamilcar administered to his son Hannibal with reference to Rome, --eternal, inextinguishable hatred, not to Rome, nor any existing nation, but to slavery throughout the earth.'' 

“The revolution,'' he said, "to be effected in the North American confederacy, preliminary to the abolition of slavery throughout the earth, is in the will of the portion of the American people already free. They now suffer themselves to be told that slavery is nothing to them, and they sleep in bonds of voluntary servitude. How long they will so sleep it will be of no use for me to inquire. The day of their awakening is reserved for a future age."

Mr. Adams had witnessed for fifteen years the continued aggressions of the Slave Power and its continued successes. No wonder, then, that the venerable statesman looked not to the immediate future, but to a coming age, for that awakening of the people which was to precede and procure that breaking of those " bonds of voluntary servitude " he so much deplored, and of whose speedy rupture he was so hopeless. Indeed, his very hopelessness revealed a deeper insight into the nature, workings, and tenacity of the system than did the more positive and confident utterances and anticipations of those who criticised him for his lack of zeal and want of co-operation. There can be little doubt as to his position, had he lived to see the struggle which at once witnessed and attested that awakening, and which resulted in the destruction of what he so thoroughly deprecated and so evidently understood.

Source:  Wilson, Henry, History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America, Vol. 2.  Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1872, 161-164.

Family of John Quincy Adams:

ADAMS, Henry A., Jr., naval officer, born in Pennsylvania in 1833. He entered the naval school at Annapolis in 1849, and was graduated in 1851; became a passed midshipman in 1854, and a master the following year, when, while attached to the sloop of war “Levant,” he took part in the engagement with the forts at the mouth of Canton River, China. He was commissioned as lieutenant in 1856, and was on the “Brooklyn” at the passage of forts St. Philip and Jackson, and the capture of New Orleans in April, 1862. Commissioned as lieutenant-commander and transferred to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, he participated in both the attacks on Fort Fisher, and received the encomium from Admiral Porter in his official despatch of 28 January, 1865, “I recommend the promotion of Lieutenant-Commodore H. A. Adams, without whose aid we should have been brought to a standstill more than once. He volunteered for anything and everything.” After the taking of Richmond he was one of the party that accompanied President Lincoln on his entry into the city. He was commissioned as commander in July, 1866, and was ordered to the store-ship “Guard,” of the European Squadron, where he remained during 1868-'9, and was afterward assigned to duty in 1870 in the U.S. Navy-yard at Philadelphia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I, p.

ADAMS, James Hopkins, statesman, born in South Carolina about 1811; died near Columbia, South Carolina, 27 July, 1861. He was graduated at Yale in 1831. In 1832, during the “nullification” excitement, he strongly opposed the nullifiers in the legislature. After serving in the state senate for several sessions, he was elected governor for the term of l855-'57. He was one of the state commissioners that were chosen, after the ordinance of secession was passed, to treat with the president concerning the disposition of United States property in South Carolina. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I, p. 15.

ADAMS, John, soldier, born in Tennessee in 1825; killed in the battle of Franklin, Tennessee, 30 November, 1864. He was graduated at West Point in 1846, and joined the 1st U.S. Dragoons. He was brevetted 1st lieutenant for gallantry at Santa Cruz de Rosales, Mexico, 16 March, 1848, after several years of frontier duty was promoted to 1st lieutenant, 9 October, 1851, and in 1853 served as aide to the governor of Minnesota with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was promoted captain of 1st Dragoons, 30 November, 1856, but resigned 81 May, 1861, and became a Confederate major-general. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,

ADAMS, Samuel, military surgeon, born in Maine; died in Galveston, Texas, 9 September, 1867. He entered the National Army 16 April, 1862, and, after a year spent in the active duties of the permanent hospitals, joined the Army of the Potomac and served constantly with it until it was disbanded. During his field service he rose from the rank of regimental surgeon to that of medical inspector of the Ninth Army Corps, receiving also a brevet for “meritorious conduct at the capture of Petersburg.” During one of the closing battles of the war, at a time when the brilliant and rapid series of federal successes tended to obscure acts of individual gallantry, Dr. Adams distinguished himself by riding along the advanced line of combatants, and, under the fire of the enemy, dressing the wounds of General Potter, who could not be removed from the spot where he fell, and, but for the action of Surgeon Adams, would have lost his life. At the close of the war Surgeon Adams received an invitation from a wealthy and well-known gentleman to accompany his family on a European tour as his physician; but an application for leave of absence was refused by the war department, on the ground that his services could not be spared. Soon afterward he was ordered to Texas, where yellow fever was epidemic, and his last days were spent among the victims of the disease, of which he died. He was highly esteemed for his Christian character. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 31.

AGNEW, Cornelius Rea, physician, born in New York City, 8 August, 1830; died there, 18 April, 1888. He was graduated at Columbia College in 1849, studied medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and received his degree in 1852. During the following year he was house surgeon, and subsequently curator, at the New York Hospital. After studying in Europe, he was surgeon to the New York Eye and Ear infirmary until 1864. In 1858, he was appointed surgeon general of the state of New York, and at the outbreak of the Civil War he became medical director of the New York state volunteer hospital, in which capacity he performed most efficient service. He was a prominent member of the U. S. Sanitary Commission, and much of its success must be attributed to his labors. In 1868 he established an ophthalmic clinic in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and during the following year he was elected clinical professor of diseases of the eye and ear in the same institution. He founded in 1868 the Brooklyn eye and ear hospital, and in 1869 the Manhattan eye and ear hospital. For several years he was one of the managers of the New York State Hospital for the Insane, at Poughkeepsie. Dr. Agnew exhibited considerable interest in the educational institutions of New York City. In 1859 he was elected a trustee of the public schools, and subsequently he was president of the board. In 1864 he was associated in the establishment of the Columbia College school of mines, and in 1874 became one of the trustees of the college. In 1872 he was elected president of the State Medical Society. He contributed numerous papers to the current medical journals, most of which are devoted to diseases of the eye and ear, and he also published brief monographs and a " Series of American Clinical Lectures," edited by E. C. Seguin, M. D. (New York, 1875). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I,

ALBERT, John S., engineer, born in 1835; died in Philadelphia, 3 July, 1880. He entered the U. S. Navy in 1855 from New York, and was appointed chief engineer in 1861, in which capacity he served during the war with credit. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 39

ALCOTT, Amos Bronson, 1799-1888, abolitionist, educator, writer, philosopher, reformer.  Opposed the Mexican American War and the extension of slavery into Texas.  His home was a station on the Underground Railroad.  His second daughter was noted author Louisa May Alcott, who was also opposed to slavery.  Friend of abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips.  (Baker, 1996; Bedell, 1980; Dahlstrand, 1982; Matteson, 2007; Schreiner, 2006; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 40-41; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 139-141)

ALCOTT, Amos Bronson, educator, born in Wolcott,
Connecticut, 29 November, 1799. His father was a farmer. While yet a boy he was provided with a trunk of various merchandise, and set out to make his way in the south. He landed at Norfolk, Virginia, and went among the plantations, talking with the people and reading their books. They liked him as a companion, and were glad to hold discussions with him on intellectual subjects. They would keep him under their roofs for weeks, reading and conversing, while he forgot all about his commercial duties. But when he returned to the north his employer discovered he had not sold five dollars' worth of his stock. He relinquished his trade in 1823, and established an infant school, which immediately attracted attention. His method of teaching was by conversation, not by books. In 1828, he went to Boston and established another school, showing singular skill and sympathy in his methods of teaching· young children. His success caused him to be widely known, and a sketch of him and his methods, under the title of “A Record of Mr. Alcott's School,” by E. P. Peabody, was published in Boston in 1834 (3d ed., revised, 1874). This was followed in 1836 by a transcript of the colloquies of the children with their teacher, in “Conversations with Children on the Gospel.” His school was so far in advance of the thought of the day that it was denounced by the press, and as a result he gave it up and moved to Concord, Massachusetts, where he devoted himself to the study of natural theology, reform in education, diet, and civil and social institutions. In order to disseminate his reformatory views more thoroughly, he went upon the lecture platform, where he was an attractive speaker, and his personal worth and originality of thought always secured him a respectful hearing. In 1842 he went to England, on the invitation of James P. Greaves, of London, the friend and fellow-laborer of Pestalozzi in Switzerland. Before his arrival Mr. Greaves died, but Mr. Alcott was cordially received by Mr. Greaves's friends, who had given the name of “Alcott House” to their school at Ham, near London. On his return to America, he brought with him two English friends, Charles Lane and H. G. Wright. Mr. Lane bought an estate near Harvard, in Worcester County, Massachusetts, which he named “Fruitlands,” and there all went for the purpose of founding a community, but the enterprise was a failure. Messrs. Lane and Wright soon returned to England, and the property was sold. Mr. Alcott moved to Boston, and afterward returned to Concord. He has since then led the life of a peripatetic philosopher, conversing in cities and villages, wherever invited, on divinity, human nature, ethics, dietetics, and a wide range of practical questions. These conversations, which were at first casual, gradually assumed a more formal character. The topics were often printed on cards, and the company met at a fixed time and place. Of late years they have attracted much attention. Mr. Alcott has all through his life attached great importance to diet and government of the body, and still more to race and complexion. He has been regarded as a leader in the transcendental style of thought, but in later years has been claimed as a convert to orthodox Christianity. He has published “Tablets” (1868); “Concord Days,” personal reminiscences of the town (1872); “Table Talk” (1877); and “Sonnets and Canzonets” (1877), besides numerous contributions to periodical literature, including papers entitled “Orphic Sayings” in “The Dial” (Boston, 1839-'42). After taking up his residence in Concord, he allowed the peculiarities of his mind to find expression in quaint and curious arrangement of his grounds. The fence enclosing them, built entirely by himself, is made wholly of pine boughs, knotted, gnarled, and twisted in every conceivable shape, no two pieces being alike. They seem to be the result of many years of fragmentary collection in his walks. The engraving presented on the previous page is a view of Mr. Alcott's home in Concord, Massachusetts Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888. Pp. 40-41.

ALCOTT, Louisa May, 1832-1888, writer, opponent of slavery, feminist.  Author of Little Women: Or Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy (1868).  Daughter of abolitionist Amos Bronson Alcott. Their home was a station on the Underground Railroad.  (Eisenlein, 2001; MacDonald, 1983; Saxton, 1977; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 41; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, p. 141)

ALCOTT, Louisa May,
author, born in Germantown, now a part of Philadelphia, 29 November, 1832. She is a daughter of Amos Bronson Alcott. When she was about two years of age her parents moved to Boston, and in her eighth year to Concord, Massachusetts At the age of eleven she was brought under the influence of the community that endeavored to establish itself near Harvard, in Worcester County Thoreau was for a time her teacher; but she was instructed mainly by her father. She began to write for publication at the age of sixteen, but with no marked success for fifteen years. During that time she devoted ten years to teaching. In 1862 she went to Washington as a volunteer nurse, and for many months labored in the military hospitals. At this time she wrote to her mother and sisters letters containing sketches of hospital life and experience, which on her return were revised and published in book form (Boston, 1863), and attracted much attention. In 1866 she went to Europe to recuperate her health, which had been seriously impaired by her hospital work, and on her return in 1867 she wrote “Little Women,” which was published the following year, and made her famous. The sales in less than three years amounted to 87,000 copies. Her characters are drawn from life, and are full of the buoyant, free, hopeful New England spirit which marks her own enthusiastic love for nature, freedom, and life. Her other stories are conceived in the same vein, and have been almost equally popular. They are: “Flower Fables or Fairy Tales” (Boston, 1855); '”Hospital Sketches,” her first book, now out of print, reissued with other stories (1869); “An Old-Fashioned Girl” (1869); “Little Men” (1871); a series called “Aunt Jo's Scrap Bag” (1871-'82), containing “My Boys,” “Shawl Straps,” “Cupid and Chow-Chow,” “My Girls,” “Jimmy's Cruise in the Pinafore,” and “An Old-Fashioned Thanksgiving”; “Work, A Story of Experience” (1873); “Eight Cousins” (1874); “Rose in Bloom” (1876); “Silver Pitchers” (1876); “Under the Lilacs” (1878); “Jack and Gill” (1880); “Moods” (1864), reissued in a revised edition (1881); “Proverb Stories” (1882); “Spinning- Wheel Stories” (1884); “Lulu's Library,” the first of a new series (1885). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888 p.41.

ALDEN, James, naval officer, born in Portland, Maine, 31 March, 1810  died in San Francisco, California, 6 February, 1877. He was appointed midshipman in 1828, and in that capacity accompanied the Wilkes Exploring Expedition around the world in 1838-'42. He was commissioned lieutenant in 1841, and served during the Mexican War, being present at the capture of Vera Cruz, Tuxpan, and Tabasco. In 1855-56 he was actively engaged in the Indian War on Puget's Sound. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was in command of the steamer "South Carolina," re-enforced Fort Pickens, Florida, and was in an engagement at Galveston, Texas. He commanded the sloop of war " Richmond " at the passage of Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the capture of New Orleans (April, 1862). and was also at Port Hudson. He was made captain in 1863, and commanded the " Brooklyn," participating in the capture of Mobile Bay (August, 1864) and in the two attacks on Fort Fisher. He was commissioned commodore in 1866, and two years later was placed in charge of the U.S. Navy-yard at Mare Island, California In 1869 he was appointed chief of the bureau of navigation and detail in the U.S. Navy Department. He was promoted to the rank of rear admiral in 1871, and assigned command of the European Squadron. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I,
pp. 42.

ALDEN, Joseph W., 1807-1885, educator, clergyman, writer. (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 42. Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 147-148.)

ALDEN, Joseph, educator, born in Cairo, New York, 4 January, 1807; died in New York, 30 August, 1885. At the age of fourteen he began teaching in a public school and showed great ability in this direction. He was graduated at Union College in 1829, and studied at Princeton Theological Seminary, where for two years he was tutor. In 1834 he was ordained pastor of the Congregational Church in Williamstown, Massachusetts, and subsequently (1835-'52) became professor of Latin, and then of rhetoric and political economy, in Williams College. From 1852 to 1857 he was professor of mental and moral philosophy at Lafayette College. In 1857 he became president of Jefferson College, and from 1867 to 1872 he was principal of the Albany, New York, Normal School. He was a prolific writer, and prepared more than 70 volumes, mostly
Sunday-school literature. Among his works are “The Example of Washington,” “Citizen's Manual,” “Christian Ethics,” “The Science of Government,” “Elements of Intellectual Philosophy,” and “First Steps in Political Economy.” He was also a constant contributor to periodical literature and for some time editor of the New York "Observer” and of the Philadelphia “Christian Library.” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 42.

ALEXANDER, Archer, freedman, born near Richmond, Virginia, about 1810  died in St. Louis, Missouri, 8 December 1879. He was a slave, and fled to St. Louis, then under martial law, in 1863, and was formally liberated the same year. He served as the model for " the freedman" in the bronze group by Thomas Ball, standing in the capitol grounds in Washington, and known as "Freedom's Memorial." In 1831 he was taken to Missouri by his young master. During the reign of terror in that state at the outbreak of the war he learned that the pro-slavery party had cut the timbers of a certain bridge so that it should break down under a train carrying a detachment of national troops about to pass over it. At the risk of his life he conveyed the information to a well-known union man, and the detachment was saved. Alexander was suspected as the informant and arrested by a pro-slavery committee. He made his escape to and secured employment in St. Louis under a provost marshal's certificate. Until the Emancipation Proclamation assured his permanent freedom he was in constant danger from kidnappers. Although almost wholly illiterate, he had a shrewd intelligence and was a skilled and efficient workman. A stone commemorating his capture as a fugitive slave has been raised on the spot where he was taken when making his escape from slavery. See " The Story of Archer Alexander" (Boston, 1886). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I,
p. 43.

ALEXANDER, Barton Stone, soldier, born in Kentucky in 1819; died in San Francisco, California, 15 December, 1878. He was appointed to the U. S. Military Academy from Kentucky, was graduated in 1842, and became lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. He superintended the repairs at various fortifications, and also in the erection of Minot's Ledge Lighthouse, at the entrance of Boston Harbor. During the Civil War he served as engineer in the construction of the defences of Washington, took part in the Manassas Campaign of 1861, and was brevetted major for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Bull Run. He continued with the Army of the Potomac, rendering important aid at the siege of Yorktown, for which he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel in 1862. In 1864 he was consulting engineer with General Sheridan's army, and in 1865 was made brevet brigadier-general for meritorious services during the war. For the next two years he had charge of the construction of most of the public works in Maine, when he became senior engineer with the rank of lieutenant-colonel and member of the Pacific Board of Engineers. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I, p. 46.

ALEXANDER, Edmund Brooke, soldier, born in Hay Market, Prince William County, Virginia, 2 October, 1802 ; died in Washington, D. C, 3 January, 1888. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1823. After twenty years of frontier and garrison duty he had an opportunity for service in Mexico, where he won a major's brevet at Cerro Gordo (18 April, 1847), and a lieutenant-colonel's at Contreras and Churubusco (20 August, 1847). He became major of the 8th U.S. Infantry, 10 November, 1851, and colonel of the 10th U.S. Infantry, a new regiment, 3 March, 1855. In 1857-"58 he commanded the Utah Expedition until relieved by General Johnston. During the Civil War he was retained at St. Louis on provost-marshal's duty, involving delicate and responsible administration of important matters. He was also superintendent of the volunteer recruiting service, and chief mustering and disbursing officer for Missouri. He was brevetted brigadier-general, 13 March, 1865, and commanded his regiment at Fort Snelling till retirement, 22 February, 1869, by operation of law. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,
p. 46.

ALGER, Cyrus, inventor, born in West Bridge- water, Massachusetts, 11 November, 1781; died in Boston, 4 February, 1856. Early in life he became an iron founder, and established his business in Easton, Massachusetts In 1801) he moved to South Boston, where he founded the works that since 1817 have been known as the South Boston Iron Company. He supplied the government with large numbers of cannon-balls during the war of 1812, and his works became famed for the excellent ordnance there manufactured. He was one of the best practical metallurgists of his time, and his numerous patents of improved processes show continued advance in the art practised by him. The first gun ever rifled in America was made at his works in 1834, and the first perfect bronze cannon was made at his foundry for the U. S. Ordnance Department. The mortar “Columbiad,” the largest gun of cast iron that had then been made in the United States, was cast under his personal supervision. Mr. Alger also devised numerous improvements in the construction of time fuses for bomb-shells and grenades. In 1811 he patented a method of making cast-iron chilled rolls, and in 1822 first designed cylinder stoves. He is said to have been the first manufacturer to introduce the ten-hour system in South Boston. Mr. Alger was both liberal and charitable, and was prominent in various projects beneficial to South Boston. He served as a member of the city council during the first year of its existence, and was elected alderman in 1824 and 1827. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 48-49

ALGER, Horatio, Jr., author, born in Revere, Massachusetts, 13 January, 1834. He was graduated at Harvard in 1852 and spent three years in journalism and teaching, and another three years (1857–60) at the Cambridge theological school, paying his way by his contributions to the press. The greater part of the following year (1861) was devoted to European travel, when he returned to Cambridge, and until December, 1864, was a private tutor. On 8 December of that year he received ordination as pastor over the Unitarian Church in Brewster, Massachusetts. Taking up his residence in New York in 1866, he became interested in the condition of the street boys, and this experience gave form to many of his later writings. He has contributed largely to periodical literature, and has published in book form “Bertha's Christmas Vision” (Boston, 1855); “Nothing to Do; a Tilt at our Best Society,” a poem (1857); “Frank's Campaign, or, What a Boy can do” (Boston, 1864); several series of books for the young, about forty volumes, including lives of Webster, Lincoln, and Garfield; “Paul Preston's Charge” (1865); “Helen Ford,” a novel (1866); and a volume of poems. “Rag Dick,” “Luck and Pluck,” and “Tattered Tom ” are the most popular of his series for boys.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 49.

ALGER, Russell Alexander
, governor of Michigan, born in Lafayette, Medina County, Ohio, 27 February, 1836. He was left an orphan at eleven years of age, worked on a farm till he was eighteen, attending school in the winters, and then, after teaching, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1859. He began to practice in Cleveland, but was forced by impaired health to remove to Grand Rapids, Michigan, where he engaged in the lumber business. He became captain in the 2d Michigan Cavalry at the beginning of the Civil War, and at Boonesville. Mississippi, 1 July, 1862, was sent by Philip H. Sheridan, then colonel of that regiment, to attack the enemy's rear with ninety picked men. The Confederates were routed, but Captain. Alger was wounded and taken prisoner. He escaped on the same day, and on 16 October was made lieutenant-colonel of the 6th Michigan Cavalry. On 28 February, 1863, he became colonel of the 5th Michigan Cavalry, and on 28 June his command was the first to enter the town of Gettysburg. He was specially mentioned in General Custer's report of the cavalry operations there, and in the pursuit of the enemy he was severely wounded at Boonesborough, Maryland, on 8 July. He was with Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley in 1864, and on 11 June, at Trevillian station, by a brilliant charge, he captured a large force of Confederates. On 11 June, 1865, he was given the brevets of brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers. He then resumed the lumber business in Detroit, Michigan, and has acquired a fortune, serving also as president or director of various corporations. His great pine forest on Lake Huron comprises more than 100 square miles and produces annually more than 75,000,000 feet of lumber. In 1884 he was the successful Republican candidate for governor of the state, serving from 1885 till 1887. In March, 1897, General Alger was appointed Secretary of War in President McKinley's cabinet. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 49.

ALLAN, William T., 1810-1882, born in Tennessee, Alabama, clergyman, abolitionist leader, Oberlin College, Illinois, anti-slavery agent.  His father, John Allan, was a pastor in Huntsville, Alabama, who owned 15 slaves.  John Allan supported the Colonization movement and was a member and co-founder of the Alabama Society for the Emancipation of Slavery.  William Allan became a Lecturing Agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS).  Charter Member of the Ohio Anti-Slavery Society in April 1835.  He graduated from Oberlin College in 1836.  He lectured in New York, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, and Illinois.  He organized chapters of the new Liberty Party in Iowa and Illinois in 1840.  His home in Illinois was a station on the Underground Railroad.  His father died in 1843, and freed his slaves in his will. (Dumond, 1961, pp. 92-93, 160-164, 185-186; Filler, 1960, p. 68)

ALLEN, Reverend George, 1808-1876, Worcester, Massachusetts, educator, theologian, anti-slavery agent.  Lectured extensively against slavery. (Dumond, 1961, pp. 187, 285, 393n20; Rice, 1883; Zilversmit, 1967, pp. 99, 104, 153; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 52. Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 190-191.)

ALLEN, George, educator, born in Milton, Vermont, 17 December, 1808; died in Worcester, Massachusetts, 28 May, 1876. He was graduated at the University of Vermont in 1827, studied law, and was admitted to practice in 1831. Subsequently he studied theology, and from 1834 to 1837 was rector of an Episcopal Church at St. Albans, Vermont In 1837 he became professor of ancient languages in Delaware College, Newark, Delaware, and in 1845 professor of ancient languages, and then of Greek alone, in the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Prof. Allen published a “Life of Philidor,” the chess-player (Philadelphia, 1863). In 1847 he became a Catholic. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 52.

ALLEN, Harrison, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 17 April, 1841  died there, 14 November, 1897. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1861, in 1862 became assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army, and served with the h of the Potomac until March, 1863, when he was transferred to hospital duty at Washington, where he remained until his resignation in December, 1865, and attained the brevet rank of major. From 1865 to 1878 he was professor of comparative anatomy and medical zoology in the University of Pennsylvania, and since then he has filled the chair of physiology. In 1867 he was elected professor of anatomy and surgery in the Philadelphia dental College, and in 1870 surgeon to the Philadelphia Hospital and secretary of its medical board. He is a member of numerous medical societies, and was a delegate from the Centennial Commission to the International Medical Congress. His contributions to the various medical journals relate chiefly to osteomyelitis, human anatomy, and morbid anatomy, he has published "Outlines of Comparative Anatomy and Medical Zoology" (Philadelphia, 1867), " Studies in the Facial Region " (1874), and "An Analysis of the Life-form in Art" (1875). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,
p. 52.

ALLEN, Henry Watkins, soldier and statesman, born in Prince Edward County, Virginia, 29 April, 1820; died in the city of Mexico, 22 April, 1860. His father, a physician of note, moved to Lexington, Missouri, while Henry was young. The latter, at his solicitation, was taken from the shop where he was employed and placed in Marion College, Missouri, but, in consequence of a dispute with his father, he ran away and became a teacher in Grand Gulf, Mississippi Then he studied law, and was in successful practice in 1842 when President Houston called for volunteers in the Texan War against Mexico. He raised a company, and acquitted himself well during the campaign, then resumed his practice in Grand Gulf, and was elected to the legislature in 1846. He settled a few years later on an estate in West Baton Rouge, and was elected to the Louisiana Legislature in 1853. A year later he went to Cambridge University to pursue a course of legal studies. In 1859 he went to Europe with the intention of taking part in the Italian struggle for independence, but arrived too late. He made a tour through Europe, the incidents of which are recounted in "Travels of a Sugar Planter." He was elected to the legislature during his absence, and on returning took a prominent part in the business of that body. He had been a Whig in politics, but had joined the Democratic Party when Buchanan was nominated for president in 1856. When the Civil War broke out he volunteered in the Confederate service, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and was stationed for some time at Ship Island. He was subsequently made colonel of the 4th Louisiana Regiment, and was appointed military governor of Jackson. He fought gallantly at Shiloh, where he was wounded. At Vicksburg he rendered important service in the construction of fortifications, a part of the time under fire. At the battle of Baton Rouge he commanded a brigade, where he was badly wounded in both legs by a shell. On his recovery he was commissioned a brigadier-general, in September, 1864, and almost immediately afterward was elected governor of Louisiana. He arranged to have the cotton tax to the Confederate government paid in kind, and opened a route by which cotton was exported through Texas to Mexico, and medicine, clothing, and other articles introduced into the state. These necessities were sold at moderate prices and given to the poor. In the suppression of the manufacture of liquor and other similar measures Governor Allen exercised dictatorial powers. After the war he settled in Mexico and established an English paper, the " Mexican Times." See  Recollections of Henry W. Allen," by Sarah A. Dorsey (New York, 1867). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,
p. 53.

ALLISON, William B., Senator, born in Perry, Wayne Co.,  2 March, 1829. He spent his early years on a farm, and was educated at Alleghany College, Pennsylvania, and Western Reserve College, Ohio. He studied law, and practised in Ohio until 1857, when he went to Dubuque, Iowa. He was a delegate to the Chicago Convention of 1860, a member of the governor's staff in 1861, and rendered valuable service in raising troops for the war. He was elected in 1862 to the 38th Congress, as a Republican, and returned for the three succeeding Congresses, serving in the House of Representatives from 7 December, 1863, till 3 March, 1871. In 1878 he was elected to the U. S. Senate, as a Republican, for the term ending in 1879, and he has been twice reelected. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 53.

ALLEN, William G., born 1820, free African American abolitionist, publisher and editor. Manager and founding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society in December 1833.  Publisher with Henry Highland Garnet of The National Watchman, Troy, New York, founded 1842. (Filler, 1960, pp. 142, 249, 261; Mabee, 1970, pp. 107, 109; Rodriguez, 2007, p. 48; Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 1, p. 346; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 1, p. 127)

ALLEY, John B., 1817-1896, Lynn, Massachusetts, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1863-1876, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery.  Alley was a member of the Liberty and Free Soil Parties. (Congressional Globe)

ALLISON, William Boyd, 1829-1909, Republican, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives 1863-1871, U.S. Senator, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. I, p. 58; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 220-222; Congressional Globe)

ALLISON, William Boyd, Senator, born in Perry, Wayne County, 2 March, 1829. He spent his early years on a farm, and was educated at Alleghany College, Pennsylvania, and Western Reserve College, Ohio. He studied law, and practised in Ohio until 1857, when he went to Dubuque, Iowa. He was a delegate to the Chicago Convention of 1860, a member of the governor's staff in 1861, and rendered valuable service in raising troops for the war. He was elected in 1862 to the 38th Congress, as a Republican, and returned for the three succeeding Congresses, serving in the House of Representatives from 7 December, 1863, till 3 March, 1871. In 1873 he was elected to the U. S. Senate, as a Republican, for the term ending in 1879, and he has been twice reelected.  (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. I, p. 58. Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936.)

ALMY, John J., naval officer, born in Rhode Island, 25 April, 1814. He entered the U. S. Navy  as a midship-man in 1829, and rose through the successive grades to be commodore, 30 December, 1869, and rear-admiral 24 August, 1873. He was retired in July, 1876, after fifty-six years and eleven months of service. As midshipmen and lieutenant he cruised all over the world in the old sailing navy, was at the surrender of Walker and his filibusters, commanded the “Fulton” in the expedition to Paraguay, was at the siege of Vera Cruz and the capture of Tuxpan during the Mexican War, and at the Navy-yard, Brooklyn, New York, in 1861–62. As commander he had charge successively of the gunboats “South Carolina,” “Connecticut,” and “Juniata.” While in command of the “Connecticut.” he captured four noted blockade-runners with valuable cargoes, and ran ashore and destroyed four others. As captain he commanded the “Juniata" which was in the South Atlantic Squadron, until 1867, and was then assigned to the Brooklyn U. S. Navy-yard, then the Signal Corps, and after a cruise in the Pacific was retired, 24 April, 1877. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 59.

ALVORD, Benjamin, soldier, born in Rutland, Vermont, 18 August. 1813; died 16 October, 1884. He was graduated at West Point in 1833, joined the 4th Infantry, served in the Seminole War (1835-'37), was instructor in mathematics and physics at West Point until 1839, and was on frontier, garrison, and engineer duty until 1846, when he participated in the military occupation of Texas, and subsequently in the war with Mexico. He received the successive brevets of captain and major for gallantry in several of the more important engagements, and was chief of staff to Majors Tally's column on the march from Vera Cruz to Mexico in 1847. He was made pay-master 22 June, 1854, and served as such until 1862, when he became a brigadier-general of volunteers, which grade he resigned 8 August, 1865. He was brevetted brigadier in the regular army in April, 1865, and was made chief paymaster of the District of Omaha 25 May, 1867. He is the author of several treatises on mathematics and of numerous essays and reviews. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 62

ALVORD, Corydon A., printer, born in Winchester, Connecticut, about 1812; died in Hartford, Connecticut, 28 November, 1874. He learned his trade in Hartford, and in 1845 moved to New York, where he made a specialty of printing illustrated books, gaining a high reputation. His establishment on Vandewater St. was one of the most extensive in the country. Among its features were fonts of ancient and oriental letter, together with fonts of old-style type, which enabled him to make reprints or facsimiles of old books and newspapers. There were monster vaults deep underground, and extending under adjacent buildings, forming a series of immense storage-rooms guarded by thick walls and iron doors as thoroughly protected as the treasury vaults. These were for the storage of stereotype plates and valuable engravings. He began a reprint of the old records of the city of New York, but the work was not finished, owing to changes in the recorder's office. In the reproduction of old books and papers he succeeded in copying the discolorations made by age. in a remarkable degree. He was an active member of the Typographical Society, and president of the Typothetae. He acquired a competence, which was subsequently lost through the misconduct of others. In 1871 he retired from business, went to Hartford, and devoted his remaining years to the preparation of a local history of Hartford and Winchester. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 62

ALVORD, John Watson, 1807-1880, abolitionist, anti-slavery agent, clergyman. Congregational minister.  Worked around Ohio area.  Secretary, Boston Tract Society.  Chaplain with General Sheridan’s Union Forces in Civil War.  Worked with former slaves.  (Dumond, 1961, pp. 164, 185; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 1, p. 399)

AMES, Adelbert, soldier, born in Rockland, Maine, 31 October, 1835. He was graduated at West Point in 1861, and assigned to the 5th Artillery. He was wounded at the battle of Bull Run and brevetted for gallantry in that action, and was present at the siege of Yorktown, and the battles of Gaines's Mills, Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Antietam, and Gettysburg, besides many of the minor engagements in Virginia throughout the Civil War. He was brevetted colonel for gallantry, and commanded a brigade, and at times a division in the army of the Potomac, and in the operation before Petersburg in 1864. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers for his conduct at the capture of Fort Fisher, 18 March, 1865, and brevetted major-general, U. S. Army, for "gallant and meritorious conduct in the field during the rebellion," and on 30 April, 1866, mustered out of the volunteer service. On 28 July, 1866, he was promoted to the full rank of lieutenant-colonel, 24th Infantry. On 15 July, 1868, he was appointed provisional governor of Mississippi, under acts of Congress providing for such temporary government, and on 17 March, 1869, his command extended to include the 4th Military District. The lately insurrectionary states were at the time divided into five such districts, each with a general officer in command, and a military force at his disposal. Mississippi was among the last of the states to comply with the conditions of reconstruction, and in the interval the community drifted into a state bordering upon anarchy, the provisional governor at times interfering in the interest of order. Un- der his direction an election was held 30 November, 1869, and on 11 January, 1870, the legislature was convened by his direction. General Ames was elected U. S. Senator for the unexpired term from 4 March, 1869. In 1873 he was chosen governor of Mississippi by a popular vote, and resigned his seat in the Senate. His administration was so repugnant to the Democrats—or, in other words, to the white population—that between them and the Republicans, mostly blacks, a feeling of hostility arose so bitter that it culminated in a serious riot in Vicksburg, 7 December, 1873, and this was followed by atrocities all over the state, consisting for the most part in the punishment, often in the murder, of obnoxious Republicans, white and black. The civil officers were unable to enforce the laws, and Governor Ames appealed to the general government for aid. Upon this, despatches of the most contradictory character were forwarded to Washington by the opposing parties, and, pending an investigation by Congress, affairs were in a deplorable state of disorganization. An election held in November resulted in a general defeat of the Republicans, both branches of the legislature becoming distinctly democratic. Governor Ames held that this election was largely carried by intimidation and fraud, and vainly sought to secure Congressional interference. Soon after the legislature convened in January, 1876, articles of impeachment were prepared against all the executive officers, and, pending the trials, the machinery of state government was nearly at a standstill. Governor Ames, seeing that conviction was inevitable, offered through his counsel to resign, provided the articles of impeachment were withdrawn. This was done, and he resigned at once and moved to Minnesota.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 63-64.

AMES, Mary Clemmer (Mrs. Hudson), author, born in Utica, New York, in 1839; died in Washington, D. C.; 18 August, 1884. She was educated at Westfield (Massachusetts) Academy, and when very young began to write for the “Springfield Republican.” Afterward she became a correspondent of the New York “Independent,” to which, under the title of “A Woman's Letter from Washington,” she regularly contributed for many years. Through these letters she was best known in the literary world. At an early she married the Reverend Daniel Ames, from whom she was afterward divorced. She was intimate with Alice and Phoebe Cary, whose biographies she wrote. She also published monographs on Charles Sumner, Margaret Fuller, George Eliot, Emerson, and Longfellow. She wrote three novels,  “Victoria” (New York, 1864), “Eirene” (1870), and “His Two Wives” (1874); “Ten Years in Washington” (1871), “Outlines of Men, Women, and Things” (1873), and a volume of poems (Boston, 1882). With the earnings of her pen she bought a house in Washington, which was a social as well as a literary centre for many years, and in 1883 she married Edmund Hudson, editor and proprietor of the “Army and Navy Register.” She was thrown from a carriage in 1878, and received injuries from which she never wholly recovered. A complete edition of her works, in four volumes, was published in Boston in 1885, and a memorial by her husband in 1886. She was an earnest and conscientious writer, and exercised a powerful and healthful influence upon public affairs. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 65.

AMES, Nathan P,, manufacturer, born in 1803; died in Cabotville, Massachusetts, 23 April, 1847. He established a cutlery business in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, in 1829, and became known as a skilful sword-maker, furnishing large numbers by contract to the U. S. government. His business having increased, he moved to Cabotville, Massachusetts, and with his associates incorporated in 1834 the Ames Manufacturing Company. In 1836 the works were supplemented by the addition of a foundry for casting bronze cannon and church-bells. This establishment soon became famous, and furnished most of the brass cannon for the U. S. Army. The statues of De Witt Clinton, in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York, of Washington, in Union Sq., New York, and of Franklin, in School St., Boston, Massachusetts, were cast at this foundry. In 1840 Mr. Ames visited Europe for the purpose of inspecting the various armories and of acquiring the latest information in regard to improved processes. In 1854 he received an important order from the British government for machines used in the manufacture of muskets.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 65.

AMES, Oakes, 1804-1873, manufacturer, businessman, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, 2nd Massachusetts District 1862-1873, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 65-66; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 251-253; Oakes, Ames, A Memoir, 1883; Congressional Globe)

AMES, Oakes, manufacturer, born in Easton, Massachusetts,
10 January, 1804; died in North Easton, Massachusetts, 8 May, 1873. He was the eldest son of Oliver Ames, a blacksmith, who had acquired considerable reputation in the making of shovels and picks. After obtaining a public-school education, he entered his father's workshops and made himself familiar with every step of the manufacture. He became a partner in the business, and with his brother, Oliver, Jr., established the firm of Oliver Ames & Sons. This house carried on an enormous trade during the gold excitement in California, and again a few years later in Australia. During the Civil War they furnished extensive supplies of swords and shovels to the government. In the building of the Union Pacific Railroad they were directly interested, and obtained large contracts, which were subsequently transferred to the Credit Mobilier of America, a corporation in which Oakes Ames was one of the largest stockholders. In 1861 he was called into the executive council of Massachusetts. He served continuously in Congress from 1862 to 1873 as representative from the 2d Massachusetts District. His relations with the Credit Mobilier led to an investigation, which resulted in his being censured by a vote of the House of Representatives. Subsequent to his withdrawal from political life he resided at North Easton, where he died of apoplexy. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 65-66.

AMES, Oliver, manufacturer, born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, 5 November, 1807; died in North Easton, Massachusetts, 9 March, 1877, was a member of the Massachusetts State Senate during 1852 and 1857. He was largely interested with his brother in the development of the Union Pacific Railroad, and was its president pro-tem, from 1866 until 1868. He was formally elected president of the company on 12 March, 1868, and continued as such until 8 March, 1871. He was connected with the Credit Mobilier, and in 1873 succeeded his brother as the head of the firm. [Brother of  Oakes Ames]. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 66

AMES, Samuel, jurist, born in Providence. Rhode Island, 6 Sept, 1806, died there, 20 December, 1865. He was prepared for college at Phillips Andover Academy, and was graduated at Brown in 1823. After graduation he attended the law lectures of Judge Gould at Litchfield. Connecticut, and became a member of the Rhode Island bar in 1826. He served in the Providence City Council, was for many years in the state assembly, and was elected speaker of that body in 1844 and 1845. In 1839 he married Mary Throop Dorr, a daughter of Thomas Wilson Dorr, famous as the leader of the rebellion in 1842. But this did not prevent Mr. Ames from taking a stand on the side of law and order, and he served as quartermaster of the state troops during the whole period of disturbance. In 1853 he was appointed by the legislature to represent the state in adjusting the boundary between Rhode Island and Massachusetts. In 1855 he was one of the commissioners to revise the statutes of Rhode Island, a work that was completed in 1857 mainly under his supervision. He was elected chief justice of the state supreme court in May, 1856, and resigned the office in November, 1865, because of failing health. He was a delegate to the Peace Convention in 1861. The law books of which he was author or editor are "Agnell and Ames on Corporations" and "Rhode Island Reports " (vols. 4 to 7). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 66.

Ammen, Daniel, Union naval officer
AMMEN, Daniel, naval officer, born in Ohio, 15 May, 1820. He was appointed midshipman 7 July, 1836, and served as passed midshipman in the Wilkes Exploring Expedition, in the Mediterranean, in the East India Squadron, and on the coast survey. As lieutenant (from 4 November, 1849) he was attached to a commission to select a naval station on the Pacific coast, accompanied the expedition to Paraguay River in 1853-'54, and was on the steam frigate " Merrimac " in 1859-'60. In 1861, at the out- break of the Civil War, he was executive officer of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. At the reduction of Port Royal, 7 November, 1861, he commanded the " Seneca," and was sent ashore to hoist the flag over the surrendered forts, and hold them, till the army took possession. He was promoted to be commander 21 February, 1863, was assigned to the monitor " Patapsco," and participated in the attack on Fort McAllister, 3 March, 1863. In May, 1864, he was despatched to the Pacific in command of 220 seamen as passengers on board a California steamer. Two days out from New York a well-organized attempt at mutiny was suppressed by Com. Ammen and Boatswain Bell, aided by Captain Tinklepaugh, of the steamer, and a few volunteer from among the passengers. He participated u the two attacks on Fort Fisher in the winter of 1864-'65, was commissioned captain 26 July, 1861 and was on special and sea service until 11 December 1877, when he was made rear-admiral and was placed on the retired list after 49 years and 6 months of service. He is the author of “The Atlantic Coast,” a volume in the series entitled “The Navy in the Civil War” (New York, 1883). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 66-67.

AMMEN, Jacob, soldier, born in Botetourt County, Virginia, 7 January, 1808. He was graduated at West Point in 1831, and served there as assistant instructor in mathematics, and afterward of infanty tactics until 31 August, 1832. During the threaten “nullification ” of South Carolina he was on duty in Charleston Harbor. From 4 October, 1834, to November, 1837, he was again at West Point as an instructor, and he resigned from the army, 30 November, 1837, to accept a professorship of mathematics at Bacon College, Georgetown, Kentucky Thence he went to Jefferson College, Washington, Miss., in 1839, to the University of Indiana in 1840, to Jefferson College again in 1843, and returned to Bacon College in 1848. From 1855 to 1861 he was a civil engineer at Ripley, Ohio, and on April 18 of that ear became captain in the 12th Ohio Volunteers. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel 2 May, and participated in the West Virginia Campaign (June and July) under McClellan, where the first considerable federal successes of the war were gained. After the campaigns in Tennessee and Mississippi he was promoted to be brigadier-general of volunteers 16 July, 1862, and was in command of camps of instruction in Ohio and Illinois until 16 December, 1863. From 10 April, 1864, to 14 January, 1865, when he resigned, he was in command of the District of East Tennessee. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 67

AMORY, Thomas J. C., soldier, born in Massachusetts about 1830; died of yellow fever in Newbern, North Carolina, 8 October, 1864. He was graduated at West Point in 1851, and served on garrison and frontier duty in the Utah Expedition (1858–60), and on recruiting service until 1861, when he became colonel of the 17th Massachusetts Volunteers. He was stationed at Baltimore with his regiment until March, 1862, when he was ordered to North Carolina and took part in the operations about Newbern, Beaufort, Goldsboro, and Kinston, until 1 March, 1864, when he was assigned to a general command of the forces south of the Trent River, and on 5 July to the Sub-District of Beaufort. He was promoted to be major 19 September, and was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers 1 October. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 67.

ANDERSON, George B., soldier, born in Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1831; died in Raleigh, North Carolina, 16 October, 1862. He was graduated at West Point in 1852, and was appointed brevet 2d lieutenant in the 2d Dragoons, promoted to be 1st lieutenant in 1855, and in 1858 appointed adjutant of his regiment. He resigned in April, 1861, and entered the Confederate Army, where he was soon appointed brigadier-general and given direction of coast defences in North Carolina. At the battle of Antietam, where he commanded a brigade, he received a wound in the foot, which eventually proved fatal.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 68

ANDERSON, James Patton, soldier, born in Tennessee about 1820; died in Memphis in 1873. He served in Mexico, commanding Mississippi volunteers, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He afterward settled at Olympia, Washington territory, and sat in the House of Representatives as a delegate from that territory in 1855-57. He held the rank of brigadier-general in the Confederate Army, distinguished himself at Shiloh and Stone River, and was promoted to major-general 17 February, 1864, was assigned to the command of the District of Florida, and subsequently commanded a division in Polk's corps. Army of the Tennessee. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 69.

ANDERSON, Lucien, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Congressional Globe)

ANDERSON, Martin Brewer, educator, born in Brunswick, Maine , 12 February, 1815. He was graduated at Waterville College in 1840, and then studied for a year in the theological seminary at Newton, Massachusetts In the following year he was appointed tutor of Latin, Greek, and mathematics at Waterville, and subsequently professor of rhetoric. He also organized and taught the course in modern history. In 1850 he resigned  his professorship and , became proprietor and editor of the “New York Recorder,” a weekly Baptist journal. In 1853 he accepted the presidency of the University of Rochester, which office he still occupies (1886), teaching the departments of psychology and political science. He travelled in Europe in 1862-63. He has published numerous literary and philosophical articles. He is a powerful public speaker, and during the Civil War rendered notable service in arousing and sustaining the sentiment of loyalty to the government and the determination to carry the struggle through to a successful close. He was a member of the New York state board of charities for thirteen years, and is one of the commissioners of the State Reservation at Niagara Falls.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 69-70

ANDERSON, Osborne Perry, 1830-1872, African American abolitionist, member of African American Chatham Community in Ontario, Canada.  Wrote anti-slavery articles for Provincial Freedman for Black community.  Was part of John Brown’s raid at the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, October 16, 1859; hanged with John Brown, 1859. (Rodriguez, 2007, p. 327; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., & Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, eds. African American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2013, Vol. 1, p. 181)

ANDERSON, Richard Henry, soldier, born in South Carolina in 1816; died in Beaufort, 26 June, 1879. On graduation at West Point in 1842, he was assigned to the 2d Dragoons, and served on frontier and garrison duty until 1845, when he joined the expedition for the military occupation of Texas. In the war with Mexico he took part in the siege of Vera Cruz and the various operations preceding  and including the capture of the city of Mexico, 12–14 September, 1847. He became first lieutenant of the 2d Dragoons 13 July, 1848, and captain 3 March, 1855, served frequently at the cavalry school for practice at Carlisle barracks, and was on duty in Kansas during the border troubles of 1856– '57. He was on duty at Fort Kearney, Nebraska, from 1859 to 1861, when he resigned, 3 March, to accept a brigadier's commission from the Confederate government. He was promoted to major-general in August, 1862, and given the command of the 5th Division of Bragg's army in Tennessee, but was soon ordered to the army of Virginia, and was wounded at Antietam. He commanded a division at Gettysburg 1–3 July, 1863, and was promoted to lieutenant-general in May, 1864. It was his unexpected night march (because he could not find a suitable place to encamp) that took the van of Lee's army to the defences of Spottsylvania before Grant could reach that place, and thus prolonged a campaign that might otherwise have ended there with a decisive battle. General Anderson took a prominent part in the defence of Petersburg, and in the closing engagements that preceded the surrender, commanded the 4th Corps of the Confederate Army under Lee. After the war he remained in private life.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 71.

ANDERSON, Robert, soldier, born at “Soldier's Retreat,” near Louisville, Kentucky, 14 June, 1805; died in Nice, France, 27 October, 1871. He graduated at West Point in 1825, and was appointed second lieutenant in the 3d Artillery. He served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 as colonel of the Illinois volunteers. In 1835–37 he was instructor of artillery at West Point, and in 1837–38 he served in the Florida War, and was brevetted captain. Subsequently he was attached to the staff of General Scott as assistant adjutant-general, and was promoted to captain in 1841. He served in the Mexican War, and was severely wounded at Molino del Rey. In 1857 he was appointed major of the 1stAartillery, and on 20 November, 1860, he assumed command of the troops in Charleston Harbor, with headquarters at Fort Moultrie. Owing to threatened assaults, he withdrew his command, on the night of 26 December, to Fort Sumter, where he was soon closely invested by the Confederate forces. On 13 April, 1861, he evacuated the fort, after a bombardment of nearly thirty-six hours from batteries to which he replied as long as his guns could be worked. He marched out, with his seventy men, with the honors of war, on the his flag as it was hauled down, and New York on the following day. In recognition of this service he was appointed brigadier-general in the U.S. Army by President Lincoln, and was assigned to the command of the Department of Kentucky, and subsequently to that of the Cumberland. In consequence of failing health, he was relieved from duty in October, 1861. He was retired from active service 27 October, 1863, and on 3 February, 1865, he was brevetted major-general. He sailed for Europe in 1869 for his health, but died there. He translated and adapted from the French “Instructions for Field Artillery, Horse and Foot” (1840), and “Evolutions of Field Batteries” (1860), both of which have been used by the War Department. It was largely owing to his personal efforts that the initial steps were taken organizing the Soldiers' Home in Washington, which now harbors about 2,000 veterans of the regular army.—His brother, Larz, capitalist, born near Louisville, Kentucky, 9 April, 1805; died in Cincinnati, Ohio, 27 February, 1878, was graduated at Harvard in 1822. He was a son-in-law of Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati, in which city he resided and was respected for his profuse charities and public spirit. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 70-71.

ANDERSON, Robert Houstoun soldier, born about 1837; killed in action, 1 September, 1864. He was graduated at West Point in 1857, and served as second lieutenant of the 9th Infantry at Fort Columbus, New York Harbor, and at Fort Walla-Walla, Washington Territory, until 1861, when he absented himself without leave, but subsequently resigned (3 May, 1861), and entered the Confederate service. He became a brigadier-general, and was killed in the battle of Jonesboro, Georgia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 71.

ANDREW, John Albion, 1818-1867, reformer, anti-slavery advocate, lawyer, Governor of Massachusetts, member Conscience Whig, Free Soil Party, Republican Party.  Opponent of slavery.  In Boston, he took a prominent part in the defense of fugitive slaves Shadrach, Burns and Sims.  Supported John Brown in legal defense.  (American National Biography, Vol. 1, 2002, p. 489; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, p. 279; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 72-73)

ANDREW, John Albion,
statesman, born in Windham, Maine, 31 May, 1818; died in Boston, Massachusetts, 30 October, 1867. His father, descended from an early settler of Boxford, Massachusetts, was a prosperous merchant in Windham. John Albion was graduated at Bowdoin in 1837. He was a negligent student, though fond of reading, and in his professional life always felt the lack of training in the habit of close application. He immediately entered on the study of the law in the office of Henry H. Fuller, in Boston, where in 1840 he was admitted to the bar. Until the outbreak of the war he practised his profession in that city, attaining special distinction in the fugitive-slave cases of Shadrach Burns and Sims, which arose under the fugitive-slave law of 1850. He became interested in the slavery question in early youth, and was attracted toward many of the reform movements of the day. After his admission to the bar he took an active interest in politics and frequently spoke on the stump on behalf of the Whig Party, of which he was an enthusiastic member. From the year 1848 he was closely identified with the anti-slavery party of Massachusetts, but held no office until 1858, when he was elected a member of the state legislature from Boston, and at once took a leading position in that body. In 1860 he was a delegate to the Chicago Republican Convention, and, after voting for Mr. Seward on the early ballots, announced the change of the vote of part of the Massachusetts delegation to Mr. Lincoln. In the same year he was nominated for governor by a popular impulse. Many feared that the radicalism of his opinions would render him unsafe in action, and the political managers regarded him as an intruder and opposed his nomination; yet he was elected the twenty-first governor of Massachusetts since the adoption of the constitution of 1780 by the largest popular vote ever cast for any candidate. He was energetic in placing the militia of Massachusetts on a war footing, in anticipation of the impending conflict between the government and the seceded states. He had announced this purpose in his inaugural address in 1861, and, upon being inducted into office, he sent a confidential message to the governors of Maine and New Hampshire, inviting their cooperation in preparing the militia for service and providing supplies of war material. This course of action was not regarded with favor at the time by a majority of the legislature, although his opponents refrained from a direct collision. On receiving the president's proclamation of 15 April, 1861, he despatched five regiments of infantry, a battalion of riflemen, and a battery of artillery to the defence of the capital. Of these, the Massachusetts 6th was the first to tread southern soil, passing through New York while the regiments of that state were mustering, and shedding the first blood of the war in the streets of Baltimore, where it was assailed by the moborn Governor Andrew sent a telegram to Mayor Brown, praying him to have the bodies of the slain carefully sent forward to him at the expense of the common wealth of Massachusetts. He was equally active in raising the Massachusetts contingent of three years' volunteers, and was laborious in his efforts to aid every provision for the comfort of the sick and wounded soldiers. He was four times reëlected governor, holding that office till January, 1866, and was only then released by his positive declination of another renomination, in order to attend to his private business, as the pecuniary sacrifice involved in holding the office was more than he was able to sustain, and his health was seriously affected by his arduous labors. In 1862 he was one of the most urgent of the northern governors in impressing upon the administration at Washington the necessity of adopting the emancipation policy, and of accepting the services of colored troops. In September, 1862, he took the most prominent part in the meeting of governors of the northern states, held at Altoona, Pennsylvania, to devise ways and means to encourage and strengthen the hands of the government. The address of the governors to the people of the north was prepared by him. Governor Andrew interfered on various occasions to prevent the federal authorities from making arbitrary arrests among southern sympathizers in Massachusetts previous to the suspension of the habeas-corpus act. In January, 1863, he obtained from the Secretary of War the first authorization for raising colored troops, and the First Colored Regiment (54th Massachusetts Infantry) was despatched from Boston in May of that year. Governor Andrew was particular in selecting the best officers for the black troops and in providing them with the most complete equipment. Though famous as the war governor of Massachusetts, he also bestowed proper attention on the domestic affairs of the commonwealth. In his first message he recommended that the provision in the law preventing a person against whom a decree of divorce has been granted from marrying again, should be modified; but the proposition met with strong opposition in the legislature, especially from clergymen, and it was not till 1864 that an act was passed conferring power upon the supreme court to remove the penalty resting upon divorced persons. He also recommended a reform in the usury laws, such as was finally effected by an act passed in 1867. He was strongly opposed to capital punishment, and recommended its repeal. A law requiring representatives in Congress to be residents of the districts from which they are elected was vetoed by him on the ground that it was both unconstitutional and inexpedient, but was passed over his veto. Of the twelve veto messages sent by Governor Andrew during his incumbency, only one other, in the case of a resolve to grant additional pay to members, was followed by the passage of the act over the veto. His final term as governor expired 5 January, 1866. In a valedictory address to the legislature he advocated a generous and conciliatory policy toward the southern states, “demanding no attitude of humiliation; inflicting no acts of humiliation.” Governor Andrew was modest and simple in his habits and manner of life, emotional and quick in sympathy for the wronged or the unfortunate, exceedingly joyous and mirthful in temperament, and companionable with all classes of persons. The distinguished ability that shone out in his administration as governor of Massachusetts, the many sterling qualities that were summed up in his character, his social address, and the charm of his conversational powers, together with his clear and forcible style as an orator, combined to render him conspicuous among the state governors of the war period, and one of the most influential persons in civil life not connected with the federal administration. Soon after the expiration of his last term as governor he was tendered, but declined, the presidency of Antioch College, Ohio. He presided over the first national Unitarian Convention, held in 1865, and was a leader of the conservative wing of that denomination—those who believed with Channing and the early Unitarians in the supernaturalism of Christ's birth and mission, as opposed to Theodore Parker and his disciples. After retiring from public life Mr. Andrew entered upon a lucrative legal practice. In January, 1867, he represented before the general court about 30,000 petitioners for a license law, and delivered an argument against the principle of total prohibition. His death, which occurred suddenly from apoplexy, was noticed by public meetings in various cities. He married, 25 December, 1848, Miss Eliza Jane Hersey, of Hingham, Massachusetts, who with their four children survived him. See “Memoir of Governor Andrew, with Personal Reminiscences,” by Peleg W. Chandler (Boston, 1880), “Discourse on the Life and Character of Governor Andrew,” by Reverend E. Nason (Boston, 1868), and “Men of Our Times,” by Harriet Beecher Stowe. A life of Governor Andrew, by Edwin P. Whipple, was left unfinished at the time of Mr. Whipple’s death in 1886. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888.  pp.72-73.

ANDREWS, Christopher Columbus, lawyer, born in Hillsborough, N.H., 27 October, 1829. He was a farmer's son and attended school during the winter until 1843, when he went to Boston. Later he attended the Francestown Academy, studied law in 1848 at Cambridge, and in 1850 was admitted to the bar. He followed his profession in Newton, and was also a member of the school board during 1851-52. In 1853 he settled in Boston, but in the following year moved to Kansas, and latter went to Washington to further the interests of Kansas during a session of Congress. After two years' service in the treasury department as law clerk, he settled in St. Cloud, Minnesota, and in 1859 was elected state senator. During the presidential canvass of 1860 he actively supported Douglas and was nominated as elector on that ticket. In 1861 he assisted in bringing out the " Minnesota Union " in support of the administration, and for a time edited that paper. Soon after the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted as a private, but was commissioned captain in the 3d Minnesota Infantry. He was surrendered in a fight near Murfreesboro, and from July to October, 1862, was a prisoner. After his exchange he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, and was present in the operations around Vicksburg. He became colonel in July, 1863, and served in the campaign that resulted in the capture of Little Rock, Ark., where he was placed in command with a brigade. Here he was very active in fostering the union element, and his influence went far in the movement that in January, 1864, resulted in the reorganization of Arkansas as a free state, for which he received the thanks of the constitutional convention. During 1864 he was in command of the forces near Augusta, Ark., fortified Devall's Bluff, General Steele's base of supplies, and organized numerous successful scouting parties. He was promoted to brigadier-general, and assigned to the command of the 2d Division, 18th Corps, and participated in the siege and storming of Port Blakely, Georgia. On 9 March. 1865, he was commissioned brevet major- general. Subsequently he commanded the District of Mobile, and later that of Houston, Texas. In the reconstruction of that state General Andrews showed much interest, and made speeches at Houston and elsewhere which produced a better public opinion. Afterward he was ordered to accompany Governor A. J. Hamilton to Austin on his reinstatement to civil authority. He returned to Minneapolis during the autumn of 1865, and was mustered out of service 15 January, 1866. He was appointed minister resident to Sweden and Norway in 1869, and continued there until 1877, furnishing the U. S. government with frequent valuable reports on important subjects, which have been published in the "Commercial Relations of the United States." He was supervisor of the U. S. Census in the 3d District of Minnesota during 1880, and from 1882 till 1885 was consul-general to Brazil. General Andrews has also been a frequent contributor to current literature, and is the author of "Minnesota and Dacotah " (Washington, 1856); " Practical Treatise on the Revenue Laws of the United States" (Bos- ton, 1858); "Hints to Company Officers on their Military Duties " (New York, 1868); "Digest of the Opinions of the Attorneys-General of the United States" (Washington, 1867); and "History of the Campaign of Mobile" (1867).  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 73-74.

ANDREWS, Edmund, surgeon, born in Putney, Vermont, 22 April, 1824. He was graduated at the University of Michigan in 1849; then, studying medicine, he received his degree from the medical department of the university in 1852. He settled in Ann Arbor and became demonstrator of anatomy and professor of comparative anatomy in the university, but in 1856 moved to Chicago, where he has since resided. Here he has filled the place of demonstrator of anatomy at the Rush Medical College, and subsequently the chairs of the principles and practices of surgery and of clinical and military surgery in the Chicago Medical College, of which institution he is one of the founders. In 1859 he became surgeon to the Mercy Hospital, and during the Civil War he served in a similar capacity with the 1st Illinois Light Artillery. He is a member of numerous medical and scientific societies, and is president of the Illinois State Medical Society and of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. Dr. Andrews was one of the founders of the Michigan State Medical Society, and is a trustee of the North-Western University. He is the author of a great number of articles in different branches of surgery which have been published in medical journals and proceedings of the societies to which he belongs. Numerous improvements in surgical apparatus and operations have been made by him among them is the practical demonstration of the value of free incision, digital exploration, and disinfection of lumbar abscesses, a treatment previously forbidden. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 74.

ANDREWS, George L., soldier, born in Bridgewater, Mass., 31 August, 1828. He was graduated at West Point in 1851, the highest in his class. He superintended the erection of fortifications in Boston Harbor, and in 1854 and 1855 was assistant professor of engineering at West Point. Resigning in 1855, he was employed as a civil engineer until the beginning of the Civil War. He served as lieutenant-colonel, and subsequently as colonel of the 2d Massachusetts Regiment in the Shenandoah Valley, and conducted the rear guard in the retreat at Cedar Mountain. He fought through Pope's campaign, and was at Antietam. For distinguished bravery he was promoted brigadier-general, 10 November, 1862, and in Banks's expedition led a brigade. From July, 1863, to 13 February, 1865, he commanded the Corps d'Afrique. For his services at the capture of Mobile he was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 26 March, 1865. On 8 April, 1867, he was appointed U.S. Marshal for Massachusetts, and on 27 February, 1871, went to West Point as professor of the French language. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 75.

ANDREWS, Loren, educator, born in Ashland County, Ohio, 1 April, 1819; died in Gambier, Ohio, 18 September, 1861. He was educated at Kenyon College, devoted himself to teaching, and the excellence of the present common-school system of Ohio is largely due to his labors. He filled various important educational places until 1854, when he was elected president of Kenyon College. During his administration the affairs of the college flourished greatly; additions were made to the faculty, new buildings were erected, and the number of students increased from thirty to more than two hundred. On the outbreak of the Civil War, in 1861, President Andrews raised a company in Knox County, of which he was made captain, Later he was elected colonel of the 4th Ohio Volunteers, and, after service at Camp Dennison, he was ordered to Virginia. He was in the field a short time, where he was subjected to fatiguing service, and was afterward stationed at Oakland, remaining until he was taken home ill at the end of August, the severe exposure having brought on an attack of camp fever, from the effects of which he died a few weeks later. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 75.

ANDREWS, Sherlock James, jurist, born in Wallingford, Connecticut, 17 November, 1801; died in Cleveland, Ohio, 11 February, 1880. He was graduated at Union College in 1821, after which he continued his studies at Yale, where he followed the lectures on science as assistant to Prof. Silliman, and also the lectures on law. In 1825 he moved to Ohio, and from that time devoted himself to the profession of law, and was constantly engaged in important litigation before the state and federal courts. He was elected to Congress in 1840 as a Whig, and served for a single term. He became in 1848 a judge of the superior court of Ohio, and he was a member of the Constitutional Conventions of 1849 and 1873, where his influence was felt upon important committees. He was urged at one time to allow himself to be a candidate for governor, but declined this distinction, as well as others for which his name was mentioned, because he preferred to remain in private life. For a time he shared with Thomas Corwin the leadership of the Ohio bar. His wit, his eloquence, his sympathy, his good sense, and his integrity gave him great power before a jury or before the public.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 75-76.

ANDREWS, Stephan Pearl, 1812-1886, abolitionist, anarchist, philosopher, linguist, writer, labor advocate, lawyer, ardent opponent of slavery, lectured publicly on the evils of slavery. Opposed annexation of Texas and slavery in the Territory.  (Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 298-299; American Reformers: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary, New York, 1985, pp. 25-26; Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. p. 76)

ANDREWS, Stephen Pearl,
author, born in Templeton, Massachusetts, 22 March, 1812; died in New York City, 21 May, 1886. He studied at Amherst College, and then, removing to New Orleans, became a lawyer. He was the first counsel of Mrs. Myra Clark Gaines in her celebrated suits. He was an ardent abolitionist, and in 1839 moved to Texas, where he converted many of the slave-owners, who were also large land-owners, by showing them that they would become rapidly rich from the sale of land if immigration were induced by throwing the country open to free labor. Here he acquired considerable wealth in the practice of his profession. His impetuous and logical eloquence gained him a wide repute and great personal popularity; but, on the other hand, his seemingly reckless and fanatical opposition to slavery aroused an intense feeling of opposition, and his life was seriously endangered. In 1843 he went to England in the hope that, with the aid of the British anti-slavery Society, he might raise sufficient money there to pay for the slaves and make Texas a free state. He was well received, and the scheme was taken up and favorably considered by the British government; but, after some months of consultation, the project was abandoned through fear that it would lead to war with the United States, as the knowledge of it was already being used to strengthen the movement that ultimately led to the annexation of Texas and to the Mexican War. Mr. Andrews went to Boston and became a leader in the anti-slavery movement there. While in England he learned of phonography, and during seven years after his return he devoted his attention to its introduction, and was the founder of the present system of phonographic reporting. He moved to New York in 1847, and published a series of phonographic instruction-books and edited two journals in the interest of phonography and spelling reform, which were printed in phonetic type, the “Anglo-Saxon” and the “Propagandist.” He spoke several languages, and is said to have been familiar with thirty. Among his works are one on the Chinese language, and one entitled “New French Instructor,” embodying a new method. He was a tireless student and an incessant worker; but his mental labor was performed without effort or fatigue. While yet a young man he announced the discovery of the unity of law in the universe, and to the development of this theory he devoted the last thirty-five years of his life. The elements of this science are contained in his “Basic Outline of Universology” (New York, 1872). He asserted that there is a science of language, as exact as that of mathematics or of chemistry, forming a domain of universology; and by the application of this science he evolved a “scientific” language, destined, he believed, to become “the universal language.” This scientific universal language he called “Alwato” (ahl-wah'-to). It was so far elaborated that for some years before his death he conversed and corresponded in it with several of his pupils, and was preparing a dictionary of Alwato, a portion of which was in type at the time of his decease. The philosophy evolved from universology he called “Integralism.” In it he believed would be found the ultimate reconciliation of the great thinkers of all schools and the scientific adjustment of freedom and order, not by a superficial eclecticism, but by a radical adjustment of all the possible forms of thought, belief, and idea. In 1882 he instituted a series of conferences known as the “Colloquium,” for the interchange of ideas between men of the utmost diversity of religious, philosophical, and political views. Among those associated with him in this were Prof. Louis Elsberg, Reverend Dr. Rylance, Reverend Dr. Newman, Rabbi Gottheil, Reverend Dr. Sampson, Reverend Dr. Collyer, Prof. J. S. Sedgwick, T. B. Wakeman, and Rabbi Huebsch. Mr. Andrews was a prominent member of the Liberal club of New York, and for some time was its vice-president. His contributions to periodicals are numerous. He was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the American Ethnological Society. His works include “Comparison of the Common Law with the Roman, French, or Spanish Civil Law on Entails and other Limited Property in Real Estate” (New Orleans, 1839); “Cost the Limit of Price” (New York, 1851); “The Constitution of Government in the Sovereignty of the Individual” (1851); “Love, Marriage, and Divorce, and the Sovereignty of the Individual: a Discussion by Henry James, Horace Greeley, and Stephen Pearl Andrews,” edited by Stephen Pearl Andrews (1853); “Discoveries in Chinese; or, The Symbolism of the Primitive Characters of the Chinese System of Writing as a Contribution to Philology and Ethnology and a Practical Aid in the Acquisition of the Chinese Language” (1854); “Constitution or Organic Basis of the New Catholic Church” (1860); “The Great American Crisis,” a series of papers published in the “Continental Monthly” (1863-'64); “A Universal Language” (“Continental Monthly,” 1864); “The Primary Synopsis of Universology and Alwato” (1871); “Primary Grammar of Alwato” (Boston, 1877); “The Labor Dollar” (1881); “Elements of Universology” (New York, 1881); “Ideological Etymology” (1881); “Transactions of the Colloquium, with Documents and Exhibits” (vols. i and ii, New York, 1882-'83); “The Church and Religion of the Future,” a series of tracts (1886); and text-books of phonography. His dictionary of Alwato was published posthumously by his sons. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888. P. 76 

ANDREWS, Timothy Patrick, soldier, born in Ireland in 1794; died 11 March, 1868. During the war of 1812, when Barney's flotilla, in Patuxent River, was confronting the enemy, he tendered his services without the knowledge of his father, was employed by the commodore as his aide, and rendered important services. He subsequently was in active service in the field, and in 1822 appointed paymaster in the army. In 1847 he resigned to take command of the regiment of voltigeurs raised for the Mexican War. He was distinguished in the battle of Molino del Rey, and brevetted a brigadier-general for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Chapultepec. On the close of the war and the disbandment of the voltigeurs, he was reinstated, by Act of Congress, as pay-master, and in 1851 was made deputy paymaster-general. During the Civil War, on the death of General Larned, Colonel Andrews succeeded him as paymaster-general of the army. He was retired 20 November, 1864.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 76-77.

ANDREWS, William Draper, inventor, born in Grafton, Massachusetts, 23 May, 1818. In 1828 the family moved to Needham. He was in a country store at Newtown Lower Falls for a year, and then moved to New York, where he was variously employed until 1840, when he became connected with a wrecking company. While he was thus engaged his attention was directed to pumping apparatus, and in 1844 he invented the pioneer centrifugal pump, which was patented in 1846. By this invention the saving of imperishable goods from abandoned wrecks was made possible. Its mode of action consisted in forming channels through sand-bars on ocean coasts, and in making earth excavations in and under water. This pump was subsequently introduced and extensively manufactured in England as the Gwynne pump. A few years later he invented and £ the anti-friction centrifugal pump, which has been used all over the world. He also invented three other distinct styles and various modifications of centrifugal pumps, of which that known as the “Cataract” is the most valuable. In all, Mr. Andrews has received twenty-five United States and nine foreign patents on pumps, oscillating steam-engines, boilers, friction and differential power-gearing, '' gang-wells and attachments, balanced valves, safety elevators, and other similar inventions. During the Civil War each of the U. S. monitors was provided with centrifugal pumps and engines. These were made to discharge thirty tons of water a minute, and arranged to fill compartments, thereby partially sub- merging the monitor, so that in case of grounding in dangerous proximity to an enemy they could be lightened by pumping, backed off, and resubmerged in a few minutes. The pumps made by Mr. Andrews have been used in creating channels through the sand-bars at the mouth of St. John's River, Florida, Cape Fear River, North Carolina, and the Mississippi River. The system of gangs of tube-wells patented by him has been extensively used in cities. During the unprecedented draught of the summer and autumn of 1885, a series of four plants of gang-wells, furnished by Mr. Andrews to the city of Brooklyn, yielded for some time a daily average supply of 25,000,000 gallons of water, reaching as high as 27,000,000 gallons in a single day, 18,400,000 gallons being their contracted £ . Mr. Andrews has received numerous medals and diplomas for his inventions, both in this country and abroad.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 77.

ANGEL, Benjamin Franklin, diplomatist, born in Burlington, Otsego County, New York. 28 November, 1815. He was prepared for college by C. C. Felton, who after- ward became president of Harvard, but did not enter, owing to trouble with his eyes. He taught school until he recovered their use, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began practice in Geneseo in partnership with his former preceptor, at the same time writing editorials for the democratic county paper. He was appointed surrogate in 1838, and served in that office for four years, after which he was appointed master in chancery and supreme court commissioner, a judicial office conferring concurrent jurisdiction with the judges of the supreme court sitting in chambers. He was again surrogate from 1844 till 1847. He was a member of the Democratic National Convention at Baltimore in 1852. In 1853, his health having become impaired, he went to Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, as U. S. consul. In 1855 he was sent by President Pierce to China as special commissioner to settle a dispute between some American merchants and the Chinese government in regard to the exaction of export duties. This mission was successful, and he returned to the United States by way of the East Indies, Egypt, and Europe. His letters from Asia were published in the newspapers at the time. On his return, against his protest, he was placed in nomination for Congress, but was defeated. On the accession of Mr. Buchanan to the presidency he was appointed minister to Norway and Sweden. He returned to the United States in the autumn of 1862, and, with the exception of being a delegate to the Chicago Convention that nominated General McClellan for the presidency in 1864, he did not again take an active part in politics, but devoted himself to agriculture at Geneseo, New York. He was president of the state agricultural Society in 1873- 74.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 78.

ANTHONY, Daniel Read, 1824-1904, newspaper publisher, abolitionist, member Hicksite Quakers, opposed slavery, active in temperance and women’s rights movements, brother of Susan B. Anthony.  Publisher of the Leavenworth Times newspaper in Leavenworth, Kansas. Lieutenant Colonel, 7th Regiment, Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, 1861-1862.  Mayor, Leavenworth, Kansas, 1863. (Rodriguez, 2007, p. 169)

ANTHONY, Henry Bowen, 1815-1884, Republican, statesman, newspaper editor, Governor of Rhode Island, U.S. Senator 1859-1884, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery (Appletons’, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 81-82; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 316-317; Anthony, Henry Bowen, A Memoir, 1885; Congressional Globe)

ANTHONY, Henry Bowen, statesman, born of Quaker parents, in Coventry, Rhode Island, 1 April, 1815; died in Providence, 2 September, 1884. He was descended in a direct line from John Anthony, who came from England about 1640 and settled on the island of Rhode Island. He was graduated at Brown University in 1833, and devoted himself to literary pursuits. He became editor of the Providence "Journal" in 1838, and in 1840 was admitted into partnership, the paper being published under the name of Knowles, Vose & Anthony till the death of  Mr. Vose in 1848, when it was continued under the name of Knowles & .Anthony till 1 January, 1863, when it became Knowles, Anthony & Danielson.  Mr. Anthony gave himself up to his newspaper with all the energy and enthusiasm of his nature. No amount of work staggered him; early and late he was in his office, and for many years he had around him a brilliant circle of young men. He early developed poetical taste, and there are several pieces of merit that bear his name. His mind was quick and accurate, and he had a wonderful memory; and his editorial labors contributed largely to the growth of the art of journalism in New England. He had many offers to go to other cities and take charge of newspapers, but declined them all. In 1837 he married Sally Rhodes (daughter of the late Christopher Rhodes, of Pawtuxet), who died in 1854. In 1849, and again in 1850, he was elected governor of Rhode Island. As a Whig at the first election he had a majority of 1,556; at the second, fewer than 1,000 votes were cast against him. He declined a third election, and gave himself once more entirely to his editorial work. This continued till 1859, when he was elected, as a Republican, to the U. S. Senate, where he remained by reelections till his death. During his service in the Senate he still contributed largely to his paper. Three times he was elected president protem of the Senate—in March, 1863, in March, 1871, and in January, 1884; but the last time his failing health prevented him from accepting. He was exceedingly popular in Washington, and often spoken of as "the handsome senator." He served on many important committees, and was twice the chairman of the committee on printing, his practical knowledge of that subject enabling him to introduce many reforms in the government printing. He was at different times a member of the committees on claims, on naval affairs, on mines and mining, and on post-offices and post-roads. On the trial of President Johnson he voted for impeachment. He was not a frequent or brilliant speaker in the Senate, but always talked to the point, and commanded attention. He shone more as a writer than as a speaker. His memorial and historical addresses were models of composition. .A volume of these addresses, printed privately in 1875, contains a tribute to Stephen A. Douglas, delivered 9 July. 1861; one to John R. Thompson, 4 December, 1862; one to William P. Fessenden, 14 December, 1869; and three different addresses on Charles Sumner-the first on the announcement of his death in the Senate; the second when Mr. Anthony, as one of the committee appointed by the Senate, gave up the body of Mr. Sumner to the governor of Massachusetts; and the third when Mr. Boutwell presented in the Senate resolutions of respect for Mr. Sumner's memory. Mr. Anthony also spoke in the Senate on the death of William .A. Buckingham, and on 21 January, 1876, delivered a short address on the death of Henry Wilson, Vice-President of the United States. When the statues of General Greene and Roger Williams were presented to Congress by the state of Rhode Island, Mr. Anthony made the addresses, and he also made a short address at the presentation of the statues of Trumbull and Sherman. One of his best efforts was .when he introduced the bill providing for repairing and protecting the monument erected in Newport, Rhode Island, to the memory of the Chevalier de Tiernay, commander of the French naval forces sent out in 1780 to aid the American Revolution. Mr. Anthony had a warm and affectionate nature, genial manner, a commanding figure, and was a perfect specimen of a man. In his last days, with manly courage, he calmly waited for the end. As soon as his death was known, Governor Bourn and Mayor Doyle issued proclamations to that effect, and called upon the people to attend the funeral, which took place from the first Congregational Church in Providence on Saturday, 6 September It was the largest funeral ever known in Rhode Island. Mr. Anthony bequeathed a portion of his library, known as the "Harris Collection of American Poetry," to Brown University. It consists of about 6,000 volumes, mostly small books, and many of them exceedingly rare. It was begun half a century ago by the late Albert G. Greene, continued by Caleb Fiske Harris, and, after his death, completed by his kinsman, the late senator. The Reverend Dr. J. C. Stockbridge, a member of the board of trustees of the university, is preparing an annotated catalogue of the collection. Appletons’, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 81-82

ANTHONY, Susan Brownell, 1820-1906, American Anti-Slavery Society, reformer, abolitionist, orator, leader of the female suffrage movement, radical egalitarian, temperance movement leader, founded Women’s National Loyal League with Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1863 to fight for cause of abolition, co-founded American Equal Rights Association (AERA) in 1866 to fight for universal suffrage.  (Anthony, 1954; Barry, 1988; Harper, 1899; Harper, 1998; Rodriguez, 2007, pp. 169-170, 291, 465, 519; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 82; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 318-321; Harper, Ida Husted, 1899, The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony; Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 1885, Our Famous Women.

ANTHONY, Susan Brownell, reformer, born in South Adams, Massachusetts, 15 February, 1820. Daniel Anthony, her father, a cotton manufacturer, was a liberal Quaker, who educated his daughters with the idea of self-support, and employed skilful teachers in his own house. After completing her education at a Friends' boarding-school in Philadelphia, she taught in New York State from 1835 to 1850. Her father moved in 1826 to Washington County, New York, and in 1846 settled at Rochester. Miss Anthony first spoke in public in 1847, and from that time took part in the temperance movement, organizing societies and lecturing. In 1851 she called a temperance convention in Albany, after being refused admission to a previous convention on account of her sex. In 1852 the Woman's New York State Temperance Society was organized. Through her exertions, and those of Mrs. E. C. Stanton, women came to be admitted to educational and other conventions with the right to speak, vote, and serve on committees. About 1857 she became prominent among the agitators for the abolition of slavery. In 1858 she made a report, in a teachers' convention at Troy, in favor of the co-education of the sexes. Her energies have been chiefly directed to securing equal civil rights for women. In 1854-'55 she held conventions in each county of New York in the cause of female suffrage, and since then she has addressed annual appeals and petitions to the legislature. She was active in securing the passage of the Act of the New York legislature of 1860, giving to married women the possession of their earnings, the guardianship of their children, etc. During the war she devoted herself to the Women's Loyal League, which petitioned Congress in favor of the 13th Amendment. In 1860 she started a petition in favor of leaving out the word “male” in the 14th Amendment, and worked with the National Woman Suffrage Association to induce Congress to secure to her sex, the right of voting. In 1867 she went to Kansas with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucy Stone, and there obtained 9,000 votes in favor of woman suffrage. In 1868, with the cooperation of Mrs. Stanton and Parker Pillsbury, and with the assistance of George F. Train, she began, in New York City, the publication of a weekly paper called “The
Revolutionist,” devoted to the emancipation of women. In 1872 Miss Anthony cast ballots at the state and Congressional election in Rochester, in order to test the application of the 14th and 15th Amendments of the U. S. Constitution. She was indicted for illegal voting, and was fined by Justice Hunt, but, in accordance with her defiant declaration, never paid the penalty. Between 1870 and 1880 she lectured in all the northern and several of the southern states more than one hundred times a year. In 1881 she wrote, with the assistance of her co-editors, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Matilda Joslyn Gage, “The History of Woman Suffrage” in two volumes. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 82.   

APPLETON, Daniel, founder of the publishing house of D. Appleton & Co., New York, born in Haverhill, Massachusetts, 10 December, 1785; died in New York, 27 March, 1849. He began business as a dry-goods merchant in his native place, but subsequently went to Boston, and in 1825 moved to New York, where he began the importation of English books in conjunction with his dry-goods business. The book department was placed in charge of William Henry Appleton, his eldest son (born 27 January, 1814). This was in Exchange place. He soon abandoned the sale of dry-goods, and moved to Clinton Hall, Beekman Street, and there gave his attention solely to the importation and sale of books. In 1836 W. H. Appleton was sent to represent the house in London, and in the following year the father visited Europe and founded a permanent agency at 16 Little Britain. His first publishing venture was a collection of religious extracts entitled "Daily Crumbs from the Master's Table," a 82mo volume, of which 2,000 copies were sold. This was followed by another book of the same size and character, and in 1&32, the cholera year, by "A Refuge in Time of Plague and Pestilence." In January, 1888, W. H. Appleton was taken into partnership, and the firm moved to 200 Broadway. In 1848 the father returned- W. H. then formed a co-partnership with his brother, John Adams Appleton (b. in Boston, Massachusetts, 6 January, 1817; died at his residence on Staten Island, 13 July, 1881). Three other sons became partners. Daniel Sidney, the fourth son, was born in Boston, 9 April, 1824; George Swett was born in Andover, Massachusetts, 11 August, 1821, and died at Riverdale, New York, 7 July, 1878; Samuel Francis, the youngest son, was born in Boston, 26 April, 1826, and died in New York, 25 October, 1883. The business was moved from 200 Broadway to the old Society library building, corner of Leonard street and Broadway, and subsequently the growth of the city necessitated many removals farther up- town. In 1881 the retail, jobbing, and importing departments were abandoned, in order that sole attention might be given to the publications of the house, and the business was moved to its present location, Nos. 1,3, and 5 Bond street. In 1853 a printing-office and bindery were established in Franklin Street, New York: but the publishing business in- creased to such an extent that in 1868 the manufacturing department was moved to Brooklyn, where buildings were erected that cover nearly a whole square. The publications of the house extend over the entire field of literature. Its "American Cyclopaedia " is the largest and most widely circulated work of its kind ever produced in this country. The first edition was issued in 1857-68; and a revised edition, which was practically a re-writing of the entire work, with the insertion of thousands of illustrations and other improvements, in 1873-76, additions and corrections being added from time to time. The "Annual Cyclopedia," published in similar style and forming an appropriate continuation of the greater work, is now in its twenty-fifth year. Its illustrated books include "Picturesque America," "Picturesque Europe," and "Picturesque Palestine," besides valuable art collections. Its text-books embrace every subject taught in American schools; medical books form a special department, and books in Spanish for the South and Central American markets form another. Nearly all the noted scientists of Europe and the United States are represented in the list, which also in general literature includes the names of Bancroft, Bryant, Cooper, Dickens, Disraeli, Scott, and other standard authors. The literature of the Civil War is represented on both sides, by Generals Sherman and J. E. Johnston, Admirals Farragut and Porter, Jefferson Davis, William H. Seward, and biographies of Lee, Chase, Stonewall Jackson, A. S. Johnston, and other distinguished participants. The business begun by Daniel Appleton is now (1886) actively conducted by the firm consisting of his sons William H. and Daniel Sidney, and his grandsons William Worthen, Daniel, and Edward Dale Appleton. But the official signature of the firm has always remained Daniel Appleton & Co.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 83-84.

APPLETON, James, General, 1786-1862, temperance reformer, abolitionist leader, soldier, clergyman.  Leader of the anti-slavery Liberty Party.  Nominee in Liberty Party for Governor of Maine. (Dumond, 1961, pp. 301, 405n12; Wiley, 1886; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 82; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, p. 327; Minutes, Convention of the Liberty Party, June 14, 15, 1848, Buffalo, New York)

APPLETON, James, temperance reformer, born in Ipswich, Massachusetts, 14 February, 1786; died there, 25 August, 1862. When a young man he was elected to the legislature of his native state, and during the war with Great Britain he served as a colonel of Massachusetts militia, and after the close of the war was made a brigadier-general. During his subsequent residence at Portland, Maine, he was elected to the legislature in 1836-'37, but he returned finally to his native town, where he died. By his speeches and publications he exercised great influence upon public sentiment in favor of abolition and total abstinence. In his report to the Maine legislature in 1837 he was the first to expound the principle embodied in the Maine law. See his “Life,” by S. H. Gay. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 82. 

AAPPLETON, Samuel, merchant, born in New Ipswich. N. H., 22 June, 1766; died in Boston, 12 July, 1853. His youth was spent on a farm and in teaching. For a time he kept a store in Ipswich, but he moved to Boston in 1794 and went into the importing business in partnership with his brother Nathan. He also established cotton mills at Waltham and Lowell. After 1799 he passed much of his time abroad, until he retired from business in 1823. He was at this time liter- ally a merchant prince, and, with true nobility of character, devoted a large part of his income to charitable purposes. He made it a rule to spend annually his whole income, and to this end often large sums for distribution in the hands of those who were likely to meet eases of destitution. At his death the sum of  $200.000 was distributed among charities. See memoir, by L A. Jewett . 1850).—His brother, Nathan, merchant, in New Ipswich, N. H„ 6 October, 1779; died in Bos- ton. 14 July. 1861. He entered Dartmouth College in 17M, but soon left to engage in business with Samuel in Boston. When he became of age he was admitted into partnership, and the Arm was known as S. & N. Appleton. In 1813 he was associated with Francis C. Lowell, Patrick T. Jack- et!, Paul Moody, and others, in establishing the Waltham Cotton Manufactory, in which the first power loom ever used in the United States was set up. This proving successful, he and others purchased the water-power at Pawtucket Falls, and he was one of the founders of the Merrimac Manufacturing Company. The settlement that grew around these factories developed into the city of Waltham of which in 1821 Mr. Appleton was one the three founders, he was also the projector and chief proprietor of the Hamilton Company. He was elected to the state legislature in 1815, served during several terms, and was elected Congress in 1830 and again in 1842. He was the author of several speeches and essays on currency banking, and the tariff, of which" his "Remarks on Currency and Banking" (enlarged ed., 1858) is the most celebrated. An account of the introduction of the power loom and of the origin of Lowell was published by him. He was a member of the Academy of Science and Arts, and of the Massachusetts Historical Society. He accumulated great wealth, and was noted for his benevolence. A memoir of his life has been written by Robert C. Winthrop of Boston.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 85.

APPLETON, William, merchant, born in Brookfield, Massachusetts, 16 November, 1786; died in Longwood, near Boston, 20 February, 1862. He was a son of the Reverend Joseph Appleton, of Brookfield, received an academic education, and at the age of fifteen became a clerk in a country store at Temple. In 1807 he went to Boston, where for over fifty years he was a successful merchant, giving also much attention to banking and financial operations. He was president of the U. S. Branch Bank from 1832 to 1836, and was also president of the Provident Institution for Savings and the Massachusetts General Hospital. He gave $30,000 to the last named institution, and was noted for his benevolence. He was elected as a Whig to Congress, serving from 1851 to 1855, and again was a member in the special session from 4 July to 6 August, 1861, after which he resigned. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 85.

ARMISTEAD, Lewis Addison, soldier, born in Newbern, N. C., 18 February, 1817; died at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 3 July, 1863. He was a son of General Walker Keith Armistead. He entered West Point in 1834, but left it in 1836. He was appointed second lieutenant in the 6th Infantry 10 July, 1839, became first lieutenant in March, 1844, and received brevets for gallantry at Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, and Chapultepec in 1847. Promoted to be captain 3 March, 1855, he rendered good service in Indian warfare, but resigned at the beginning of the Civil War, and with much reluctance entered the Confederate service, receiving a brigadier-general's commission in 1862. He was wounded at Antietam. 17 September of that year. At Gettysburg he was one of the few in Pickett's division who nearly reached the federal lines in the desperate charge made on the third day, was mortally wounded, and died a prisoner.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 90.

ARMSTRONG, James, naval officer, born in Shelbyville, Kentucky, 17 January, 1794; died 27 August, 1868. He joined the U. S. Navy  as midshipman in 1809, and was assigned to the sloop of war “Frolic,” which was captured by the British 20 April, 1814, her guns having been thrown overboard during the chase in the hope of escaping from a superior enemy. He rose by the regular steps of promotion to be a captain in 1841. He commanded the East India Squadron in 1855, and assisted at the capture of the barrier forts near Canton, China, in 1857. He was in command of the U. S. Navy-yard at Pensacola, Florida, when that state seceded in 1861, and surrendered without resistance when a greatly superior military force demanded possession. In 1866 he was promoted to be commodore.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 91.

ARMSTRONG, James F., naval officer, born in New Jersey, 20 November, 1817; died in New Haven, Connecticut, 19 April, 1873. He was appointed midshipman from Connecticut in 1832. His first service was on the sailing frigate “Delaware” in the Mediterranean, whence he was transferred to the sloop “Boston” in the West India Squadron, in 1837. He became passed midshipman 23 June, 1838, and lieutenant 8 December, 1842, and in this grade was alternately on sea and shore duty until the Civil War, when he was placed in command of the steamer “Sumpter” on the blockading squadron. As commander, dating from 27 April, 1861, he continued on the blockading service, took part in the capture of Fort Macon, 25 April, 1862, and was subsequently commissioned captain 16 July, 1862. His last cruise was in 1864, after which he was on the reserve list until 1871, when he was reinstated and was detailed for shore duty on the Pacific Coast.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 91.

ARMSTRONG, Moses K., author and politician, born in Milan, Ohio, 19 September, 1832. He was educated at Huron institute and Western Reserve College, Ohio, went to Minnesota in 1856, was elected surveyor of Mower County, and in 1858 was appointed surveyor of U.S. lands. On the admission of Minnesota as a state he moved to Yankton, then an Indian village on Missouri River; and, on the organization of Dakota in 1861. He was elected to the legislature of the territory, being reelected, in 1861 and 1862, and acting the last year as speaker. He became editor of the "Dakota Union" in 1864. was elected territorial treasurer, appointed clerk of the supreme, court in 1865, elected; to the Territorial Senate in 1866, and in 1867 was chosen its president, publishing the same year his history of Dakota. He acted as secretary of the Peace Commission to the Sioux; was employed from 1866 to 1869 in establishing the great meridian and standard lines for U. S. Surveys in southern Dakota and the northern Red River Valley, detecting the errors of locating the international boundary-line near Pembina since 1823; in 1869 was elected again to the Territorial Senate. In 1872 he was chosen president of the First National Bank of the territory, and he was elected to the 42d and 43d Congresses, as a Democrat. He established the first Democratic newspaper in the territory.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 92.

ARNOLD, Isaac Newton, 1815-1884, lawyer, historian, Member of the U.S. House of Representatives 1860-1864, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery.  Republican.  Introduced anti-slavery bill in Congress.  Served as an officer in the Union Army.  Active in Free Soil movement of 1848. Protested Fugitive Slave Law, October 1850. Outspoken opponent of slavery.  (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. p. 96; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 368-369; Congressional Globe)

ARNOLD, Isaac Newton,
lawyer, born in Hartwick, Otsego County, New York, 30 November, 1815; died in Chicago, 24 April, 1884. His father, Dr. George W. Arnold, was a native of Rhode Island, whence he moved to western New York in 1800. After attending the district and select schools, Isaac Arnold was thrown on his own resources at the age of fifteen. For several years he taught school a part of each year, earning enough to study law, and at the age of twenty was admitted to the bar. In 1836 he moved to Chicago, where he spent the rest of his life, and was prominent as a lawyer and in politics. He was elected city clerk of Chicago in 1837, and, beginning in 1843, served several terms in the legislature. The state was then heavily in debt, and Mr. Arnold became the acknowledged champion of those who were opposed to repudiation. In 1844 he was a presidential elector, and in 1860 was elected to Congress as a Republican, serving two terms. At the battle of Bull Run he acted as volunteer aide to Colonel Hunter, and did good service in caring for the wounded. While in Congress he was chairman of the committee on the defences and fortifications of the great lakes and rivers, and afterward chairman of the committee on manufactures, serving also as member of the committee on roads and canals. He voted for the bill abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia, and in March, 1862, he introduced a bill prohibiting slavery in every place under national control. This bill was passed on 19 June, 1862, after much resistance, and on 15 February, 1864, Mr. Arnold introduced in the House of Representatives a resolution, which was passed, declaring that the constitution of the United States should be so amended as to abolish slavery. His ablest speech in Congress was on the confiscation bill, and was made 2 May, 1862. In 1865 President Johnson appointed him sixth auditor to the U. S. Treasury. Mr. Arnold was an admirable public speaker, and delivered addresses before various literary societies, both at home and abroad. Ha had been intimate with Abraham Lincoln for many years before Mr. Lincoln's election to the presidency, and in 1866 he published a biography of him (new ed., rewritten and enlarged, Chicago, 1885). This was followed in 1879 by a “Life of Benedict Arnold,” which, while acknowledging the enormity of Arnold's treason, vindicates and praises him in other respects. The author claimed no relationship with the subject of his work. His life of Lincoln is valuable for the clearness with which it shows the historical relations of the president to the great events of his administration; and the author's death is said to have been caused, in part, by his persistent labor in completing his last revision of this work. Mr. Arnold was for many years president of the Chicago Historical Society, and Hon. E. B. Washburne delivered an address on his life before the society, 21 October, 1884 (Chicago, 1884). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 96. 

ARNOLD, Lewis G., soldier, born in New Jersey in December, 1815; died in South Boston, 22 September, 1871. He was graduated at West Point in 1837. He served as second lieutenant in the Florida War of 1837–38 with the 2d artillery, and as first lieutenant in the same regiment, on the Canada frontier, at Detroit, in 1838-’39. In 1846 he accompanied his regiment to Mexico, and was engaged on the southern line of operations under General Scott, being present at the siege of Vera Cruz, in which he was slightly wounded; in the battles of Cerro Gordo and Amozoque; the capture of San Antonio, and the battle of Churubusco. In the last-named battle he led his company with con- £ gallantry, and in the storming of the téte de pont was severely wounded. He was brevetted captain 20 August, 1847, for gallant conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, and major, 13 September, for gallant conduct at Chapultepec. He served again in Florida in 1856, and commanded a detachment in a conflict with a large force of Seminoles at Big Cypress on 7 April of that year. The breaking out of the war in 1861 found Major Arnold at the Dry Tortugas, whence he was transferred to Fort Pickens on 2 August He remained there until 9 May, 1862, being in command after 25 February On 9 October, 1861, he aided in repelling the attack of the Confederates on Santa Rosa Island, and commanded a detachment sent the next morning to pursue them to the mainland. In the successive bombardments of Fort Pickens, which followed in November, January, and May, Major Arnold, as executive officer of the work, distinguished himself by his energy, judgment, and gallantry. In recognition of the value of his services on these occasions he was brevetted a lieutenant-colonel, to date from 22 November, 1861; appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from 24 January, 1862; and assigned to the command of the department of Florida, with his headquarters first at Fort Pickens and afterward at Pensacola. On 1 October, 1862, he was placed in command of the forces at New Orleans and Algiers, Louisiana, which command he retained until 10 November, when he was disabled by a stroke of paralysis, from which he never recovered. In February, 1864, all hope of his restoration to active life having been abandoned, General Arnold was retired.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 97.

ARNOLD, Richard, soldier, born in Providence, Rhode Island, 12 April, 1828; died on Governor's Island, New York Harbor, 8 November, 1882. He was a son of Governor L. H. Arnold, was graduated at West Point in 1850. He took part in the Northern Pacific Railroad exploration in 1853, and was aide to General Wool in California from 1855 to 1861. At the beginning of the Civil War he was made captain in the 5th Artillery, and served at Bull Run and through the Peninsular Campaign. On 29 June, 1862, he was brevetted major for services at the battle of Savage Station, Virginia, and on 29 November he was made brigadier-general of volunteers. On 8 July, 1863, he was brevetted lieutenant-Colonel in the regular army for services at the siege of Port Hudson. He commanded a cavalry division in General Banks's Red River Expedition in 1864, and later in the same year rendered important services at the reduction of Fort Morgan, Mobile Bay, for which, on 22 August, 1865, he was made brevet major- general of volunteers. For his services through the war he was, on 13 March, 1865, brevetted colonel, brigadier-general, and major-general in the regular army. After the close of the war he commanded various posts, and on 5 December, 1877, was made acting assistant inspector-general of the department of the east. At the time of his death he was major in the 5th Artillery.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 97.

ARNOLD, Samuel Greene, historian, born in Providence, Rhode Island 12 April 1821; died there 13 February, 1880. He was graduated at Brown in 1841, spent two years in a Providence counting-house, and visited Europe. On his return he studied law, being graduated at Harvard Law School in 1845, and was admitted to the Rhode Island bar; but before practising he again travelled extensively in Europe, the east, and South America. In 1852 he was chosen lieutenant-governor of his state,  the only man elected on the Whig ticket, and he again occupied that office in 1861 and 1862. On the breaking out of the Civil War he was for a few weeks in command of a battery of artillery and aide to Governor Sprague. From 1 December, 1862, to 3 March, 1863, he served in the U. S. Senate, having been chosen to fill out the term of J. F. Simmons, resigned. He published a valuable “History of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations” (2 vols., New York, '' He was the author of “The Spirit of Rhode Island History,” a discourse delivered on 17 January, 1853, be- fore the Rhode Island historical Society, of which he was for some time the president, an address before the American institute in New York in October, 1850, and numerous other addresses, and articles in Periodicals.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 97.

ARTHUR, Chester Alan, twenty-first president of the United States, born in Fairfield, Franklin County, Vermont, 5 October, 1830; died in New York City, 18 November, 1886. His father was Reverend William Arthur (given below). His mother was Malvina Stone. Her grandfather, Uriah Stone, was a New Hampshire pioneer, who about 1763 migrated from Hampstead to Connecticut River, and made his home in Piermont, where he died in 1810, leaving twelve children. Her father was George Washington Stone. She died 16 January, 1869, and her husband died 27 October, 1875, at Newtonville, New York Their children were three sons and six daughters, all of whom, except one son and one daughter, were alive in 1886.

Chester A. Arthur, the eldest son, prepared for college at Union Village in Greenwich, and at Schenectady, and in 1845 he entered the sophomore class of Union. While in his sophomore year he taught school for a term at Schaghticoke, Rensselaer County, and a second term at the same place during his last year in college. He joined the Psi-Upsilon Society, and was one of six in a class of one hundred who were elected members of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the condition of admission being high scholarship. He was graduated at eighteen years of age, in the class of 1848. While at college he decided to become a lawyer, and after graduation attended for several months a law school at Ballston Spa, returned to Lansingburg, where his father then resided, and continued his legal studies. During this period he fitted boys for college, and in 1851 he was principal of an academy at North Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont In 1854, James A. Garfield, then a student in Williams College, taught penmanship in this academy during his winter vacation.

In 1853, Arthur, having accumulated a small sum of money, decided to go to New York City. He there entered the law office of Erastus D. Culver as a student, was admitted to the bar during the same year, and at once became a member of the firm of Culver, Parker & Arthur. Mr. Culver had been an anti-slavery member of Congress from Washington county when Dr. Arthur was pastor of the Baptist Church in Greenwich in that county. Dr. Arthur had also enjoyed the friendship of Gerrit Smith, who had often been his guest and spoken from his pulpit. Together they had taken part in the meeting convened at Utica, 21 October, 1835, to form a New York anti-slavery Society. This meeting was broken up by a committee of pro-slavery citizens; but the members repaired to Mr. Smith's home in Peterborough, and there completed the organization. On the same day in Boston a women's anti-slavery society, while its president was at prayer, was dispersed by a mob, and William Lloyd Garrison was dragged through the streets with a rope around his body, threatened with tar and feathers, and for his protection lodged in jail by the mayor. From these early associations Arthur naturally formed sentiments of hostility to slavery, and he first gave them public expression in the Lemmon slave case. In 1852 Jonathan Lemmon, a Virginia slave-holder, determined to take eight of the slaves of his wife, Juliet — one man, two women, and five children — to Texas, and brought them by steamer from Norfolk to New York, intending to re-ship them from New York to Texas. On the petition of Louis Napoleon, a free colored man, on 6 November, a writ of habeas corpus was issued by Judge Elijah Paine, of the superior court of New York City, and after arguments by Mr. Culver and John Jay for the slaves, and H. D. Lapaugh and Henry L. Clinton for the slave-holder, Judge Paine, on 13 November, released the slaves on the ground that they had been made free by being brought by their master into a free state. The decision created great excitement at the south, and the legislature of Virginia directed its attorney-general to appeal to the higher courts of New York. The legislature of New York passed a resolution directing its governor to defend the slaves. In December, 1857, the supreme court, in which a certiorari had been sued out, affirmed Judge Paine's decision (People v. Lemmon, 5 Sandf., 681), and it was still further sustained by the court of appeals at the March term, 1860 (Lemmon v. People, 20 New York Rep., 562). Arthur, as a law student, and after his admission to the bar, became an earnest advocate for the slaves. He went to Albany to secure the intervention in their behalf of the legislature and the governor, and he acted as their counsel in addition to attorney-general Ogden Hoffman, E. D. Culver, Joseph Blunt, and (after Mr. Hoffman's death) William M. Evarts. Charles O'Conor was employed as further counsel for the slave-holder, and argued his side before the court of appeals, while Mr. Blunt and Mr. Evarts argued for the slaves. Until 1855 the street-car companies of New York City excluded colored persons from riding with the whites, and made no adequate provision for their separate transportation. One Sunday in that year a colored woman named Lizzie Jennings, a Sabbath-school superintendent, on the way home from her school, was ejected from a car on the Fourth avenue line. Culver, Parker & Arthur brought a suit in her behalf against the company in the supreme court in Brooklyn, the plaintiff recovered a judgment, and the right of colored persons to ride in any of the city cars was thus secured. The Colored People's Legal Rights Association for years celebrated the anniversary of their success in this case. Mr. Arthur became a Henry Clay Whig, and cast his first vote in 1852 for Winfield Scott for president. He participated in the first Republican state Convention at Saratoga, and took an active part in the Fremont Campaign of 1856. On 1 January, 1861, Governor Edwin D. Morgan, who on that date entered upon his second term, and between whom and Mr. Arthur a warm friendship had grown up, appointed him on his staff as engineer-in-chief, with the rank of brigadier-general. He had previously taken part in the organization of the state militia, and had been judge-advocate of the second brigade. When the Civil War began, in April, 1861, his active services were required by Governor Morgan, and he became acting quartermaster-general, and as such began in New York City the work of preparing and forwarding the state's quota of troops. In December he was called to Albany for consultation concerning the defences of New York Harbor. On 24 December he summoned a board of engineers, of which he became a member; and on 18 January, 1862, he submitted an elaborate report on the condition of the national forts both on the sea-coast and on the inland border of the state. On 10 February, 1862, he was appointed inspector-general, with the rank of brigadier-general, and in May he inspected the New York troops at Fredericksburg and on the Chickahominy. In June, 1862, Governor Morgan ordered his return from the Army of the Potomac, and he acted as secretary of the meeting of the governors of the loyal states, which was held at the Astor House, New York City, 28 June. The governors advised President Lincoln to call for more troops; and on 1 July he called for 300,000 volunteers. At Governor Morgan's request, General Arthur resumed his former work, resigned as inspector-general, and 10 July was appointed quartermaster-general. In his annual report, dated 27 January, 1863, he said: “Through the single office and clothing department of this department in the City of New York, from 1 August to 1 December, the space of four months, there were completely clothed, uniformed, and equipped, supplied with camp and garrison equipage, and transported from this state to the seat of war, sixty-eight regiments of infantry, two battalions of cavalry, and four battalions of artillery.” He went out of office 31 December, 1862, when Horatio Seymour succeeded Governor Morgan, and his successor, Quartermaster-General S. V. Talcott, in his report of 31 December, 1863, spoke of the previous administration as follows: “I found, on entering on the discharge of my duties, a well-organized system of labor and accountability, for which the state is chiefly indebted to my predecessor, General Chester A. Arthur, who by his practical good sense and unremitting exertion, at a period when everything was in confusion, reduced the operations of the department to a matured plan, by which large amounts of money were saved to the government, and great economy of time secured in carrying out the details of the same.”

Between 1862 and 1872 General Arthur was engaged in continuous and active law practice — in partnership with Henry G. Gardner from 1862 till 1867, then for five years alone, and on 1 January, 1872, he formed the firm of Arthur, Phelps & Knevals. He was for a short time counsel for the department of assessments and taxes, but resigned the place. During all this period he continued to take an active interest in politics; was chairman in 1868 of the central Grant club of New York; and became chairman of the Executive Committee of the Republican state Committee in 1879.

On 20 November, 1871, he was appointed by President Grant collector of the port of New York, and assumed the office on 1 December; was nominated to the Senate 6 December, confirmed 12 December, and commissioned for four years 16 December On 17 December, 1875, he was nominated for another term, and by the Senate confirmed the same day, without reference to a committee — a courtesy never before extended to an appointee who had not been a senator. He was commissioned 18 December, and retained the office until 11 July, 1878, making his service about six and two thirds years.

The New York Republican state Convention, held at Syracuse, 22 March, 1876, elected delegates to the national convention in favor of the nomination of Senator Conkling for president. The friends of Mr. Conkling in the state convention were led by Alonzo B. Cornell, then naval officer in the New York custom-house. A minority, calling themselves reform Republicans, and favoring Benjamin H. Bristow for president, were led by George William Curtis. At the national convention at Cincinnati, 14 June, sixty-nine of the New York delegates, headed by Mr. Cornell, voted for Mr. Conkling, and one delegate, Mr. Curtis, voted for Mr. Bristow. At the critical seventh ballot, however, Mr. Conkling's name was withdrawn, and from New York sixty-one votes were given for Rutherford B. Hayes, against nine for James G. Blaine; and the former's nomination was thus secured. At the New York Republican state Convention to nominate a governor, held at Saratoga, 23 August, Mr. Cornell and ex-Governor Morgan were candidates, and also William M. Evarts, supported by the reform Republicans led by Mr. Curtis. Mr. Cornell's name was withdrawn, and Governor Morgan was nominated. In the close state and presidential canvass that ensued, Messrs. Arthur and Cornell made greater exertions to carry New York for the Republicans than they had ever made in any other campaign; and subsequently General Arthur's activity in connection with the contested countings in the southern states was of vital importance. Nevertheless, President Hayes, in making up his cabinet, selected Mr. Evarts as his secretary of state, and determined to remove Messrs. Arthur and Cornell, and to transfer the power and patronage of their offices to the use of a minority faction in the Democratic Party. The president had, however, in his inaugural of 5 March, 1877, declared in favor of civil service reform — “a change in the system of appointment itself; a reform that shall be thorough, radical, and complete; that the officer should be secure in his tenure so long as his personal character remained untarnished, and the performance of his duties satisfactory.” In his letter of acceptance of 8 July, 1876, he had used the same words, and added: “If elected, I shall conduct the administration of the government upon these principles, and all constitutional powers vested in the executive will be employed to establish this reform.” It became necessary, therefore, before removing Arthur and Cornell, that some foundation should be laid for a claim that the custom-house was not well administered. A series of investigations was thereupon instituted. The Jay commission was appointed 14 April, 1877, and during the ensuing summer made four reports criticising the management of the custom-house. In September, Secretary Sherman requested the collector to resign, accompanying the request with the offer of a foreign mission. The newspapers of the previous day announced that at a cabinet meeting it had been determined to remove the collector. The latter declined to resign, and the investigations were continued by commissions and special agents. To the reports of the Jay commission Collector Arthur replied in detail, in a letter to Secretary Sherman, dated 23 November On 6 December, Theodore Roosevelt was nominated to the Senate for collector, and L. Bradford Prince for naval officer; but they were rejected 12 December, and no other nominations were made, although the Senate remained in session for more than six months. On 11 July, 1878, after its adjournment, Messrs. Arthur and Cornell were suspended from office, and Edwin A. Merritt was designated as collector, and Silas W. Burt as naval officer, and they took possession of the offices. Their nominations were sent to the Senate 3 December, 1878. On 15 January, 1879, Secretary Sherman communicated to the Senate a full statement of the causes that led to these suspensions, mainly criticisms of the management of the custom-house, closing with the declaration that the restoration of the suspended officers would create discord and contention, be unjust to the president, and personally embarrassing to the secretary, and saying that, as Collector Arthur's term of service would expire 17 December, 1879, his restoration would be temporary, as the president would send in another name, or suspend him again after the adjournment of the Senate. On 21 January, 1879, Collector Arthur, in a letter to Senator Conkling, chairman of the committee on commerce, before which the nominations were pending, made an elaborate reply to Secretary Sherman's criticisms, completely demonstrating the honesty and efficiency with which the custom-house had been managed, and the good faith with which the policy and instructions of the president had been carried out. A fair summary of the merits of the ostensible issue is contained in Collector Arthur's letter of 23 November, 1877, from which the following extract is taken: “The essential elements of a correct civil service I understand to be: first, permanence in office, which of course prevents removals except for cause; second, promotion from the lower to the higher grades, based upon good conduct and efficiency; third, prompt and thorough investigation of all complaints, and prompt punishment of all misconduct. In this respect I challenge comparison with any department of the government under the present, or under any past, national administration. I am prepared to demonstrate the truth of this statement on any fair investigation.” In a table appended to this letter Collector Arthur showed that during the six years he had managed the office the yearly percentage of removals for all causes had been only 2¾ per cent. as against an annual average of 28 per cent. under his three immediate predecessors, and an annual average of about 24 per cent, since 1857, when Collector Schell took office. Out of 923 persons who held office when he became collector, on 1 December, 1871, there were 531 still in office on 1 May, 1877, having been retained during his entire term. In making promotions, the uniform practice was to advance men from the lower to the higher grades, and all the appointments except two, to the one hundred positions of $2,000 salary, or over, were made in this method. The expense of collecting the revenue was also kept low; it had been, under his predecessors, between 1857 and. 1861, 59/100 of one per cent. of the receipts; between 1861 and 1864, 87/100; in 1864 and 1865, 1 30/100; between 1866 and 1869, 74/100; in 1869 and 1870, 85/100; in 1870 and 1871, 60/100; and under him, from 1871 to 1877, it was 62/100 of one per cent. The influence of the administration, however, was sufficient to secure the confirmation of Mr. Merritt and Mr. Burt on 3 February, 1879, and the controversy was remitted to the Republicans of New York for their opinion. Mr. Cornell was nominated for governor of New York 3 September, 1879, and elected on 4 November; and Mr. Arthur was considered a candidate for U. S. Senator for the term to begin 4 March, 1881.

On retiring from the office of collector, General Arthur resumed law practice with the firm of Arthur, Phelps, Knevals & Ransom. But he continued to be active in politics, and, in 1880, advocated the nomination of General Grant to succeed President Hayes. He was a delegate at large to the Chicago Convention, which met 2 June, and during the heated preliminary contest before the Republican National Committee, which threatened to result in the organization of two independent conventions, he conducted for his own side the conferences with the controlling anti-third term delegates relative to the choice of a temporary presiding officer, and the arrangement of the preliminary roll of delegates in the cases to be contested in the convention. The result of the conferences was an agreement by which all danger was avoided, and when, upon the opening of the convention, an attempt was made, in consequence of a misunderstanding on the part of certain Grant delegates, to violate this agreement, he resolutely adhered to it, and insisted upon and secured its observance. After the nomination, 10 June, of General Garfield for president, by a combination of the anti-third term delegates, a general desire arose in the convention to nominate for vice-president some advocate of Grant and a resident of New York state. The New York delegation at once indicated their preference for General Arthur, and before the roll-call began the foregone conclusion was evident: he received 468 votes against 283 for all others, and the nomination was made unanimous. In his letter of acceptance of 5 July, 1880, he emphasized the right and the paramount duty of the nation to protect the colored citizens, who were enfranchised as a result of the southern rebellion, in the full enjoyment of their civil and political rights, including honesty and order, and excluding fraud and force, in popular elections. He also approved such reforms in the public service as would base original appointments to office upon ascertained fitness, fill positions of responsibility by the promotion of worthy and efficient officers, and make the tenure of office stable, while not allowing the acceptance of public office to impair the liberty or diminish the responsibility of the citizen. He also advocated a sound currency, popular education, such changes in tariff and taxation as would “relieve any overburdened industry or class, and enable our manufacturers and artisans to compete successfully with those of other lands,” national works of internal improvement, and the development of our water-courses and harbors wherever required by the general interests of commerce. During the canvass he remained chairman of the New York Republican state Committee. The result was a plurality for Garfield and Arthur of 21,000 in the state, against a plurality of 32,000 in 1876 for Tilden and Hendricks, the Democratic candidates against Hayes and Wheeler.

Vice-President Arthur took the oath of office 4 March, 1881, and presided over the extra session of the Senate that then began, which continued until 20 May. The Senate contained 37 Republicans and 37 Democrats, while Senators Mahone, of Virginia, and Davis, of Illinois, who were rated as independents, generally voted, the former with the Republicans and the latter with the Democrats, thus making a tie, and giving the vice-president the right to cast the controlling vote, which he several times had occasion to exercise. The session was exciting, and was prolonged by the efforts of the Republicans to elect their nominees for secretary and sergeant-at-arms, against dilatory tactics employed by the Democrats, and by the controversy over President Garfield's nomination, on 23 March, for collector of the port of New York, of William H. Robertson, who had been the leader of the New York anti-third term delegates at the Chicago Convention. During this controversy the vice-president supported Senators Conkling and Platt in their opposition to the confirmation. On 28 March he headed a remonstrance, signed also by the senators and by Postmaster-General James, addressed to the president, condemning the appointment, and asking that the nomination be withdrawn. When the two senators hastily resigned and made their unsuccessful contest for a reelection by the legislature of New York, then in session at Albany, he exerted himself actively in their behalf during May and June.

President Garfield was shot 2 July, 1881, and died 19 September His cabinet announced his death to the vice-president, then in New York, and, at their suggestion, he took the oath as president on the 20th, at his residence, 123 Lexington avenue, before Judge John R. Brady, of the New York supreme court. On the 22d the oath was formally administered again in the vice-president's room in the capitol at Washington by Chief-Justice Waite, and President Arthur delivered the following inaugural address:

“For the fourth time in the history of the republic its chief magistrate has been removed by death. All hearts are filled with grief and horror at the hideous crime which has darkened our land; and the memory of the murdered president, his protracted sufferings, his unyielding fortitude, the example and achievements of his life, and the pathos of his death, will forever illumine the pages of our history. For the fourth time the officer elected by the people and ordained by the constitution to fill a vacancy so created is called to assume the executive chair. The wisdom of our fathers, foreseeing even the most dire possibilities, made sure that the government should never be imperilled because of the uncertainty of human life. Men may die, but the fabrics of our free institutions remain unshaken. No higher or more assuring proof could exist of the strength and permanence of popular government than the fact that, though the chosen of the people be struck down, his constitutional successor is peacefully installed without shock or strain, except the sorrow which mourns the bereavement. All the noble aspirations of my lamented predecessor which found expression in his life, the measures devised and suggested during his brief administration to correct abuses and enforce economy, to advance prosperity and promote the general welfare, to insure domestic security and maintain friendly and honorable relations with the nations of the earth, will be garnered in the hearts of the people, and it will be my earnest endeavor to profit and to see that the nation shall profit by his example and experience. Prosperity blesses our country, our fiscal policy is fixed by law, is well grounded and generally approved. No threatening issue mars our foreign intercourse, and the wisdom, integrity, and thrift of our people may be trusted to continue undisturbed the present assured career of peace, tranquillity, and welfare. The gloom and anxiety which have enshrouded the country must make repose especially welcome now. No demand for speedy legislation has been heard; no adequate occasion is apparent for an unusual session of Congress. The constitution defines the functions and powers of the executive as clearly as those of either of the other two departments of the government, and he must answer for the just exercise of the discretion it permits and the performance of the duties it imposes. Summoned to these high duties and responsibilities, and profoundly conscious of their magnitude and gravity, I assume the trust imposed by the constitution, relying for aid on Divine guidance and the virtue, patriotism, and intelligence of the American people.”

He also on the same day appointed Monday, 26 September, as a day of mourning for the late president. On 23 September he issued a proclamation convening the Senate in extraordinary session, to meet 10 October, in order that a president pro tem. of that body might be elected. The members of the cabinet were requested to retain their places until the regular meeting of Congress in December, and did remain until their successors were appointed, except Secretary Windom, who, desiring to become a candidate for senator from Minnesota, resigned from the treasury 24 October Edwin D. Morgan was nominated and confirmed secretary of the treasury, but declined the appointment; and Charles J. Folger, of New York, was then nominated and confirmed, was commissioned 27 October, and qualified 14 November He died in office, 4 September, 1884. The other members of the cabinet of President Arthur, and the dates of their commissions, were as follows: State Department, Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, of New Jersey, 12 December, 1881; treasury, Walter Q. Gresham, of Indiana, 24 September, 1884; Hugh McCulloch, of Maryland, 28 October, 1884; war, Robert T. Lincoln, of Illinois, 5 March, 1881 (retained from Garfield's cabinet); U.S. Navy, William E. Chandler, of New Hampshire, 12 April, 1882; interior, Henry M. Teller, of Colorado, 6 April, 1882; attorney-general, Benjamin H. Brewster, of Pennsylvania, 19 December, 1881; postmaster-general, Timothy O. Howe, of Wisconsin, 20 December, 1881 (died in office, 25 March, 1883); Walter Q. Gresham, 3 April, 1883; Frank Hatton, of Iowa, 14 October, 1884. Messrs. Frelinghuysen, McCulloch, Lincoln, Chandler, Teller, Brewster, and Platton remained in office until the end of the presidential term, 4 March, 1885.

The prominent events of President Arthur's administration, including his most important recommendations to Congress, may be here summarized: Shortly after his accession to the presidency he participated in the dedication of the monument erected at Yorktown, Virginia, to commemorate the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at that place, 19 October, 1781. Representatives of our French allies and of the German participants were present. At the close of the celebration the president felicitously directed a salute to be fired in honor of the British flag, “in recognition of the friendly relations so long and so happily subsisting between Great Britain and the United States, in the trust and confidence of peace and good-will between the two countries for all the centuries to come, and especially as a mark of the profound respect entertained by the American people for the illustrious sovereign and gracious lady who sits upon the British throne.” On 29 November, 1881, an invitation was extended to all the independent countries of North and South America to participate in a Peace Congress, to be convened at Washington 22 November, 1882. The president, in a special message, 18 April, 1882, asked the opinion of Congress as to the expediency of the project. No response being elicited, he concluded, 9 August, 1882, to postpone indefinitely the proposed convocation, believing that so important a step should not be taken without the express authority of Congress; or while three of the nations to be invited were at war; or still, again, until a programme should have been prepared explicitly indicating the objects and limiting the powers of the Congress. Efforts were made, however, to strengthen the relations of the United States with the other American nationalities. Representations were made by the administration with a view to bringing to a close the devastating war between Chili and the allied states of Peru and Bolivia. Its friendly counsel was offered in aid of the settlement of the disputed boundary-line between Mexico and Guatemala, and was probably influential in averting a war between those countries. On 29 July, 1882, a convention was made with Mexico for relocating the boundary between that country and the United States from the Rio Grande to the Pacific, and on the same day an agreement was also effected permitting the armed forces of either country to cross the frontier in pursuit of hostile Indians. A series of reciprocal commercial treaties with the countries of America to foster an unhampered movement of trade was recommended. Such a treaty was made with Mexico, 20 January, 1883, General U. S. Grant and Mr. Wm. H. Trescott being the U. S. commissioners, and was ratified by the Senate 11 March, 1884. Similar treaties were made with Santo Domingo 4 December, 1884; and 18 November, 1884, with Spain, relative to the trade of Cuba and Porto Rico, both of which, before action by the Senate, were withdrawn by President Cleveland, who, in his message of 8 December, 1885, pronounced them inexpedient. In connection with commercial treaties President Arthur advised the establishment of a monetary union of the American countries to secure the adoption of a uniform currency basis, and as a step toward the general remonetization of silver. Provision for increased and improved consular representation in the Central American states was urged, and the recommendation was accepted and acted upon by Congress. A Central and South American commission was appointed, under the Act of Congress of 7 July, 1884, and proceeded on its mission, guided by instructions containing a statement of the general policy of the government for enlarging its commercial intercourse with American states. Reports from the commission were submitted to Congress in a message of 13 February, 1885. Negotiations were conducted with the republic of Colombia for the purpose of renewing and strengthening the obligations of the United States as the sole guarantor of the integrity of Colombian territory, and of the neutrality of any interoceanic canal to be constructed across the isthmus of Panama. By correspondence upon this subject, carried on with the British government, it was shown that the provisions of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty of 19 April, 1850, cannot be urged, and do not continue in force in justification of interference by any European power, with the right of the United States to exercise exclusive control over any route of isthmus transit, in accordance with the spirit and purpose of the so-called “Monroe doctrine.” As the best and most practicable means of securing a canal, and at the same time protecting the paramount interests of the United States, a treaty was made with the republic of Nicaragua, 1 December, 1884, which authorized the United States to construct a canal, railway, and telegraph line across Nicaraguan Territory by way of San Juan River and Lake Nicaragua. This treaty was rejected by the Senate, but a motion was made to reconsider the vote. Before final action had been taken it was withdrawn, 12 March, 1885, by President Cleveland, who withheld it from re-submission to the Senate, and in his message of 8 December, 1885, expressed his unwillingness to assert for the United States any claim of paramount privilege of ownership or control of any canal across the isthmus. Satisfaction was obtained from Spain of the old claim on account of the “Masonic,” an American vessel, which had been seized at Manila unjustly, and under circumstances of peculiar severity. Prom the same government was also secured a recognition of the conclusiveness of the judgments of the U. S. courts naturalizing citizens of Spanish nativity. From the British government a full recognition of the rights and immunities of naturalized American citizens of Irish origin was obtained, and all such that were under arrest in England or Ireland, as suspects, were liberated. Notice was given to England, under the joint resolution of Congress of 3 March, 1883, of the termination of the fishery clauses of the treaty of Washington. A complete scheme for re-organizing the extra-territorial jurisdiction of American consuls in China and Japan, and another for re-organizing the whole consular service, were submitted to Congress. The former recommendation was adopted by the Senate. The balance of the Japanese indemnity fund was returned to Japan by Act of 22 February, 1883, and the balance of the Chinese fund to China by Act of 3 March, 1885. A bill that was passed by Congress prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers for a term of twenty years was vetoed, 4 April, 1882, as being a violation of the treaty of 1880 with China, which permitted the limitation or suspension of immigration, but forbade its absolute prohibition. The veto was sustained and a modified bill, suspending immigration for ten years, was passed 6 May, 1882, which received executive approval, and also an amendatory Act of 5 July, 1884. Outstanding claims with China were settled, and additional regulations of the opium traffic established. Friendly and commercial intercourse with Corea was opened under the most favorable auspices, in pursuance of the treaty negotiated on 22 May, 1882, through the agency of Commodore R. W. Shufeldt, U. S. N. The friendly offices of the United States were extended to Liberia in aid of a settlement, favorable to that republic, of the dispute concerning its boundary-line, with the British possession of Sierra Leone. The flag of the international association of the Congo was, on 22 April, 1884, recognized first by the United States. A commercial agent was appointed to visit the Congo basin, and the government was represented at an international conference at Berlin, called by the emperor of Germany, for the promotion of trade and the establishment of commercial rights in the Congo region. The renewal of the reciprocity treaty with Hawaii was advised. Remonstrances were addressed to Russia against any prescriptive treatment of the Hebrew race in that country. The international prime meridian of Greenwich was established as the result of a conference of nations, initiated by the U. S. government, and held at Washington. 1 October to 1 November, 1884. In response to the appeal of Cardinal John McCloskey, of New York, the Italian government, on 4 March, 1884, was urged to exempt from the sale of the property of the propaganda the American College in Rome, established mainly by contributions from the United States, and in consequence of this interposition the college was saved from sale and virtual confiscation. On 3 August, 1882, a law was passed for returning convicts to Europe, and on 26 February, 1885, importation of contract-laborers was forbidden.

The suspension of the coinage of standard silver dollars, and the redemption of the trade dollars, were repeatedly recommended. The repeal of the stamp taxes on matches, proprietary articles, playing-cards, bank checks and drafts, and of the tax on surplus bank capital and deposits, was recommended. These taxes were repealed by Act of Congress of 3 March, 1883; and by executive order of 25 June, 1883, the number of internal revenue collection districts was reduced from 126 to 83, The tax on tobacco was reduced by the same Act of Congress; and in his last annual message, of 5 December, 1884, the president advised the repeal of all internal revenue taxes except those on distilled spirits and fermented liquors. Congress was advised to undertake the revision of the tariff, but “without the abandonment of the policy of so discriminating in the adjustment of details as to afford aid and protection to American labor.” The course advised was the organization of a tariff commission, which was authorized by Act of Congress of 15 May, 1882. The report of the commission submitted to Congress 4 December was made the basis of the tariff revision Act of 3 March, 1883. On 12 July, 1882, an act became a law enabling the national banks, which were then completing their twenty-year terms, to extend their corporate existence. Overdue five per cent. bonds to the amount of $469,651,050, and six per cent. bonds to the amount of $203,573,750, were continued (except about $56,000,000 which were paid) at the rate of 3½ per cent, interest. The interest-bearing public debt was reduced $478,785,950, and the annual interest charge $29,831,880 during the presidential term. On 1 July, 1882, “An act to regulate the carriage of passengers by sea” was vetoed because not correctly or accurately phrased, although the object was admitted to be meritorious and philanthropic. A modified bill passed Congress, and was approved 2 August The attention of Congress was frequently called to the decline of the American merchant marine, and legislation was recommended for its restoration, and the construction and maintenance of ocean steamships under the U. S. flag. In compliance with these recommendations, the following laws were enacted: 26 June, 1884, an act to remove certain burdens from American shipping; 5 July, 1884, an act creating a bureau of navigation, under charge of a commissioner, in the treasury Department; and 3 March, 1885, an amendment to the postal appropriation bill appropriating $800,000 for contracting with American steamship lines for the transportation of foreign mails. Reasonable national regulation of the railways of the country was favored, and the opinion was expressed that Congress should protect the people at large in their inter-state traffic against acts of injustice that the state governments might be powerless to prevent.

The attention of Congress was often called to the necessity of modern provisions for coast defence. By special message of 11 April, 1884, an annual appropriation of $1,500,000 for the armament of fortifications was recommended. In the last annual message an expenditure of $60,000,000, one tenth to be appropriated annually, was recommended. In consequence, the fortifications board was created by Act of 3 March, 1885, which made an elaborate report to the 49th Congress, recommending a complete system of coast defence at an ultimate cost estimated at $126,377,800. The gun-foundry board, consisting of army and navy officers, appointed under the Act of 3 March, 1883, visited Europe and made full reports, advising large contracts for terms of years with American manufacturers to produce the steel necessary for heavy cannon, and recommending the establishment of one army and one navy gun factory for the fabrication of modern ordnance. This plan was commended to Congress in a special message 26 March, 1884, and in the above-mentioned message of 11 April; also in the annual message of that year. In the annual message of 1881 the improvement of Mississippi River was recommended. On 17 April, 1882, by special message, Congress was urged to provide for “closing existing gaps in levees,” and to adopt a system for the permanent improvement of the navigation of the river and for the security of the valley. Special messages on this subject were also sent 8 January and 2 April, 1884. Appropriations were made of $8,500,000 for permanent work; and in 1882 of $350,000, and in 1884 of over $150,000, for the relief of the sufferers from floods, the amount in the latter year being the balance left from $500,000 appropriated on account of the floods in the Ohio. These relief appropriations were expended under the personal supervision of the Secretary of War. On 1 August, 1882, the president vetoed a river-and-harbor bill making appropriations of $18,743,875, on the ground that the amount greatly exceeded “the needs of the country” for the then current fiscal year, and because it contained “appropriations for purposes not for the common defence or general welfare,” which did not “promote commerce among the states, but were, on the contrary, entirely for the benefit of the particular localities” where it was “proposed to make the improvements.” The bill, on 2 August, passed Congress over the veto by 122 yeas to 59 nays in the house, and 41 yeas to 16 nays in the Senate. In connection with this subject it was suggested to Congress, in the annual messages of 1882, 1883, and 1884, that it would be wise to adopt a constitutional amendment allowing the president to veto in part only any bill appropriating moneys. A special message of 8 January, 1884, commended to Congress, as a matter of great public interest, the cession to the United States of the Illinois and Michigan Canal in order to secure the construction of the Hennepin Canal to connect Lake Michigan by way of Illinois River with the Mississippi. Unlawful intrusions of armed settlers into the Indian territory for the purpose of locating upon lands set apart for the Indians were prevented, or the intruders were expelled by the army. On 2 July, 1884, the president vetoed the bill to restore to the army and place on the retired list Major-General Fitz-John Porter, who, on the sentence of a court-martial, approved by President Lincoln 27 January, 1863, had been dismissed for disobedience of orders to march to attack the enemy in his front during the second battle of Bull Run. The reasons assigned for the veto were, (1) that the Congress had no right “to impose upon the president the duty of nominating or appointing to office any particular individual of its own selection,” and (2) that the bill was in effect an annulment of a final judgment of a court of last resort, after the lapse of many years, and on insufficient evidence. The veto was overruled in the house by 168 yeas to 78 nays, but was sustained in the Senate by 27 to 27.

A new naval policy was adopted prescribing a reduction in the number of officers, the elimination of drunkards, great strictness and impartiality in discipline, the discontinuance of extensive repairs of old wooden ships, the diminution of navy-yard expenses, and the beginning of the construction of a new navy of modern steel ships and guns according to the plans of a skilful naval advisory board. The first of such vessels, the cruisers “Chicago,” “Boston,” and “Atlanta,” and a steel despatch-boat, “Dolphin,” with their armaments, were designed in this country and built in American workshops. The gun foundry board referred to above was originated, and its reports were printed with that of the department for 1884. A special message of 26 March, 1884, urged continued progress in the reconstruction of the navy, the granting of authority for at least three additional steel cruisers and four gun-boats, and the finishing of the four double-turreted monitors. Two cruisers and two gun-boats were authorized by the Act of 3 March, 1885. An Arctic expedition, consisting of the steam whalers “Thetis” and “Bear,” together with the ship “Alert,” given by the British admiralty, was fitted out and despatched under the command of Commander Winfield Scott Schley for the relief of Lieutenant A. W. Greely, of the U. S. Army, who with his party had been engaged since 1881 in scientific exploration at Lady Franklin bay, in Grinnell Land; and that officer and the few other survivors were rescued at Cape Sabine 22 June, 1884. On recommendation of the president, an Act of Congress was passed directing the return of the “Alert” to the English government.

The reduction of letter postage from three to two cents a half ounce was recommended, and was effected by the Act of 3 March, 1883; the unit of weight was on 3 March, 1885, made one ounce, instead of a half ounce; the rate on transient newspapers and periodicals was reduced, 9 June, 1884, to one cent for four ounces, and the rate on similar matter, when sent by the publisher or from a news agency to actual subscribers or to other news agents, including sample copies, was on 3 March, 1885, reduced to one cent a pound. The fast-mail and free-delivery systems were largely extended; and also, on 3 March, 1883, the money-order system. Special letter deliveries were established 3 March, 1885. The star service at the west was increased at reduced cost. The foreign mail service was improved, the appropriation of $800,000, already alluded to, was made, and various postal conventions were negotiated.

Recommendations were made for the revision of the laws fixing the fees of jurors and witnesses, and for prescribing by salaries the compensation of district attorneys and marshals. The prosecution of persons charged with frauds in connection with the star-route mail service was pressed with vigor (the attorney-general appearing in person at the principal trial), and resulted in completely breaking up the vicious and corrupt practices that had previously nourished in connection with that service. Two vacancies on the bench of the supreme court were filled — one on the death of Nathan Clifford, of Maine, by Horace Gray, of Massachusetts, commissioned on 20 December, 1881. For the vacancy occasioned by the retirement of Ward Hunt, of New York, Roscoe Conkling was nominated 24 February, 1882, and he was confirmed by the Senate; but on 3 March he declined the office, and Samuel Blatchford, of New York, was appointed and commissioned 23 March, 1882.

Measures were recommended for breaking up tribal relations of the Indians by allotting to them land in severalty, and by extending to them the laws applicable to other citizens; and liberal appropriations for the education of Indian children were advised. Peace with all the tribes was preserved during the whole term of the administration. Stringent legislation against polygamy in Utah was recommended, and under the law enacted 22 March, 1882, many polygamists were indicted, convicted, and punished. The Utah commission, to aid in the better government of the territory, was appointed under the same act. The final recommendation of the president in his messages of 1883 and 1884 was, that Congress should assume the entire political control ot the territory, and govern it through commissioners. Legislation was urged for the preservation of the valuable forests remaining upon the public domain. National aid to education was repeatedly urged, preferably through setting apart the proceeds of the sales of public lands.

A law for the adjudication of the French spoliation claims was passed 20 January, 1885, and preparation was made for carrying it into effect. Congress was urged in every annual message to pass laws establishing safe and certain methods of ascertaining the result of a presidential election, and fully providing for all cases of removal, death, resignation, or inability of the president, or any officer acting as such. In view of certain decisions of the supreme court, additional legislation was urged in the annual message of 1883 to supplement and enforce the 14th amendment to the constitution in its special purpose to insure to members of the colored race the full enjoyment of civil and political rights. The subject of reform in the methods of the public service, which had been discussed by the president in his letter of 23 November, 1877, while collector, to Secretary Sherman, and in his letter of 15 July, 1880, accepting the nomination for vice-president, was fully treated in all his annual messages, and in special messages of 29 February, 1884, and 11 February, 1885. The “act to regulate and improve the civil service of the United States” was passed 16 January, 1883, and under it a series of rules was established by the president, and the law and rules at all times received his unqualified support, and that of the heads of the several departments. The final distribution of the moneys derived from the Geneva award among meritorious sufferers on account of the rebel cruisers fitted out or harbored in British ports was provided for by the Act of 5 June, 1882. In the annual message of 1884 a suitable pension to General Grant was recommended, and, upon his announcement that he would not accept a pension, a special message of 3 February, 1885, urged the passage of a bill creating the office of general of the army on the retired list, to enable the president in his discretion to appoint General Grant. Such a bill was passed 3 March, 1885, and the president on that day made the nomination, and it was confirmed in open session amid demonstrations of approval, in a crowded Senate-chamber, a few minutes before the expiration of the session.

The president attended, as the guest of the city of Boston, the celebration of the Webster Historical Society at Marshfield, Massachusetts, and made brief addresses in Faneuil Hall, 11 October, 1882, and at Marshfield, 13 October He commended the Southern Exposition at Louisville, Kentucky, by a letter of 9 June, 1883, attended its opening, and delivered an address on 2 August He aided in many ways the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition at New Orleans; and on 16 December, 1884, in an address sent by telegraph from the executive mansion in Washington, he opened the exposition, and set in motion the machinery by the electric current. On 25 September, 1883, he was present at the unveiling of the Burnside monument at Bristol, Rhode Island On 26 November, 1883, he attended the unveiling of the statue of Washington on the steps of the sub-treasury building in New York City; and 21 February, 1885, he made an address at the dedication, at the national capital, of the Washington monument, which had been completed during his term.

President Arthur's name was presented to the Republican presidential Convention that met at Chicago 3 June, 1884, by delegates from New York, Pennsylvania, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Louisiana. On the first ballot he received 278 votes against 540 for all others, 276 on the second, 274 on the third, and 207 on the fourth, which resulted in the nomination of James G. Blaine. He at once telegraphed to Mr. Blaine, “As the candidate of the Democratic Party you will have my earnest and cordial support,” and in the canvass which ensued he rendered all possible assistance to the Republican cause and candidates. The national convention, in its resolutions, declared that “in the administration of President Arthur we recognize a wise, conservative, and patriotic policy, under which the country has been blessed with remarkable prosperity, and we believe his eminent services are entitled to and will receive the hearty approval of every citizen.” The conventions in all the states had also unanimously passed resolutions commendatory of the administration.

Mr. Arthur married, 29 October, 1859, Ellen Lewis Herndon, of Fredericksburg, Virginia, who died 12 January, 1880, leaving two children, Chester Alan Arthur, born 25 July, 1865, and Ellen Herndon Arthur, born 21 November, 1871. Their first child, William L. H. Arthur, was born 10 December, 1860, and died 8 July, 1863. Mrs. Arthur was the daughter of Commander William Lewis Herndon, of the U. S. Navy, who, in 1851-'2, explored the Amazon River under orders of the government. He perished in a gale at sea, 12 September, 1857, on the way from Havana to New York, while in command of the merchant-steamer, “Central America.” (See 

In person, Mr. Arthur was tall, large, well-proportioned, and of distinguished presence. His manners were always affable. He was genial in domestic and social life, and warmly beloved by his personal friends. He conducted his official intercourse with unvarying courtesy, and dispensed the liberal hospitalities of the executive mansion with ease and dignity, and in such a way as to meet universal commendation from citizens and foreigners alike. He had a full and strong mind, literary taste and culture, a retentive memory, and was apt in illustration by analogy and anecdote. He reasoned coolly and logically, and was never one-sided. The style of his state papers is simple and direct. He was eminently conscientious, wise, and just in purpose and act as a public official; had always the courage to follow his deliberate convictions, and remained unmoved by importunity or attack. He succeeded to the presidency under peculiarly distressing circumstances. The factional feeling in the Republican Party, which the year before had resulted in the nomination of General Garfield for president as the representative of one faction, and of himself for vice-president as the representative of the other, had measurably subsided during the canvass and the following winter, only to break out anew immediately after the inauguration of the new administration, and a fierce controversy was raging when the assassination of President Garfield convulsed the nation and created the gravest apprehensions. Cruel misjudgments were formed and expressed by men who would now hesitate to admit them. The long weeks of alternating hope and fear that preceded the president's death left the public mind perturbed and restless. Doubt and uneasiness were everywhere apparent. The delicacy and discretion displayed by the vice-president had compelled approval, but had not served wholly to disarm prejudice, and when he took the murdered president's place the whole people were in a state of tense and anxious expectancy, of which, doubtless, he was most painfully conscious. All fears, however, were speedily and happily dispelled. The new president's inaugural was explicit, judicious, and reassuring, and his purpose not to administer his high office in the spirit of former faction, although by it he lost some friendships, did much toward healing the dissensions within the dominant party. His conservative administration of the government commanded universal confidence, preserved public order, and promoted business activity. If his conduct of affairs be criticised as lacking aggressiveness, it may confidently be replied that aggressiveness would have been unfortunate, if not disastrous. Rarely has there been a time when an indiscreet president could have wrought more mischief. It was not a time for showy exploits or brilliant experimentation. Above all else, the people needed rest from the strain and excitement into which the assassination of their president had plunged them. The course chosen by President Arthur was the wisest and most desirable that was possible. If apparently negative in itself, it was positive, far-reaching, and most salutary in its results. The service which at this crisis in public affairs he thus rendered to the country must be accounted the greatest of his personal achievements, and the most important result of his administration. As such, it should be placed in its true light before the reader of the future; and in this spirit, for the purpose of historical accuracy only, it is here given the prominence it deserves. His administration, considered as a whole, was responsive to every national demand, and stands in all its departments substantially without assault or criticism.

He died suddenly, of apoplexy, at his residence, No. 123 Lexington avenue. New York, Thursday morning, 18 November, 1886. The funeral services were held on the following Monday, at the Church of the Heavenly Rest. President Cleveland and his cabinet, Chief-Justice Waite, ex-President Hayes, James G. Blaine, Gens. Sherman, Sheridan, and Schofield, and the surviving members of President Arthur's cabinet, were in attendance. On the same day a special train conveyed his remains to Albany, where they were placed by the side of his wife in the family burial-place in Rural cemetery.
[Appleton’s 1900]   

ASBOTH, Alexander Sandor, soldier, born in Keszthely, Hungry, 18 December, 1811; died in Buenos Ayres, S.A., 21 January, 1868. He was educated in Oldenburg, and served for some time as a cuirassier in the Austrian army. Subsequently he studied law at Presburg, and then, turning his attention to engineering, was employed upon various important works in the Banat. He served with Kossuth in the Hungarian war of 1848-’9, and participated in the battles of Tomasovacz, Kapolna, and Nagy Sarlo. He followed Kossuth to Turkey, shared his confinement at Kutaieh, and on his release came with him to the United States in 1851, where he soon became a citizen. He pursued various occupations, and on the outbreak of the Civil War in 861 offered his services to the government. In July he was sent to Missouri as chief of staff to General Frémont, and on 26 September was appointed brigadier-general and commanded the 4th division in Frémont's western campaign. He was next assigned to the command of a division in General Curtis's army, and during the Arkansas Campaign occupied Bentonville and Fayetteville. He participated in the battles of Pea Ridge, and was severely wounded. In 1863 he was placed in command of Columbus, Kentucky, and in August of the same year was assigned to the District of West Florida, with head-quarters at Fort Pickens. He was badly wounded in the battle of Marianna, 27 September, 1864, his left cheek-bone being broken and his left arm fractured in two places. For his services in Florida he was brevetted major-general 13 March, 1865, and resigned in the following August. In 1866 he was sent as U.S. minister to the Argentine Republic and Uruguay, where he died in consequence of the wounds in his face.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 108.

ASHBY, Turner, soldier, born at Rose Hill, Fauquier County, Virginia, in 1824; killed in action near Harrisonburg, 6 June, 1862. He was a grandson of Captain Jack Ashby, who commanded a company in the 3d Virginia Regiment in the Revolutionary War. During early life he was a grain-dealer in Markham, Virginia, and afterward a planter and local politician. On the breaking out of the Civil War he raised a regiment of cavalry, and, being a fine horse-man, a soldier by nature, and possessed of remarkable personal daring, he soon distinguished himself. He was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate Provisional Army in 1862, but met his death shortly afterward in a skirmish preceding the battle of Cross Keys, Virginia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 110.

ASHBURN, George W., soldier, born in Georgia; died 1 April, 1868. During the Civil War he was a strong opponent of secession, and raised a company of southern loyalists, subsequently enlarged to a regiment, of which he was colonel. On his return home after the war he boldly advocated the Congressional plan of reconstruction. He was chosen a delegate to the Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867, and did much toward perfecting the constitution of his state. His political enemies, unsuccessful in provoking him to violence, caused his death. This crime was investigated by General Meade, and it was shown conclusively by whom the murder was committed.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 109.

ASHLEY, James Monroe, 1824-1896, Ohio, Underground Railroad activist. Republican Member of the U.S. House of Representatives, voted for Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, abolishing slavery.  Adamant opponent of slavery.  Member, Free Soil Party, 1848.  Joined Republican Party in 1854. (Dumond, 1961, p. 339; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 110; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, pp. 389-390; Congressional Globe)

ASHLEY, James Monroe, Congressman, born near Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 14 November, 1824. His education was acquired while a clerk on boats on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Later he worked in printing-offices, and became editor of the "Dispatch." and afterward of the "Democrat," at Portsmouth, Ohio. He then studied law, and was admitted to the bar of Ohio in 1849, but never practised. Subsequently he settled in Toledo, where he became interested in the wholesale drug business. He was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1859, and was reelected four times, serving continuously from 5 December, 1859, till 3 March, 1869. He was for four terms chairman of the Committee on Territories, and it was under his supervision that the territories of Arizona, Idaho, and Montana were organized. He was nominated for the 41st Congress, but was defeated, and in 1869 was appointed governor of Montana. In 1866 he was a delegate to the loyalist convention held in Philadelphia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 110.

ASHMUN, George, 1804-1870, Massachusetts, statesman, lawyer, Congressman.  Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 111

ASHMUN, George,
statesman, born in Blandford, Massachusetts, 25 December, 1804; died in Springfield, Massachusetts, 17 July, 1870. He was graduated at Yale in 1823, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1828 at Springfield, Massachusetts In 1833, 1835, 1836, and 1841 he was elected a member of the lower branch of the Massachusetts legislature, and during the last term he was speaker of the house. He was a state senator in '38-'9. He was elected to Congress in 1845, and served continuously until 1851, being a member of the committees on the judiciary, Indian affairs, and rules. He was a great admirer of Daniel Webster, and although he did not follow the latter in his abandonment of the Wilmot Proviso, defended him in the ensuing quarrels; his replies to Charles J. Ingersoll, of Pennsylvania, and Charles Allen, of Massachusetts, when they assailed Webster with personal and political bitterness, were among the strongest efforts of his career in Congress. Subsequent to his retirement from political life he devoted his attention to the practice of his profession. In 1860 he was president of the Chicago Convention that nominated Lincoln for president. It is said to have been through his influence that in 1861 Senator Douglas, of Illinois, was won over to the support of the administration, and the results of a subsequent interview at the White house between Lincoln, Douglas, and Ashmun, were of great importance to the country. In 1866 he was chosen a delegate to the national union Convention, held in Philadelphia, but he took no part in its deliberations. He was also for some time a director of the Union Pacific Railroad. Appletons’ Cyclopædia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I.  p. 111.

ASPER, Joel F., born in Adams County, Pennsylvania, 20 April, 1822; died in Chillicothe, Mo., 1 October, 1872. He was admitted to the bar in 1844, elected a justice of the peace in 1846, and prosecuting attorney of the county in 1847. In 1849 he edited the “Western Reserve Chronicle,” and in 1850 became editor of the “Chardon Democrat.” In 1861 he raised a company and was commissioned a captain. He was wounded in the battle of Winchester, and, after being promoted lieutenant- colonel in 1862, was mustered out in 1863 on account of wounds. In 1864 he moved to Missouri and founded the Chillicothe “Spectator.” He was elected to Congress in 1868, and served on the committee on military affairs. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 111.

ASPINWALL, William H., merchant, born in New York City, 10 Dec, 1807; died there, 18 January, 1875. He was trained in the house of G. G. & S. Howland, his uncles, and taken into the firm in 1832. In 1837 the new firm of Howland & Aspinwall was established. This house had the largest Pacific trade of any firm in New York, besides doing an extensive business with the East and West Indies, England, and the Mediterranean. In 1850 he retired from the active management of the firm, and secured the contract for a line of mail steamers from the isthmus of Panama to California, and a concession from the government of New Granada for the construction of a railroad across the isthmus. The road was completed after many difficulties, and opened on 17 February, 1855, the eastern terminus being named Aspinwall. Mr. Aspinwall was president of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company until 1850. He travelled much in the last twenty years of his life, and made an important collection of paintings, which were sold by his family in 1880.—His son. Lloyd, born in New York city in 1830, died in Bristol, R.I, 4 September, 1880, commanded the 22d New York Militia in its three months' service before Gettysburg, had charge of the purchase of vessels for the Newbern Expedition, was president of a board to revise army regulations, was General Burnside's aide at Fredericksburg, and after the war was a brigadier-general in the national guard.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 112.

ATHERTON, Charles Gordon, senator, born in Amherst, N. H., 4 July, 1804; died in Manchester, N. H., 15 November, 1853. fie was graduated at Harvard in 1822, and admitted to the bar in 1825. He practised at first in Nashua and then in Dunstable. After being a Democratic member of the legislature for many years, and for three years speaker of the house, he was elected to Congress in 1837 and sat in the lower house until 1843. He introduced in 1838 the resolution, which remained in force until 1845, declaring that all bills or petitions, of whatever kind, on the subject of slavery, should be tabled without debate, and should not be taken again from the table. This was called "the Atherton gag." From 1843 to 1849 he was a senator from New Hampshire, and in 1852 he was again elected to the Senate and served as chairman of the finance committee. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 114.

ATKINSON, Edward, 1827-1905, industrial entrepreneur, economist, abolitionist, activist.  Opposed slavery as a supporter of the Free Soil Party.  Also a member of the Boston Vigilance Committee, which aided fugitive slaves.  Atkinson also supported John Brown’s efforts by supplying him rifles and ammunition for his raid on the US arsenal at Harpers Ferry in 1859.  Opposed Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt’s imperialist ambitions in the Philippines and in Cuba.  After 1898, became a full-time supporter of the American Anti-imperialist League.  (Pease & Pease, 1972; Appletons’ Cyclopedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I, p. 114; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, p. 407)

economist, born in Brookline, Massachusetts, 10 February, 1827. His education was obtained principally at private schools, and his reputation has been made by the numerous pamphlets and papers that he has contributed to current literature on economic topics. The subjects treated embrace such general topics as banking, competition, cotton, free trade, mechanical arts, and protection. The most important of his addresses are “Banking,” delivered at Saratoga in 1880 before the American Bankers' Association; “Insufficiency of Economic Legislation,” delivered before the American Social Science Association; “What makes the Rate of Wages,” before the British Association for the Advancement of Science; address to the chief of the Bureau of Labor Statistics at their convention in Boston in 1885; vice-presidential address on the “Application of Science to the Production and Consumption of Food,” before the American association for the advancement of science, in 1885; and “Prevention of Loss by Fire,” before the millers of the west, in 1885. His pamphlets and books include the following: “Cheap Cotton by Free Labor” (Boston, 1861); “The Collection of Revenue” (1866); “Argument for the Conditional Reform of the Legal-Tender Act” (1874); “Our National Domain” (1879); “Labor and Capital-Allies, not Enemies” (New York, 1880); “The Fire Engineer, the Architect, and the Underwriter” (Boston, 1880); “The Railroads of the United States” (1880); “Cotton Manufacturers of the United States” (1880); “Addresses at Atlanta, Georgia, on the International Exposition” (New York, 1881); “What is a Bank” (1881); “Right Methods of Preventing Fires in Mills” (Boston, 1881); “The Railway and the Farmer” (New York, 1881); “The Influence of Boston Capital upon Manufactures,” in “Memorial History of Boston” (Boston, 1882); and “The Distribution of Products” (New York, 1885). In 1886 he began the preparation of a series of monographs on economic questions for periodical publication. Through his efforts was established the Boston manufacturers' mutual fire insurance company, an association consisting of a number of manufacturers who, for their mutual protection, adopted rules and regulations for the economical and judicious management of their plants. He has invented an improved cooking-stove, called the “Aladdin Cooker.” Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 114. 

AUDENRIED, Joseph Crain, soldier, born in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 6 November, 1839; died in Washington, 3 June, 1880. He was graduated at West Point in 1861, was brevetted second lieutenant, 4th U.S. Cavalry, and assisted in organizing and drilling the troops then assembled in Washington. He took part in the first campaign as aide-de-camp to General Tyler, and served with the 2d Artillery till March, 1862. During the Peninsular Campaign he was acting assistant adjutant-general to General Emory's cavalry command. In July, 1862, he became aide-de-camp to General Sumner, commanding the 2d Army Corps, and acted in this capacity until the death of General Sumner in March, 1863. He was wounded at Antietam, and brevetted captain. He reported as aide-de-camp to General Grant in June, 1863, and witnessed the surrender of Vicksburg. He joined the staff of General Sherman at Memphis on 1 October, 1863, and shared in the Chattanooga and Knoxville Campaign, that to Meridian, the Atlanta Campaign, the march to the sea, and that through the Carolinas. He accompanied General Sherman during his several tours through the great west, among the Indians, and through Europe, and continued to discharge the duties of aide-de-camp to the general of the army until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,  p.117.

AUDUBON, John James, naturalist, born near New Orleans, La., 4 May, 1780; died near New York city, 27 January, 1851. His grandfather was a fisher- man of La Vendee, in France, and his father, who had worked his way up to the command of a French man-of-war, and had acquired a plantation in Louisiana, married there a lady of Spanish descent, named Anne Moynette. When very young, Audubon lived for a short time on a plantation belonging to his father in Santo Domingo, and, after his mother's death in a Negro insurrection, was taken to France to be educated. His parents had encouraged in him a love of nature almost before he was able to walk, and he had long amused himself by trying to transfer to paper the graceful forms of the tropical birds with which he was familiar. Although his efforts fell so far short of his ideal that he was accustomed to make a bonfire of them on each birthday, they nevertheless showed talent, and his father p him in the studio of then seventeen the celebrated painter David. Here he was set to drawing horses' heads and the limbs of giants, instead of his favorite birds. He persevered, however, in this one study, while he neglected all the others, preferring to spend his time in excursions through the woods, gathering specimens and making drawings of birds. Seeing his tastes, his father, who had designed him for the navy, gave up his plan, and sent the boy, years old, to a farm belonging to him at Mil Grove, near Philadelphia. Here young Audubon spent his time in hunting, fishing, drawing, and collecting specimens of natural history. A visit to France, made to lay before his father some grievances against the agent who had charge of the property, enabled Audubon to add largely to his collections. His house at Mill Grove became a museum, filled with stuffed animals, and decorated with festoons of birds' eggs, and with drawings of birds and beasts. He is an excellent marksman, and was also at this time quite a dandy, if we may credit his own account. While at Mill Grove he fell in love with Lucy Bakewell, daughter of an Englishman who had come to America a few years before, and whose property adjoined that of Audubon. At the desire of Mr. Bakewell, who thought him somewhat unpractical, he entered the employ of a firm in New York, where he soon demonstrated his lack of interest in £ but natural history, collecting specimens with his usual earnest- ness, and letting business take care of itself. It is related that his neighbors at one time made a legal complaint against £ on account of the disagree- able odor from the drying bird-skins in his room. He soon returned to his home, and, thinking he might be more successful in the west, formed a partnership with Ferdinand Rosier, a friend, and, having sold his farm, started, in 1808, for Louisville, and with a stock of goods bought with the proceeds. Before setting out he married Miss Bakewell, and the journey to Louisville, part of which was made in a flat-boat, was their bridal tour. In Louisville, Audubon left business to Rosier, and spent his time in the more congenial occupation of tramping the woods in search of birds and in drawing pictures of them. In his store at Louisville he met Alexander Wilson, the celebrated ornithologist, who had come to solicit Audubon's subscription to his book on American birds, and was naturally astonished when he was shown drawings superior to his own, some of them representing birds he had never seen. Audubon relates that he gave Wilson considerable aid in his search for specimens, but the latter seems to have been somewhat jealous of the rival he had so unexpectedly discovered, and afterward wrote disparagingly of his visit to Louisville. Audubon's business did not prosper, and, after two removals in a vain search for better success, the partnership was dissolved in 1812, and Audubon settled with his wife and their son Victor at Hendersonville, where his second son,  John, was afterward born. He embarked in a business venture with his brother-in-law at New Or- leans, and was again unsuccessful. During this time he was still devoting himself completely to natural history, making long excursions into the surrounding country, sometimes tramping for days through pathless thickets with only dog and gun for companions, and all the time adding new drawings to his collection. Some birds he was obliged to shoot, afterward ingeniously supporting them in natural positions while he painted them: others he drew with the aid of a telescope, representing them amid their natural surroundings. Audubon's appearance was now very different from that of the young proprietor of  Grove. After some of his long tramps through the forests, unshaven and unshorn, his rifle on his shoulder and his color-box strapped on his back, he looked the veritable " American woodsman " he was afterward so fond of styling himself. He seems to have done all this with no incentive but the love of nature; the idea of publication had not yet entered his mind. About this time his father died, leaving him an estate in Prance and the sum of $17,000. The latter was held in trust by a friend in Richmond, Virginia, who faded shortly afterward, and Audubon received not a penny. His devotion to his favorite pursuit continued to bring him into financial trouble, and he was obliged to earn money by giving drawing lessons and taking crayon portraits in Louisville' and Cincinnati. His friends not un- naturally looked on him as a madman, but his wife encouraged and assisted him in every way. To obtain money for the education of her children, she became a governess in New Orleans, whither her husband went in 1830. and where she joined him a year later, and again in Natchez, where they went, in 1822. She afterward established a school at Bayou Sara, to help him in the publication of his work, and in this school he aided her, for some time, by teaching music and dancing. The idea of giving his collection of drawings to the world was first suggested to him by Prince Canino, son of Lucien Bonaparte, whom He met in Philadelphia Audubon had gone to that city in 1824, after earning the necessary money in various ways, on one occasion by painting the interior of a steamboat. About this time two hundred drawings, the labor of years, were destroyed in a single night by rats, and the fact that, after a day or two of natural despondency, he went bravely to work to replace his loss, illustrates Audubon's energy and perseverance. In Philadelphia he met several noted artists, but the idea of publication seems to have had little encouragement. After returning to Bayou Sara, where he had left his wife, he sailed from New Orleans, in 1826, for England, intending to seek aid there, though he had not a friend in the country. On his arrival he began to exhibit his drawings in public, and, though at first he met with discouragements, the value and merit of his work was soon recognized by European naturalists. The friends that he made during this visit included Herschel, Sir Walter Scott, and "Christopher North " in Great Britain, and Cuvier, Humboldt, and St. Hilaire in France. In 1827 he issued the prospectus of his famous work, "The Birds of America," which was published in numbers, each containing five plates. The whole book consisted of four folio volumes of plates, and $1,000 was the price of each copy. The entire cost of the work exceeded $100,000, and. at the time when the prospectus was is- sued. Audubon had not enough money to pay for the first number. The influence of Sir Thomas Lawrence, the painter, enabled the naturalist to sell several pictures at fair prices, and with the proceeds he paid the engraver's first bill of $60. After this Audubon painted frequently, often sup- porting himself entirely in this way. He was obliged not only to be his own publisher, but to keep the book constantly before the public by personal solicitation. In 1828 he spent two months in Paris canvassing for subscribers, and in 1829 returned to America for the same purpose; nevertheless, owing to the price of the book, people were slow to give him their names, and many of those who did so did not scruple to withdraw them. In this way he lost fifty subscribers during the preparation of the first volume. But, notwithstanding all drawbacks, the work went steadily forward. The first volume was issued in London in 1830, and the last in 1839. Immediately after the publication of the first volume Audubon began to write his " Ornithological Biographies," consisting of the letter-press to the "Birds,' together with reminiscences of personal adventure and descriptions of scenery and character. The work consisted of five octavo volumes (Edinburgh, 1831-9). During this time Audubon continued the collection of material in the United States, and, although sea- voyages were misery to him, made several trips to England, where he wrote much of the text of his work. On two of these journeys he was accompanied by his wife, and she frequently travelled with him while he obtained subscribers. In 1840 he left England for the last time, and thence- forward lived with his two sons and their families at his house on Hudson River. The place, which he named Minniesland, is now within the New York City limits, in what is known as "Audubon Park." From 1840 to 1844 he was occupied with the publication of a smaller edition of his work, which was completed in seven octavo volumes. The classification of the matter in this edition adds to its scientific value. In the folio edition the method of publication of course prevented any attempt at orderly arrangement, and the only effort had been to make the numbers uniform in interest. Before the publication of the last volume of the "Birds," Audubon had projected a similar work on the "Quadrupeds of America," and with the help of his sons, Victor Gifford and John Woodhouse, and of Reverend John Bachman, of Charleston, S. C., had gathered much material. He had planned an extensive trip to the Rocky mountains in pursuance of his design, but was persuaded by his friends to give it up, as he was now an old man. Much of the work on the "Quadrupeds of America" was done by his sons. A large number of the animals was secured and painted by John, while nearly all the landscapes are the work of Victor. The first volume was issued in 1846, and the last in 1854, after Audubon's death, under the superintendence of his son John. After he had reached his sixty-seventh year Audubon's mind began to weaken, and during the last four years of his life he was able to do little work. He was buried in Trinity church cemetery, which adjoined his property. His son. John Woodhouse, died 21 February, 1862, while preparing a third edition of the "Birds of America. Mrs. Audubon survived her husband many years, and prepared from his diary n biography, which was published in New York in 1868. Mrs. Audubon died at the home of her sister-in-law, in Shelbyville, Kentucky, 19 June, 1874. Audubon was a man of fine personal appearance. He seems to have been attached to his family, and to have been happy m his home, yet he chafed under the confinement of domestic life, and longed to be continually in the woods. After the recognition of his genius, honors were showered upon him. At the time of his death he was a fellow of the Linnaean and zoölogical societies of London, of the Natural History Society of Paris, of the Wernerian Society of Edinburgh, of the lyceum of natural history of New York, and an honorary member of the Society of natural history at Manchester, of the royal Scottish Academy of painting, sculpture, and architecture, and of many other scientific bodies. See, besides works already mentioned, Dunlap's “History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design” (New York, 1834); Griswold's “Prose Writers of America” (Philadelphia, 1847); Mrs. Horace St. John's “Audubon, the Naturalist, in the New World” (New York, 1856); Samuel Smiles's “Brief Biographies” (Bos- ton, 1861); and Reverend C. C. Adams's “Journal of the Life and Labors of J. J. Audubon.”  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 117-119.

AUGUR, Christopher Colon, soldier, born in New York in 1821. He was graduated at West Point in 1843, having been appointed to the academy from Michigan. During the Mexican War he served as aide-de-camp to General Hopping and, after his death, He was promoted captain 1 August, 1852, and served with distinction in a campaign against the Indians in Oregon in 1856. On 14 May, 1861, he was appointed major in the 13th Infantry, and was for a time Commandant of Cadets at West Point. In November of that year he was commissioned a brigadier-general of volunteers, and joined McDowell's corps. In July, 1862, he was assigned to a division under General Banks, and in the battle of Cedar Mountain, 9 August, was severely wounded. He sat on the military court that investigated the surrender of Harper's Ferry. He was promoted major- general 9 August, 1862, and in November joined his corps and took part in the Louisiana Campaign. At the siege of Port Hudson he commanded the left wing of the army, and for meritorious services on that occasion he was brevetted brigadier-general in the U.S. army, 13 March, 1865, receiving on the same date the brevet of major-general for services in the field during the rebellion. From 13 October, 1863, to 13 August, 1866, he was commandant of the Department of Washington; from 15 January, 1867, to 13 November, 1871, of the Department of the Platte; then of the Department of Texas until March, 1875; of the Department of the Gulf until 1 July, 1878, and to General Caleb Cushing. subsequently of the Department of the South and the Department of the Missouri, and in 1885 was retired. On 15 August, 1886, he was shot and dangerously wounded by a Negro whom he attempted to chastise for using coarse language in front of his house in Washington.—His son, Jacob Arnold, is a captain in the 5th U.S. cavalry.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 119.

AULICK, John H., naval officer, born in Winchester, Virginia, in 1789; died at Washington, D.C., 27 April, 1873. He entered the U. S. Navy  as midshipman in 1809, and in 1812 served on the “Enterprise” in all the engagements of that vessel, carrying into port the British ship. “Boxer” and the privateers “Fly” and “Mars,” which the “Enterprise.” captured. He afterward served on the “Saranac,” “Ontario,” “Constitution,” and “Brandywine,” and was in command of the Washington U. S. Navy -yard from 1843 to 1846. He commanded the “Vincennes” in 1847, and the East India Squadron, making his last cruise in 1853. In 1861 he retired with the rank of captain, and in July, 1862, was made a commodore on the retired list.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 119.

AVERELL, William Woods, soldier, born in Cameron, Steuben County, New York, 5 November, 1832. His grandfather, Ebenezer Averell, was a captain in the U.S. army under Sullivan. Young Averell was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in June, 1855, and assigned to the mounted riflemen. He served in garrison and at the school for practice at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, until 1857, when he was ordered to frontier duty, and saw a great deal of Indian fighting, mainly against the Kiowas and Navajos. He was severely wounded in a night attack by the Navajos in 1859, and was on sick-leave until the outbreak of the civil War in 1861. He was promoted to be first lieutenant of the mounted riflemen 14 May, 1861, and was on staff duty in the neighborhood of Washington, participating in the battle of Bull Run and other engagements until 23 August, 1861, when he was appointed colonel of the 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry, and commanded the cavalry defences in front of Washington. He was engaged with the army of the Potomac in its most important campaigns. In March, 1863, he began the series of cavalry raids in western Virginia that made his name famous. The first notable one was on the 16th, 17th, and 18th of March, and included the battle of Kelly's Ford, on the upper Rappahannock. In August he drove a Confederate force over the Warm Spring mountains, passed through several southern counties, and near White Sulphur Springs attacked a force posted in Rocky Gap, for the possession of which a fight ensued, lasting two days (26 and 27 August). Averell was repulsed with heavy loss, but made his way back to the union lines with 150 prisoners. n 5 November he started with a force of 5,000 men and drove the Confederates out of Greenbrier County, capturing three guns and about 100 prisoners. In December he was again in motion, advancing with a strong force into southwestern Virginia. On 16 December he struck the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad at Salem, General Longstreet's base of supplies. He destroyed the railroad, severing an important line of communication between the Confederate generals Lee and Bragg, and burned a large quantity of provisions, clothing, and military equipments. When he began his retreat the alarm had been given, and all the mountain passes were held by the Confederates. He captured a bearer of despatches, learned the enemy's plans, and forced the position defended by General W, S. Jackson (" Mudwall," as he was called, to distinguish him from his more famous name-sake). A second line concentrated to cut off his retreat, but he led his command over a road supposed to be impassable, and reached the federal lines with 200 prisoners and 150 horses, having lost 11 men killed or drowned and 90 missing. "My command," he said in his report (21 Dec, 1863), "has marched, climbed, slid, and swum three hundred and forty miles since the 8th inst," After the exposure and hardships of this raid he was obliged to ask for sick-leave, extending to February. On his return to duty he was placed in command of the 2d Cavalry Division, and from that time until September, 1864, the fighting was almost continuous. He was wounded in a skirmish near Wytheville, but was in the saddle and under tire again two days afterward, destroying a section of the Tennessee Railroad. In June he crossed the Alleghany Mountains, in July he was fighting in the Shenandoah Valley and at Winchester. In August he was in fights at Moorfield, Bunker Hill, Martinsburg, and elsewhere, and ended the campaign with the battles of Opequan (19 September), Fisher's Hill (22 September), and Mount Jackson (23 Sept). In the meantime he had been brevetted through the different grades of his regular army rank until he was brevet major-general. On 18 May, 1865, he resigned. He was consul-general of the United States in the British provinces of North America from 1866 till 1869, when he became president of a large manufacturing company. He discovered a process for the manufacture of cast-steel directly from the ore in one operation (1869-'70), invented the American asphalt pavement (January, 1879), and the Averell insulating conduits for wires and conductors (1884-'5), and also a machine for laying electric conductors underground (1885). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 121-123.

AVERILL, John T., soldier, born in Alna, Maine, 1 March, 1825. He was educated at Maine Wesleyan University, settled in St. Paul, Minnesota, and engaged in manufacturing, but laid aside his business in August, 1862, and entered the army as lieutenant-colonel of the 6th Minnesota Infantry. The brevet of brigadier-general was conferred on him when he was mustered out of service. He was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1871, by a close vote, and reelected by a large majority. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p.122.