American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
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l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

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Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography - Cob-Cuy


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Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography – Cob-Cuy

COBB, Howell, statesman, born in Cherry Hill, Jefferson County, Georgia, 7 September, 1815; died in New York City, 9 October, 1868. He was graduated at Franklin College, Athens, in 1834, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1836, and chosen an elector on the Van Buren ticket the same year. He was appointed by the legislature solicitor-general of the western circuit of Georgia in 1837, held the office for three years, and during that period obtained an extensive practice. He entered Congress as a Democrat in 1843, and served by successive reelections till 1851, distinguishing himself by his familiarity with the rules, his skill as a debater, his vehement professions of love for the Union, and his equally earnest advocacy of state rights. His imperiousness, and his bold championship of slavery, made him the leader of the southern party in the house in 1847, and he was elected speaker in 1849, after a long and close contest He demanded the extension of slavery into California and New Mexico by Federal authority, and advocated the compromise measures of 1850. An issue being taken on this latter question by the southern rights extremists of Georgia, he was nominated for governor by the Union Party in 1851, and after a violent contest was elected by a large majority. At the expiration of his term of service as governor, in 1853, he resumed the Practice of law, and still took an active part in politics. He was again elected to Congress in 1855, advocated Mr. Buchanan's election throughout the northern states in 1856, and in 1857 became his secretary of the treasury. He found the treasury full, and the bonds representing the national debt at a premium of sixteen to eighteen per cent. He used the surplus funds in the treasury in purchasing this indebtedness at this high premium, but the approach of the Civil War so affected the national credit that he was compelled to attempt to borrow at an exorbitant discount the money necessary to defray the ordinary expenses of the government. On 10 December 1860, he resigned, giving as his reason that the state of Georgia (then about to secede) required his services. On his return to Georgia, he addressed the people of the state, urging forward the secession movement. He was one of the delegates from Georgia to the provisional Congress which prepared and adopted the constitution of the Confederacy, and presided over each of its four sessions. Of the first Confederate Congress, that assembled 18 February, 1862, Mr. Cobb was not a member; but, having done his utmost to organize the opposition, he was withdrawn from civil office, not being a favorite with Jefferson Davis. On the demand of the Georgian members, the Confederate Congress appointed him brigadier-general, and subsequently promoted him to a major-generalship, but he took little part in military movements. At the close of the war he strongly opposed the reconstruction measures as calculated to retard the restoration of the south to the Union, keep back its prosperity, and destroy the Negro race. See a memorial volume edited by Samuel Boykin (Philadelphia, 1869).—His brother, Thomas R. R., lawyer, born in Cherry Hill, Jefferson COUNTY, Georgia, 10 April, 1823; killed at the battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia, 13 December, 1862, was graduated at the University of Georgia in 1841, standing at the head of his class, was admitted to the bar, and was reporter of the supreme court of Georgia from 1849 till 1857, when he resigned. He was a trustee of the university, was active in the cause of education in his native state, and had a high reputation and large practice as a lawyer. He was an able and eloquent member of the Confederate Congress, in which he served as chairman of the committee on military affairs, and afterward became a general in the Confederate Army. Mr. Cobb was a Presbyterian, took much interest in religious and educational matters, and gave largely to the Lucy Cobb Institute. He published "Digest of the Laws of Georgia" (1851); "Inquiry into the Law of Negro Slavery in the United States" (Philadelphia, 1858); "Historical Sketch of Slavery, from the Earliest Periods" (Philadelphia, 1859); and several essays in behalf of a state system of education. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 666-667.

COBB, Stephen Alonzo, born in Madison, Maine, 17 June, 1833; died in August, 1878. He went with his father to Minnesota in 1850, where he engaged in the lumber business, meanwhile preparing for college. After two years in Beloit College he went to Brown, where he graduated in 1858, and in 1859 moved to Wyandotte, Kansas, and began the practice of law. In 1862 he was a state senator, but entered the army, served through the war, and rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1869 he again became a member of the state senate. In 1871 he was elected to the house, in 1872 was speaker of that body, and mayor of Wyandotte in 1862 and 1868. He was elected to Congress in 1872, and served on the committees on post-roads and the State Department. He was renominated in 1874, but was defeated.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 668.

COCHRAN, John, lawyer, born in Palatine, Montgomery County, New York, 27 August, 1813, studied first at Union, but was graduated at Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, in 1831. he studied law and was admitted to the bar of New York in 1834. From 1853 till 1857 he was Surveyor of the port of New York, and from 1857 till 1861 a representative from that city in Congress. On 4 July, 1858, he was deputed by the Common Council of the City of New York to convey to his native state of Virginia the remains of President James Monroe, who had died in New York and been buried there. On 11 June, 1861, he was commissioned colonel of the 1st U. S. Chasseurs, which he commanded at Fair Oaks, Malvern Hill, and other battles of the Peninsular Campaign. He became brigadier-general of volunteers on 17 July, 1862, and was assigned a brigade in Couch's division of the Army of the Potomac. He was with the reserve at the battle of Antietam, and afterward pursued the retreating enemy, resigning from the army on 27 February, 1862, in consequence of serious physical disability. In 1864 he was nominated at Cleveland, Ohio, by the Convention of independent Republicans, for vice-president of the United States on the ticket with General John C. Fremont for president. In 1863-'5 he was attorney-general of the state of New York, and in 1869 tendered the mission to Paraguay and Uruguay, which he declined. In 1872 he was one of the New York Delegation to the Convention of the Liberal Democratic Party that met at Cincinnati, and was chiefly instrumental in securing the nomination of Horace Greeley for the presidency. In 1872 he was a member of the Common Council of the City of New York and president of the board, and was acting mayor during the temporary retirement of Mayor Hall in the midst of the Tweed ring disclosures, and again a member of the council in 1883. General Cochran is a member of the Society of the Cincinnati.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 671.

COCKE, John Hartwell, 1780-1866, Fluvanna County, Virginia, general, reformer, temperance advocate.  Vice President, 1833-1841, of the American Colonization Party (ACS).  Life member and supporter of the ACS.  President of two ACS auxiliaries in Albemarle and Fluvanna counties in Virginia.  (Burin, 2005, pp. 38, 44, 61, 63, 102; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 672; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 2, p. 253)

COCKE, John Hartwell, born in Surry county, Virginia, 19 September, 1780; died in Fluvanna county, Virginia, 1 July, 1866. He was graduated at William and Mary in 1798, and was general commanding the Virginia troops at Camp Carter and Camp Holly, on the Chickahominy, in 1812 and 1813, in defence of the city of Richmond. He was vice-president of the American Temperance Society and of the American Colonization Society, and a member of the first board of visitors of the University of Virginia. Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 672.

COCKE, Philip St. George, soldier, born in Virginia in 1808; died in Powhatan county, Virginia, 26 December 1861. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1832, assigned to the 2d artillery, and served at Charleston, South Carolina during the nullification excitement in 1832-'3. He was adjutant from 1833 till 1834, and resigned on 1 April of the latter year. He then devoted himself to planting in Virginia and Mississippi, and was president of the Virginia State Agricultural Society from 1853 till 1850. He was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate service early in 1861, and commanded the 5th brigade at the first battle of Bull Run. After an eight months' campaign he returned home, shattered in body and mind, and shot himself in a paroxysm of insanity. He published "Plantation and Farm Instruction " (1852). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. pp. 672-673.

COCKRELL, Francis Marion, senator, born in Johnson county, Missouri, 1 October, 1834. He was graduated at Chapel Hill, Missouri, in 1853, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and practised in Warrensburg. He entered the Confederate Army, where he rose to be a colonel, commanding the 1st Missouri Brigade under General Bowen, which was routed at Baker's Creek, and he was afterward commissioned a brigadier-general. He never held a public office until elected as a Democratic senator in Congress from Missouri, to succeed Carl Schurz, taking his seat on 4 March, 1875. He was re-elected in 1880 for the term expiring 3 March, 1887.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 673.

CODY, William Frederick, scout, born in Scott county, Iowa, 26 February, 1845. When he was about seven years old his father moved to Kansas, then an unsettled territory, where he was killed in what was known as the “Border war.” When the pony express was established across the plains in the spring of 1860, William became one of the most fearless and daring among its riders. At the beginning of the Civil War he acted as government scout and guide, being chiefly employed in Arkansas and southwestern Missouri. In 1863 he enlisted in the 7th Kansas Cavalry, was promoted, and served with distinction as scout until the close of the war. In 1867 he entered into a contract with the Kansas Pacific Railway in western Kansas, at a monthly compensation of $500, to deliver all the buffalo meat that would be required for food for the army of laborers employed, and in eighteen months he killed 4,280 buffaloes, earning the title of “Buffalo Bill,” by which he was afterward familiarly known. Cody again entered the government service in 1868 as a scout and guide, and after a series of dangerous rides as bearer of important despatches through a country infested with hostile Indians, was appointed by General Sheridan chief scout and guide for the 5th U.S. Cavalry against the Sioux and Cheyennes. He then served with the Canadian River Expedition during 1868-’9, and until the autumn of 1872 was with the army on the western border. In 1872 he was elected a member of the Nebraska Legislature, but, after serving a short time, resigned, and made a successful appearance on the stage in Chicago. At the beginning of the Sioux War in 1876 he discharged his dramatic company, joined the 5th U.S. Cavalry, and was engaged in the battle of Indian Creek, where he killed in a hand-to-hand conflict the Cheyenne chief Yellow-Hand. At the close of the campaign he returned to the stage, and in 1883 organized an exhibition called the “Wild West,” whose object was to give a realistic picture of life on the frontier. His actors included actual Indians, Mexicans, and “cowboys,” and in 1886 he contracted to take his company to Europe during 1887.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 674.

COGWELL, Mason Fitch, physician, born in Hartford, Connecticut., 10 November, 1807; died in Albany, New York, 21 January, 1865, was graduated at Yale in 1829, studied medicine, and became a leading physician in Albany. He served as assistant surgeon and surgeon in the volunteer army of the United States during the Civil War. In 1847 he married Lydia, daughter of the Reverend John M. Bradford, a direct descendant from Governor Bradford, of Plymouth colony. She died in 1872. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p 680.

COGSWELL, Milton, soldier, born in Noblesville, Indiana, 4 December, 1825; died in Washington, D. C., 20 November, 1882. He was the first child of American parentage born in Noblesville. After graduation at the U. S. Military Academy in 1849, he joined the army and served almost continuously until he was placed on the retired list in 1871. This period covered the Civil War, in which he became colonel of the 42d New York Volunteers. He was severely wounded, and held a prisoner for nearly a year. After his retirement with the rank of brevet colonel in the regular army for gallant services, he was deputy governor of the Soldier's Home in Washington, and, with the exception of a year's interval, held the office until his death.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p 680.

COGSWELL, William, lawyer, born in Bradford, Massachusetts, 23 August, 1838. His parents were Dr. George and Abigail Parker Cogswell. He studied in Phillips Andover Academy and in Kimball Union Academy, at Meriden, New Hampshire He entered Dartmouth College, but soon went to sea before the mast, following the example of an elder brother. After his return he was graduated at Harvard law-school in 1860. In 1861 he raised the first company of volunteers for the national cause in Massachusetts. He was regularly promoted until he became colonel of the 2d Massachusetts Infantry, and participated in many of the battles of the Army of the Potomac, for which he was brevetted brigadier-general, 15 December, 1864. After the war he became a prominent officer of the Grand Army of the republic and in the Loyal legion, and he has held several important civil offices in the state.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 680.

COLBY, Anthony, governor of New Hampshire, born in New London, N. H, 13 November, 1792; died there, 13 July, 1873. He was a member of the Baptist church, and did much toward consolidating the interests of the denomination in the state. He was major-general of militia, president of a railroad, and a large owner of factories. In 1846-'7 he was governor of the state. Dartmouth gave him the honorary degree of A. M. in 1850, and he was one of its trustees from 1850 till 1870. During the Civil War he was adjutant-general of the state. Governor Colby was a personal friend of Daniel Webster. His last work was the establishment of Colby Academy, a Baptist institution in New London. N. H, endowed by his family.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 681.

COLHOUN, Edmund R., naval officer, born in Pennsylvania, 6 May, 1821. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman, 1 April, 1839; became a master,  January, 1853; resigned, 27 June, 1853; re-entered the navy as acting lieutenant, 24 September, 1801; was commissioned commander, 17 November, 1862; captain, 2 March, 1869; commodore, 26 April, 1876, and rear-admiral, 3 December, 1882. when he was retired from active service. He served in the Mexican War in the first attack on Alvarado under Commodore Connor, and in the assault on Tobasco under Commodore Perry. In 1861-2 he commanded the steamer "Hunchback," of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and took part in the battle of Roanoke Island, the capture of Newbern, and the engagements below Franklin on the Blackwater River in October, 1862. In 1863 he commanded the steamer "Ladona," and afterward the monitor " Weehawken," of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, in her various engagements with Forts Sumter, Wagner, and Beauregard, in the summer of 1863. In 1864-'5 he commanded the monitor "Saugus," attached to the North Atlantic Squadron, and engaged Hewlett's battery on James River, 21 June, and again 5 December, 1864, and took part in the bombardment of Fort Fisher, 25 December, 1864, and subsequent days. He was commandant at Mare Island U.S. Navy-yard, California, in 1879-80, and inspector of vessels in California at the time of his retirement.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 689.

COLHOUN, John, naval officer, born in Pennsylvania in 1802; died in New York City, 30 November, 1872. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman, 25 January, 1821, became a passed midshipman, 24 May, 1828, a lieutenant, 27 May, 1830; a commander, 4 November, 1852, was retired in October, 1864, and subsequently promoted to the rank of commodore, 4 April, 1867. He served on the store-ship "Supply, at Vera Cruz, during the Mexican War, commanded the sloop "Portsmouth" on the coast of Africa in 1859-61, brought the frigate "St. Lawrence" home from Key West in 1863, and after his retirement served as light-house inspector in 1866-7.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 689

COLLINS, John Anderson, 1810-1879, abolitionist, social reformer.  General Agent and Vice President, Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society.  Edited anti-slavery magazine, Monthly Garland.  (Filler, 1960, pp. 24, 110, 135; Mabee, 1970, pp. 76, 80, 81, 82, 88, 112, 114, 119, 120, 123, 124, 125, 212, 264, 394n30, 394n31, 398n13; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 2, Pt. 2, p. 307; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 5, p. 253)

COLLINS, Napoleon, naval officer, born in Pennsylvania, 4 May, 1814; died in Callao, Peru, 9 August, 1875. He entered the U.S. Navy in 1834 as midshipman, became a lieutenant in 1846, was attached to the sloop “Decatur” during the Mexican War, and was present at Tuspan and Tobasco. He commanded the steamer “Anacosta” in the Potomac Squadron in 1861, and took part in the engagement at Acquia Creek on 31 May in that year. He afterward received command of the gun-boat “Unadilla,” and for nearly a year was with the fleet stationed off the coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, and took part in the battle of Port Royal and in various expeditions along the coast. In July, 1862, he was made commander of the steamer “Octorara” in the West Indian Squadron. In 1863 he was transferred to the steam sloop “Wachusett” and sent in pursuit of Confederate privateers. On 7 October, 1864, he bore down on the Confederate steamer “Florida” in the Harbor of Bahia, Brazil, intending to sink her, but demanded her surrender, and, as the captain and half his crew were ashore, the lieutenant in command deemed it best to comply. In an instant the “Florida" was boarded, a hawser was made fast, and the captor put out to sea, making no reply to a challenge from the Brazilian fleet, and unharmed by three shots fired from the fort. After the “Wachusett" and her prize arrived in Hampton Roads in November, '' negotiations for the return of the “Florida” were in progress she was run into at her anchorage by a steam transport and sunk. Brazil having complained that her neutrality had been violated in this affair. Secretary of State Seward disavowed the act of Commander Collins and ordered him to be tried by court-martial. On 25 July, 1866, he was promoted captain and placed in command of the steam sloop "Sacramento.” He was made a commodore on 19 January, 1871, and on 9 August, 1874, was raised to the rank of rear-admiral and placed in command of the South Pacific Squadron. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 692

COLVOCORESSES, George Musalas, naval officer, born in the island of Scio, Grecian archipelago, 22 October, 1810; died in Bridgeport, Connecticut, 3 June, 1872. He was ransomed from the Turks after the massacre of the Greek population of the island in 1822, and sent by his father to the United States, where he was received into the family of Captain Alden Partridge and educated at the Military Academy founded by that officer in Norwich Vermont. In 1832 he was appointed a midshipman, and in 1836-7 attached to the frigate " United States ' on the Mediterranean Squadron. In 1838 he was commissioned passed midshipman, and accompanied Captain Wilkes's Exploring Expedition to the Southern Seas, serving at various times on the "Porpoise." "Peacock," "Vincennes, and Oregon " and taking part in the Overland Expedition in 1841 from Vancouver's Island to San Francisco. He was commissioned lieutenant in 1843 served on the Pacific Squadron in 1844-6. the Mediterranean Squadron m 1847-'9, on the coast of Africa in 1851-2 at New York in 1853-'5 on the East India Squadron in 1855-'8, during which he participated as executive officer of the " Levant in the capture of the Barrier Forte in Canton River and at Portsmouth U. S. Navy -yard in 1858- 60. He was made commander in 1861, and assigned to the store-ship "Supply" on the Atlantic Coast 1861-3 during which he captured the blockade-runner'" Stephen Hart," laden with arms and military stores; to the sloop-of-war "Saratoga of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, in 1864 and the sloop-of-war " St. Mary's," of the Pacific Squadron, in 1865-'6. In 1867 he received his commission as captain, and was retired. He was mysteriously murdered in Bridgeport. Captain Colvocoresses was the author of a work on Wilkes's Expedition, entitled “Four Years in a Government Exploring Expedition” (New York, 1855).—His son, George Partridge, naval officer, born in Norwich, Vermont, 3 April, 1847, was graduated at the U.S. Naval Academy in 1868, and risen to the rank of lieutenant in 1875. He has served on most of the foreign naval stations, and in the hydrographic office at Washington, and in 1886 was assistant instructor in drawing at the U.S. Naval Academy.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 699-700.

COMMAGER, Henry S., soldier, born about 1825; died in Galveston, Texas, 5 September, 1867. He was a prominent Democratic politician in Toledo, Ohio, and in 1864 was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress. He was colonel of the 67th Ohio Regiment during the Civil War, and on 27 February, 1865, was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers. For a short time before his death he was in the employ of the internal revenue service.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 701.

COMSTOCK, Cyrus Ballou, soldier, b, in West Wrentham, Massachusetts, 3 February, 1831. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1855, standing first in his class, and became second lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. From that time until 1859 he was engaged in the construction of Fort Taylor, Florida, and Fort Carroll, Maryland, after which he was assistant professor of natural and experimental philosophy at West Point. During the Civil War he served in the defences of Washington, D.C., becoming in August, 1861, assistant to the chief of engineers in the Army of the Potomac. He continued with this army through the Peninsular Campaign of 1862, and the Maryland Campaign, and was made chief engineer in November, 1862. After Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville he was transferred to the Army of the Tennessee, and was its chief engineer, being present at the siege of Vicksburg. Later he became assistant inspector of the military Division of the Mississippi, and from March, 1864, till the close of the war was senior aide-de-camp to General U. S. Grant, serving in the Richmond Campaign of 1864), at Port Fisher, and in General Canby's Mobile Campaign. From 1866 till 1870 he served as aide to the general-in-chief at Washington, and since that time has been occupied as superintendent of Geodetic Survey of the northern and northwestern lakes, and on other important surveys, including the improvements of the mouth of the Mississippi. In 1881 he became lieutenant- colonel in the Engineer Corps, and he holds the brevet ranks of brigadier-general in the regular army and major-general of volunteers. He was appointed in 1882 a member of the Board of Engineers for Fortifications and River and Harbor Improvements. General Comstock was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1884. He has published “Notes on European Surveys.” (Washington, 1876); “Survey of the Northwestern Lakes” (1877); and “Primary Triangulation, U.S. Lake Survey” (1882).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 702.

CONKLING, Frederick Augustus born in Canaioharie, New York, 22 August, 1816, received a classical education, and became a merchant. He was for three years a member of the New York legislature. In June, 1861, he organized, at his own expense, the 84th New York Regiment, serving as its colonel. During July, 1863, the regiment did duty as provost-guard at Baltimore, Maryland, and in 1864 it saw several months' service in Virginia. Colonel Conkling served one term in Congress, from 1861 till 1863, and in 1868 was the Republican candidate for mayor of New York. He changed his politics, however, and spoke in various parts of the Union in favor of Mr. Tilden's election to the presidency in 1876, and of General Hancock's in 1880. He is a trustee of the College of physicians and surgeons, a member of the geographical and historical societies, and the author of various reports to the New York legislature, and numerous pamphlets on political, commercial, and scientific subjects.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 706.

CONNER, James, soldier, born in Charleston, South Carolina, 1 September, 1829; died 26 June, 1883. He was graduated at South Carolina College in 1849, admitted to the bar in 1852, and in 1856 appointed U. S. District attorney for South Carolina, which office he resigned in December, 1860. He entered the Confederate Army as captain in 1861, served in many campaigns, rose to the rank of brigadier-general, and in the latter part of the war commanded a division. He was chairman of the South Carolina Democratic state committee in 1876, and elected in that year attorney-general on the same ticket with Governor Wade Hampton, but resigned the office in 1877.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 708.

CONNOR, Patrick Edward, soldier, born in the south of Ireland, 17 March, 1820. He came to the United States when a boy, was educated in New York City, entered the regular army during the Florida War, at the age of nineteen, engaged in mercantile business in New York City after his discharge in 1844, and in 1846 settled in Texas. Upon the breaking out of the Mexican War in that year he was mustered in as captain of Texas volunteers, in the regiment of Albert Sidney Johnston, fought at Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, and was severely wounded at Buena Vista. Shortly after the close of the war he emigrated to California, and there engaged in business. In 1861 he raised a regiment of volunteers in California, and was ordered to Utah, to prevent a revolt of the Mormons and rid the overland routes of plundering Indians. On 29 January, 1863, his force, numbering 200, after a rapid march of 140 miles, made in four nights through deep snow, in weather so cold that the feet of seventy-six soldiers were frozen, encountered 300 warriors in their fortified camp on Bear River, Washington Territory. The troops enfiladed the position, and after a fight of four hours destroyed the entire band. Colonel Connor was commissioned brigadier-general, 30 March, 1863, and was long in command of the Utah District, where he effectively established the authority of the government. He received the brevet of major-general at the close of the Civil War, and having been appointed, on the petition of the legislatures of Colorado and Nebraska, to the District of the Plains, organized an expedition of 2,000 cavalry to chastise the Sioux and Arapahoes for depredations on the Overland mail route, and in August, I866, defeated the latter at Tongue River. He was mustered out of the service on 30 April, 1866. General Connor was the leader in building up a Gentile community in Utah. His volunteer force numbered 16,000. Soon after he established Camp Douglas, near Salt Lake City, he founded there the " Union Vedette," which was the first daily newspaper printed in the territory. He located the first silver mine in Utah, wrote the first mining law, introduced navigation on the Great Salt Lake, built the first silver-lead smelting-works, and founded the town of Stockton. After the war he declined a colonelcy in the regular army in order to attend to his large mining and commercial interests in Utah.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 708-709.

CONNOR, Selden, soldier, born in Fairfield, Maine, 25 January, 1839. He was graduated at Tufts College, Massachusetts, in 1859, and studied law in Woodstock, Vermont. When the war began he enlisted for three months in the 1st Regiment of Vermont Volunteers, and after being mustered out was chosen major, and afterward lieutenant-colonel of the 7th Maine Regiment. He commanded the regiment for some time, took part in the Peninsular Campaign, was in temporary command of the 77th New York Regiment after the battle of Antietam, participated in the battle of Fredericksburg, receiving a slight wound, and was present at the battle of Gettysburg. In January, 1864, he was commissioned colonel of the 19th Maine Volunteers, and, as ranking officer, commanded the brigade. In the battle of the Wilderness his thigh-bone was shattered by a bullet, 6 May, 1864. He was commissioned brigadier-general in June, 1864, but was incapacitated for active service after receiving his wound. In April, 1866, his leg was again fractured by a fall, confining him to his house for two years. He was a member of Governor Chamberlain's staff, and in 1868 was appointed assessor of internal revenue. In 1874 he was appointed collector for the Augusta District, and held that office till he was nominated by the Republicans for the governorship of Maine, in 1875. He was elected by 3,872 majority over Charles W. Roberts, the Democratic candidate, and re-elected for the two following terms, serving from January, 1876, till January, 1879. From 1882 till 1886 he was U. S. Pension-Agent.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 709.

CONOVER, Simon Barclay
, senator, born in Cranbury, Middlesex County, New Jersey, 23 September, 1840. He was graduated M. D. in the University of Nashville, Tennessee, in 1864, appointed an assistant surgeon in the Army of the Cumberland, and stationed at Nashville, Tennessee, resigned, but was afterward reappointed, and ordered to Lake City, Florida, in 1866. He was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1868, and was appointed state treasurer by Governor Reed, resigning his commission in the army to accept the office. He was a member of the Republican National Convention at Chicago in 1868, and became a member of the Republican National Committee. After the expiration of his tenure of office as treasurer, in 1873, he was elected a member of the state House of Representatives, and chosen speaker. He was elected U. S. Senator in 1872, and served from 4 March, 1873, till 3 March, 1879. He was the Republican candidate for governor in 1880. After the expiration of his term in the Senate he resumed the practice of medicine.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 709.

., naval officer, born in New Jersey in 1794; died in South Amboy, New Jersey, 25 September, 1864. He entered the U.S. Navy as midshipman, 1 January, 1812, his first cruise being on the "Essex," commanded by Captain David Porter, during the war with England. His next service was under Commodore McDonough on Lake Champlain. He was promoted to a lieutenancy, 5 March, 1817, and served on board the "Guerriere" in the Mediterranean and other vessels in various portions of the world until his promotion to commander, 29 February 1838, in which capacity he commanded the sloop-of-war "John Adams" some years. He was promoted to the rank of captain, 2 October, 1848, and in 1857-8 commanded the squadron on the coast of Africa the "Constitution" being his flag-ship On 16 July 1862, on the creation of the grade of commodore in the navy, he was promoted to that rank and placed on the retired list, having been m the service fifty-three years.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 709.

CONRAD, Charles M
., statesman born m Winchester, Virginia, about 1804; died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 11 Feb 1878. He went with his father to Mississippi, and thence to Louisiana while an infant received a liberal education, studied law was admitted to the bar in 1828, and practised in New Orleans. He served several years in the state legislature, was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Whig in the place of Alexander Mouton, who had resigned, and served from 14 April, 1842, till 3 March, 1843. In 1844 he was a member of the state constitutional convention. He was elected to Congress in 1848, and served till August, 1850, when he was appointed Secretary of War by President Fillmore, serving from 13 August, 1850, till 7 March, 1853. He was one of the leaders of the secession movement in Louisiana in December, 1860, a deputy from Louisiana in the Montgomery provisional Congress of 1861, a member of the 1st and 2d Confederate Congresses in 1862–'4, and also served as a brigadier-general in the Confederate Army.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 709-710.

CONRAD, Joseph, soldier, born in Wied-Selters, Germany, 17 May, 1830. He was graduated at the Military Academy of Hesse Darmstadt in 1848, and came to this country, settling in Missouri. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted in the National service, and was made captain of the 3d Missouri Infantry. He became major in September, and was engaged in the action of Carthage, the battle of Pea Ridge, and the siege of Corinth. After being mustered out, he re-entered the army as lieutenant-colonel of the 15th Missouri Infantry, in May, 1862, became colonel in November, and was engaged in the battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge. During the Atlanta Campaign he commanded a brigade in the Army of the Cumberland, and was brevetted brigadier-general for his services. He commanded the sub-District of Victoria in Texas until February, 1866, when he was mustered out of the volunteer service. In July, 1866, he entered the regular army, and was commissioned captain in the 29th U.S. Infantry, transferred to the 11th U.S. Infantry in April, 1869, and served with his regiment until October, 1882, when he was retired with the rank of colonel.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 710.

CONRAD, Joseph Speed
, soldier, born in Ithaca, New York, 23 August, 1833. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1857, and assigned to the 2d U.S. Infantry, stationed at Fort Columbus. He was sent to the western frontier in 1858, and during the three years succeeding served in Minnesota and Nebraska. When the Civil War began he was a first lieutenant, and was detailed as commissary of subsistence to General Lyon in the Missouri Campaign in the summer of 1861. He was wounded at the battle of Wilson's Creek, 10 August, and was on sick-leave until October. He was promoted captain, 1 November, 1861, and placed at the head of the discharge department in Washington from that time until 21 January, 1864. Early in the summer of that year he joined the regular brigade of the Army of the Potomac, and was engaged in the campaigns that followed, including the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Petersburg, and Reams's Station. During this period he served at different times as judge-advocate, provost-marshal, and commissary of musters. He received three brevets, as major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel of volunteers. From 1865 till 1871 he was occupied with garrison duty, after which he served as instructor of infantry tactics at the U.S. Military Academy, and then on special duty in Washington in connection with the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia. In 1877 he was assigned to duty on the frontier. He was promoted to major of the 17th U.S. Infantry on 27 April, 1879, and to lieutenant-colonel of the 22d U.S. Infantry on 27 June, 1884. In 1886 he was in command of Fort Lyon, Colorado.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 710. 

CONWAY, William, sailor, born in Camden. Maine, in 1802; died in Brooklyn, New York, 30 November, 1865. He was a sailor in the U.S. Navy for forty years, and was stationed at the Warrington or Pensacola U.S. Navy-yard when it was surrendered to the southerners on 12 January, 1861, serving at the time as quartermaster. When ordered by Lieutenant Frederick Kinshaw to lower the U.S. flag, he replied: “I have served under that flag for forty years, and I won't do it.” Shortly afterward Mr. Conway was sent to the north, where he remained until his death.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 712.  

CONYNGHAM, John Butler, soldier, born in 1827; died in Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, 27 May, 1871. He was graduated at Yale in 1846, subsequently studied law, and practised in Wilkesbarre and St. Louis. At the first call for troops in 1861 he volunteered in the three-months' service, and on his return joined the 52d Pennsylvania Volunteers, of which he was appointed major on 5 November, 1861. He participated in the Peninsular Campaign of 1862, and in the winter of 1863 was sent with his regiment to Port Royal, South Carolina, was present at the naval attack on Fort Sumter in April, 1863, and participated in the subsequent assault and siege operations against Fort Wagner. Upon the reduction of that fort, Major Conyngham was placed in command of the defences of Morris Island. He was detailed by General Terry to make a night reconnaissance of Sumter, and subsequently engaged in the night assault on Fort Johnson, across Charleston Harbor. In this assault he was captured and detained as prisoner for several months. While a prisoner at Charleston he was one of the number selected as hostages to be shot in case of a bombardment of the city by our forces. In November, 1863, he was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy, and in March, 1865, to the colonelcy of his regiment. In March, 1867, Colonel Conyngliam was appointed captain in the 38th Infantry, U. S. Army, and transferred to the 24th U.S. Infantry, November, 1869. In 1871 he was brevetted major and lieutenant-colonel for gallant service in the field. During his term of service in the regular army he was mostly employed on the Indian frontier.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 713.

COOK, Henry F
., soldier, killed in battle at Bristow Station, Virginia, 14 October, 1863. He was a native of Mississippi, served as first lieutenant in the Mexican War, with Jefferson Davis's regiment of Mississippi volunteers, distinguished himself in the battle of Monterey, where he was wounded, and commanded a company in the battle of Buena Vista. At the beginning of the Civil War he joined the Confederate Army, and rose by successive steps until he was made a brigadier-general in 1863.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 714.

COOK, Philip
, soldier, born in Twiggs county, Georgia, 31 July, 1817. He was educated at Oglethorpe University, studied law at the University of Virginia, was admitted to the bar, and practised his profession in Americus, Georgia In 1859, 1860, and 1863 he served in the state senate. He entered the Confederate service in April, 1861, as a private, and before the end of the war had risen to a brigadier-generalship. In 1865 he was elected to Congress, but was not allowed to take his seat, by reason of the "disability clause," incurred by his taking up arms against the Union. After the repeal of the law creating this clause he was elected to Congress three times, serving from 1 December, 1873 till 3 March, 1879.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 717.

COOKE, Philip St. George, soldier, born near Leesburg, Virginia, 1 June, 1809. After studying at the Academy of Martinsburg, Virginia, entered the U.S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1827, and was assigned to the 6th U.S. Infantry. He was stationed for many years on the frontier, and in the Black Hawk War was adjutant of his regiment at the battle of Bad Axe River, 2 August, 1832. He became first lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Dragoons on 4 March, 1833, and captain on 31 May, 1835. He escorted a party of Santa Fé traders to the Arkansas River in 1843, and on 30 June of that year captured a Texan military expedition. During the Mexican War he commanded a Missouri volunteer battalion in California from 1846 till 1847, and in 1848 a regiment in the city of Mexico, having been promoted to major on 16 February, 1847, and brevetted lieutenant-colonel on 20 February, for his conduct in California. Afterward he was engaged in various Indian expeditions, commanding the cavalry in the action at Blue Water, 3 September, 1855. He commanded in Kansas during the troubles there in 1856–57, performing that delicate duty to the satisfaction of all, and was at the head of the cavalry in the Utah Expedition of 1857-8, becoming colonel of the 2d U.S. Dragoons on 14 June, 1858. In 1859 he prepared a new system of cavalry tactics, which was adopted for the service in November, 1861 (revised ed., 1883). In June, 1861, Colonel Cooke published a letter in which he declared that he owed allegiance to the general government rather than to his native state of Virginia. He was promoted to brigadier-general on 12 November, 1861, and commanded all the regular cavalry in the Army of the Potomac during the Penninsular Campaign, particularly in the siege of Yorktown, and the battles of Williamsburg, Gaines's Mills, and Glendale. He sat on courts-martial in 1862–3, commanded the Baton Rouge District till 1864, and till 1866 was general superintendent of the recruiting service. He was at the head of the Department of the Platte in 1866–’7, of that of the Cumberland in 1869-'70, and of the Department of the Lakes from 1870 till 1873. On 29 October, 1873, he was placed on the retired list, having been in active service more than forty-five years. General Cooke has published “Scenes and Adventures in the Army” (Philadelphia, 1856), and “The Conquest of New Mexico California; an Historical and Personal Narrative” (1878). His daughter married General J. E. B. Stuart, the Confederate cavalry leader.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 720.

COOKE, John Esten, author, born in Winchester, Virginia, 3 November, 1830; died near Boyce, Clarke County, Virginia, 27 September, 1886. He left school at sixteen, studied law with his father, and, after practicing about four years, devoted himself to literature. He entered the Confederate Army at the beginning of the Civil War, and served first as a private in the artillery and afterward in the cavalry, being engaged in nearly all the battles in Virginia, most of the time as a member of General J. E. B. Stuart's staff. At Lee's surrender he was inspector-general of the horse-artillery of the Army of  Virginia. His writings relate almost entirely to Virginia, and describe the life, manners, and history of the people of that state. His war-books are records of personal observation and opinion. In a letter written a few months before his death Mr. Cooke says: “I still write stories for such periodicals as are inclined to accept romance, but whether any more of my work in that field will appear in book-form is uncertain. Mr. Howells and the other realists have crowded me out of popular regard as a novelist, and have brought the kind of fiction I write into general disfavor. I do not complain of that, for they are right. They see, as I do, that fiction should faithfully reflect life, and they obey the law, while I cannot. I was born too soon, and am now too old to learn my trade anew. But in literature, as in everything else, advance should be the law, and he who stands still has no right to complain if he is left behind. Besides, the fires of ambition are burned out of me, and I am serenely happy. My wheat-fields are green as I look out from the porch of the Briers, the corn rustles in the wind. and the great trees give me shade upon the lawn. My three children are growing up in such nurture and admonition as their race has always deemed fit, and I am not only content, but very happy, and much too lazy to entertain any other feeling toward my victors than one of warm friendship and sincere approval.” His publications include “Leather Stocking and Silk,” a story (New York, 1854); “The Virginia Comedians” (2 vols., 1854); “The Youth of Jefferson,” based on the letters of that statesman (1854); “Ellie,” a novel (Richmond, Virginia, 1855); “The Last of the Foresters” (New York, 1856); “Henry St. John, Gentleman; a Tale of 1774–75,” sequel to the “Comedians” (1859); “Life of Stonewall Jackson" (Richmond, 1863; enlarged ed., New York, 1876); “Surry of Eagle's Nest,” a picture of military incidents in the Confederate cavalry, in auto-biographical form, purporting to be “from MS. of Colonel Surry” (New York, 1866); “Wearing of the Gray” (1867); “Mohun, or the Last Days of Lee and his Paladins,” sequel to the foregoing (1868); “Fairfax” (1868); “Hilt to Hilt,” a romantic story of 1864 (1869); “Out of the Foam ” (1869); “Hammer and Rapier,” war sketches (1870); “The Heir of Gaymount” (1870); “Life of General R. E. Lee’” (1871); “Dr. Van Dyke,” a story of Virginia in the last century (1872); “Her Majesty the Queen" (Philadelphia, 1873); “Pretty Mrs. Gaston, and other Stories” (New York, 1874); “Justin Harley” (Philadelphia, 1874); “Canolles,” a story of Cornwallis's Virginia Campaign (Detroit, 1877); “Professor Pressensee,” a story (New York, 1878): “Mr. Grantley's Idea,” “Virginia Bohemians,” and “Stories of the Old Dominion” (1879); “Virginia; a History of the People” (Boston, 1883); “My Lady Pokahontas” (1884); and “The Maurice Mystery” (New York, 1885). Besides these, Mr. Cooke wrote several novels not issued in permanent form, and a mass of stories, sketches, and verses for periodicals. The last product of his pen was an article written for this work.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 729-721.

., entered the army in 1855 as second lieutenant of the 8th U.S. Infantry, became first lieutenant, 28 January, 1861, and, resigning on 30 May, entered the Confederate service, where he rose to the rank of brigadier-general. [Philip St. Georges Cooke’s son.]  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 721.

COOLIDGE, Richard H., military surgeon, born in the state of New York in 1816; died in Raleigh, North Carolina, 23 January, 1866. He was appointed assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army from New York state in August, 1841, and served at various posts. In June, 1860, he was promoted surgeon, and was medical purveyor and director, Department of the Pacific, from January, 1861, till April, 1862. He was lieutenant-colonel and medical inspector from June, 1862, till October, 1865, was in the provost-marshal's department, Washington, D. C., till April, 1864, and on duty at Louisville, Kentucky, from May till November, 1864. He was made medical inspector of the Northern Department and of the Department of Pennsylvania in 1865, and subsequently promoted to a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy for faithful and meritorious services during the war. He was medical director of the Department of North Carolina at the time of his death.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 723.

COOLIDGE, Sidney, scientist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1830; died near Chickamauga, Georgia, 19 September, 1863. He studied abroad from 1839 till 1850, first in Geneva and Vevay, and afterward in the Royal military College in Dresden. After his return to this country he assisted in the construction of the Richmond and Danville Railroad, and in running the boundary-line of Minnesota. After working in the nautical-almanac office and in the Cambridge observatory, he was appointed in 1853 assistant astronomer to Commodore Perry's Japan Exploring Expedition. In 1854 he assisted Professor George P. Bond in his observations of the planet Saturn, and contributed drawings and notes to the published annals of the observatory. He took charge in 1855 of the Chronometric Expedition for determining the difference of longitude between Cambridge and Greenwich, and in 1850-'7 studied the dialects and astronomical superstitions of the Indians near Saguenay River and Lake Mistassinnie. Being in Mexico in 1858, he took part in the Civil War of that year, was taken prisoner and sentenced to be shot, but was finally released and sent to the city of Mexico on parole. He took part in an Arizona land-Survey in 1860, and in May, 1861, became major in the 16th U. S. Infantry. He was superintendent of the regimental recruiting service in 1862, commanded regiments at different posts and camps, and was engaged at the battles of Hoover's Gap and Chickamauga, where he was killed. For his services in the latter fight he received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 723.

COOMBS, Leslie, soldier, born near Boonesboro, Clark County, Kentucky, 28 November, 1793; died in Lexington, Kentucky, 21 August, 1881. His father, who served at the siege of Yorktown, moved from Virginia in 1782, and settled in the wilderness of Kentucky. Leslie, the twelfth child of this pioneer farmer, entered the army at the age of nineteen. In the campaign that ended in the disaster at the River Raisin, he was sent by General Winchester with important despatches to General Harrison. To deliver these he was obliged to traverse a wilderness, occupied by savages and covered with snow, for over a hundred miles, and suffered great privations. On 2 June, 1813, he was commissioned captain of spies in Dudley's Regiment of Kentucky Volunteers. He volunteered, with an Indian guide, to carry the intelligence of the approach of General Clay's forces to General Harrison, when the latter was besieged in Fort Meigs, but was overpowered in sight of the fort, and escaped to Fort Defiance. He bore a conspicuous part in the defeat of Colonel Dudley, on 5 May, and was wounded at Fort Miami. After the war he studied law, was admitted to the bar at the age of twenty-three, attaining high rank in the profession. In 1836 he raised, at Ins own expense, a regiment to aid Texas in her struggle for independence, and was commissioned colonel in August of that year. He was for several terms state auditor, and "was many times elected to the legislature. When his old" commander, General Harrison, was a candidate for president, Coombs took a prominent part in the canvass. As a stump orator he was unsurpassed. At the beginning of the Mexican War he aided largely in raising volunteers in Kentucky. He was a strong Whig, and earnestly devoted to the Union from the time when the question of secession was first advanced. In 1849 Henry Clay, who placed great trust in General Coombs, wrote to him suggesting that Union meetings should be held throughout Kentucky, enclosing resolutions to be adopted. During the canvass of 1844 he made many speeches in the north and east in support of his friend Clay as a candidate for president. It was in defeating General Coombs for Congress that John C. Breckinridge won his earliest success in public life. General Coombs's last public office was that of clerk of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, to which he was elected by a large majority as the Union candidate in 1860. In opposition to the state guard, organized by Simon B. Buckner, which was only a school of recruits for the Confederate Army, he organized and armed, in conjunction with General Lovell H. Rousseau, a body of loyal soldiers, who subsequently rendered effective service in the national cause. General Coombs was one of the pioneers of railroad-building in the west.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 723-724.

COOPER, George Henry, naval officer, born In Fort Diamond, New York Harbor, 27 July, 1821. He was appointed a midshipman in the U.S. Navy on 14 August, 1837, and during that year was attached to the fleet on the coast of Florida, which was co-operating with the army in boat expeditions against the Seminole Indians. From 1838 till 1842 he was attached to the frigate “Constitution” on the Pacific, after which he spent some time in the naval school, then in Philadelphia. He was promoted to passed midshipman in June, 1843, and served on the “Flirt” during the Mexican War. This vessel reported to General Taylor in March, 1846, and Mr. Cooper commanded a detachment of men at Point Isabel, Texas, in May. After the capture of Monterey he was transferred to Commodore Connor's squadron, and was present at the attacks on Tobasco, Alvarado, and Tuspan. From 1847 till 1851 he served at Norfolk, and then for five years was attached to the “Susquehanna” in the East India Squadron. He received his commission as lieutenant, 8 May, 1851, and on his return from the East Indies again spent two years at Norfolk, after which he served on the frigate “Roanoke” in the home squadron, and later at the U.S. Navy-yard in Portsmouth. In July, 1862, he was made commander and given the supply-vessel “Massachusetts,” of the Atlantic Squadron, and in 1863 was in command of the “Mercedita,” of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. For seven weeks he commanded the monitor “Sangamon” inside of the Charleston Roads, employed on picket-duty, and acted in concert with the army, constantly shelling Fort Sumter and the batteries on Sullivan's Island. Later he was stationed in Stone Inlet, South Carolina, as senior officer, co-operating with the army in expeditions against the enemy, and frequently engaged at short range. From 1863 till 1867 he commanded successively the “Sonoma,” the “Glaucus,” and the “Winooski,” and, after receiving his commission as captain in December, 1867, was stationed at the Norfolk U.S. Navy-yard. He then spent some time at sea in command of the frigate “Colorado,” and in 1872-’3 was commandant of the Norfolk Navy-yard. In June, 1874, he was promoted to commodore, after which he had charge of the Pensacola Navy-yard. From 1878 till 1880 he was President of the Board of Inspection, and commandant of the Brooklyn Navy-yard until 1882. In November, 1881, he was commissioned rear-admiral and given command of the North Atlantic Station, with headquarters in New York. In 1884 he was placed on the retired list.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 724.

COOPER, James, senator, born in Frederick county, Maryland, 8 Mav, 1810; died in Camp Chase, near Columbus, Ohio," 28 March, 1863. He studied at St. Mary's College, and was graduated at Washington College. Pennsylvania, in 1832, after which he studied law with Thaddeus Stevens. In 1834 he was admitted to the bar, and began to practice in Gettysburg. Pennsylvania He was elected to Congress as a Whig, and served for two terms, from 2 December, 1839, till 3 March, 1843. He was a member of the state legislature during the years 1843, 1844, 1846, and 1848, and its speaker in 1847. In 1848 he was made attorney-general of Pennsylvania, and he was elected to the U. S. Senate as a Whig, holding office from 3 December, 1849, till 3 March, 1855. On the expiration of his term he settled in Philadelphia, and later in Frederick City, Maryland. Soon after the beginning of the Civil War he took command of all the volunteers in Maryland, and organized them into regiments. On 17 May, 1861, He was made brigadier-general in the volunteer service, his appointment being among the first that were made during the war. Later he was placed in command of Camp Chase, where he served until his death.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 724.

COOPER, Joseph Alexander, soldier, born near Somerset,  25 November, 1823. He served during the Mexican War in the 4th Tennessee Infantry. When the Civil War began he entered the U.S. service as captain in the 1st Tennessee Infantry, becoming in 1862 colonel of the 6th Tennessee. He served in East Tennessee and Georgia, and in July, 1864, was made a brigadier-general, in which capacity he commanded on the march through Georgia, receiving the brevet of major-general in March, 1865.  He held the office of collector of internal revenue in Tennessee from 1869 till 1879, and later, again resumed his farming in Kansas.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp.

COOPER, Philip H, naval officer, born in New York, 7 August 1844. He was graduated at the U.S. Naval Academy in 1863, when he was promoted to ensign and attached to the steam sloop "Ticonderoga” in the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and was present at both attacks on Fort Fisher. In 1865 he was made master, and in 1866 lieutenant, serving, meanwhile, until 1868 on the sloop “Shenandoah,” in the Asiatic Squadron. He received his commission as lieutenant-commander in 1868, and was assigned to duty at the U.S. Naval Academy. Later he was attached to the “Plymouth,” on the European Station, and afterward was on duty at the Naval Academy. He was made commander in 1879, and for several years employed at the Bureau of Navigation in Washington, after which he commanded the “Swatara” in the Asiatic Squadron. In 1886 he was made commandant of the Norfolk Navy-yard.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 732.

COOPER, Samuel
, soldier, born in Hackensack, New Jersey, 12 June, 1798; died in Cameron, Virginia, 3 December, 1876. His father, of the same name, served during the Revolutionary war, and fought in the battles of Lexington, Bunker Hill, Monmouth, and Germantown. At the close of the war, having attained the rank of major, he settled in Dutchess county, where he married Miss Mary Horton. He was graduated at the U.S. Military Academy in 1815, and promoted to second lieutenant in the artillery. His services were retained on the reorganization of the army after the war of 1812, and he served on garrison duty and in Washington for several years, meanwhile he had been promoted to first lieutenant. From 1828 till 1836 he was aide-de-camp to General Alexander Macomb, becoming captain in June, 1836, and until 1841 was on staff duty at army head-quarters as assistant adjutant general. During the Florida War he was chief of staff to Colonel William J. Worth. He remained on special duty in the war Department in Washington from 1842 till 1852, was brevetted colonel for meritorious conduct in the prosecution of his duties in connection with the Mexican War, and then, until 1861, was adjutant-general of the U.S. Army, with the rank of colonel of the staff, dating from 1852. For a short time during this period he was Secretary of War ad interim. In March, 1861, he resigned his commission and offered his services to the seceding states. He was appointed adjutant and inspector-general of the army, of which he was the ranking officer, standing first on the list of generals. In 1827 he married a granddaughter of George Mason, of Gunston Hall, Clermont, Fairfax County, Virginia, and subsequent to the Civil War, lived in retirement at his country seat near Alexandria, Virginia He was the author of “A Concise System of Instructions and Regulations for the Militia and Volunteers of the United States” (Philadelphia, 1836).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 732.

COPELAND, Joseph T., soldier, born in Michigan about 1830. He entered the 1st Michigan Cavalry, which was organized during the summer of 1861, and was commissioned lieutenant-colonel on 22 August He fought through the Manassas Campaign, returned to Detroit in July, 1862, and organized the 5th Cavalry, of which he became colonel, 14 August, and on 29 November, 1862, was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers and assigned to the command of the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, formed at Washington, 12 Dee. The brigade, forming part of Hooker's cavalry, was in Maryland after Leo had crossed the Potomac. They were the first Union troops to occupy Gettysburg; but with the other changes of commanders then carried out, General Copeland transferred his command to General Custer just before the battle, 1 July, 1863. He subsequently commanded a draft rendezvous at Annapolis Junction, Maryland, and at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and then the post and military prison at Alton, Illinois, until the close of the war.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 735.

CORBIN, Thomas G., naval officer, born in Virginia, 13 August 1820; died in 1886. He was appointed a midshipman, 15 May, 1838, served on the Coast Survey  and in the Brazilian and Pacific Squadrons, was commissioned lieutenant, 10 June, 1852. He was for many years employed in the survey of the River Plata during 1853–5. He was attached to  the steamer "Wabash," of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, in 1861-3, and at the battle of Port Royal, 7 November, 1861, taking part in the capture of Forts Beauregard and Walker. He was commissioned commander, 16 July, 1862, and was commandant at the U.S. Naval Academy in 1863. In 1864-'5 he commanded the steamer "Augusta," served as fleet-captain of the West India Squadron in 1865-'6, was commissioned captain, 25 July, 1866, made his last cruise in command of the flagship "Guerriere," of the South Atlantic Squadron, in 1868, and afterward served on ordnance duty at Philadelphia. He was retired 5 January, 1874.
  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 736-37.

CORCORAN, Michael, soldier, born in Carrowkeel, County Sligo, Ireland, 21 September, 1827; died near Fairfax Court-House, Virginia, 22 December, 1863. He was the son of a captain in the British Army, received a good education, and was appointed in the Irish constabulary at the early age of eighteen, but resigned his commission from patriotic motives in 184!), emigrated to the United States. and settled in New York City, where he obtained a clerkship in the post-office, and afterward in the office of the city register. He entered the 6th Regiment of New York militia as a private, rose through the successive grades, and in August, 1859, was elected colonel. When the militia paraded in honor of the Prince of Wales in 1860, he refused to order out his regiment, for which he was subjected to a trial by court-martial that was still pending when the Civil War began. Upon the first call of the president for troops, Colonel Corcoran led the 69th regiment to the seat of war. It was ordered into Virginia, built Port Corcoran on Arlington heights, and fought with impetuous valor at the battle of Bull Run, 21 July, 1861. The colonel was wounded and taken prisoner, and was first sent to Richmond, and afterward taken to Charleston, Columbia, Salisbury, back to Richmond, and to other places, being kept in close confinement for nearly a year. With some other national officers he was reserved for execution in case the U. S. government carried out its threat of punishing the crews of captured privateers. He was offered his liberty on condition of not again taking up arms against the south, but refused to accept it on such terms. An exchange being finally effected, 15 August, 1862, he was released, and commissioned brigadier-general, dating from 21 July, 1861. He next organized the Corcoran legion, which took part in the battles of the Nansemond River and Suffolk, during April, 1863, and held the advance of the enemy upon Norfolk in check. In August, 1863, the legion was attached to the Army of the Potomac. General Corcoran was killed by the falling of his horse upon him while he was riding in company with General Thomas Francis Meagher.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 737

CORLEY, Manuel Simeon…….. announced as an abolitionist and threatened with expulsion the state. He defended himself in articles openly avowing his principles, which were only received by the newspapers at advertising rates.  In 1852 he made a tour through the north, and wrote a series of letters directed against sectionalism to the "Southern Patriot.” In 1855-6 he edited the South Carolina "Temperance Stand” A patent for a new system for cutting cloth was issued to him in 1857. He was one of the few opponent of secession in South Carolina in  1860, was compelled to serve as a conscript in the Confederate Army in 1863, and after his capture by the national troops at Petersburg, 2 April, 1865, joyfully took the oath of allegiance and returned to his home. He opposed the policy of Andrew Johnson and Governor Perry, advocated reconstruction in 1866, and was a delegate to the constitutional convention of 1867, in which he introduced the resolutions to remove the provisional government, opposed the repudiation of the slave £ and advocated the present homestead law of the state. He was elected to Congress in 1868, and, after the removal of his technical disabilities, took his seat on 25 July, 1868, and served till 3 March, 1869. He introduced joint resolutions for the better protection of loyal men in the reconstructed states and the exclusion of secessionist text-books from the schools, and earnestly supported the 15th amendment. In 1869 he was appointed a special agent of the U. S. treasury Department. He was commissioner of the state board of agricultural statistics in 1870, treasurer of Lexington county in 1874, and a nominee of the independent party for state comptroller in 1882.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 739-40

CORSE, John Murray, soldier, born in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, 27 April, 1835. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1857, but immediately resigned and entered the Albany law-school. As soon as he returned to his home in Iowa he was nominated by the Democrats for lieutenant- governor. He entered the U. S. service as major of the 6th Iowa Volunteers in August, 1861, served under General Fremont, and then as judge-advocate and inspector-general on the staff of General Pope; but after the victories of Island No. 10 and Shiloh preferring active service, joined his regiment, and became its colonel. He commanded a division at Memphis, and was commissioned a brigadier-general on 11 August, 1863. He served in the Chattanooga Campaign, distinguished himself at Chickamauga, and was wounded at Missionary Ridge. In Sherman's march to the sea he commanded a division of the 15th Corps. When, after the evacuation of Atlanta, the Confederates crossed the Chattahoochee and destroyed the railroad, Corse was ordered from Rome to the relief of Allatoona, where large commissary supplies, guarded by 890 men, under Colonel Tourtellotte, were threatened by an infantry division of the enemy. General Corse arrived with 1,054 troops before the Confederates; but when the latter came up, being greatly superior in numbers, they closely surrounded the position. To the summons of the Confederate general, French, to surrender and avoid a needless effusion of blood, General Corse returned a defiant answer. The Confederates, numbering 4,000 or 5,000, attacked the fortifications furiously, 5 October. 1864, but were repeatedly driven back. General Sherman, who had despatched a corps to attack the Confederate rear, signaled from Kenesaw mountain, where he heard the roar of battle, eighteen miles away, for the commander to hold out, as relief was approaching; and when he learned by the sun-telegraph that Corse was in command, he said: "He will hold out; I know the man." General Corse's ear and cheek-bone were shot away during the engagement, but he continued to direct his men. At the approach of the relieving force, the assailants retired. General Sherman made the brave defence of Allatoona the subject of a general order, emphasizing the principle in warfare that fortified posts should be defended to the last, without regard to the strength of the attacking force. Corse received the brevet of major-general, 5 October, 1864. After the war, General Corse was for two years (1867-'9) collector of internal revenue in Chicago, Illinois He then spent four years in Europe, and on his return engaged in railroad contracting, and built several hundred miles of road in the neighborhood of Chicago. In 1881 he moved to Massachusetts, residing in Boston and in Winchester, where he settled in 1882, after marrying for his second wife a niece of Franklin Pierce, he was a vigorous opponent of General Butler in his political campaigns, and became chairman of the Executive Committee in the Democratic state central committee. On 9 October, 1886, he was appointed postmaster of Boston.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 747.

CORSE, Montgomery Dent
, soldier, born in Alexandria (then in the District of Columbia), 14 March, 1816. He served as a captain in the Mexican War, and lived in California from April, 1849, till December, 1856, when he returned to Virginia and became a banker in Alexandria. He entered the Confederate service in May, 1861, as colonel of the 17th Virginia regiment. He was wounded in the second battle of Bull Run, and engaged at Boonsboro and Antietam. He was commissioned a brigadier-general in November, 1862, commanded a brigade in Pickett's division in the expedition against Knoxville, and was captured at Sailor's Creek, Virginia, on 6 April, 1865. After the war he resumed the business of a banker and broker at Alexandria till 1874.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 747

CORSON, Edward T
., surgeon, born in Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, 14 October, 1834; died in Plymouth, Pennsylvania, 22 June, 1864. He entered the U.S. Navy as assistant surgeon, 20 May, 1859, and was ordered to China and Japan in the U. S. steamer "Hartford," where he remained until the winter of 1861. He was subsequently, for a short time, at the naval asylum, Philadelphia, and, upon application for sea service, was ordered to the "Mohican," returning, after a cruise of 40,000 miles, without the loss of a man by sickness, He was promoted to surgeon, 31 July, 1862.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 747

COUCH, Darius Nash, soldier, born in South East, Putnam County, New York, 23 July, 1822. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1840, and assigned to the 4th U.S. Artillery, with which he served in the Mexican War, gaining the brevet of first lieutenant, 23 February, 1847, for gallant conduct at Buena Vista. He received his full commission on 4 December, served against the Seminoles in 1849-50, and in 1853, when on leave of absence, made an exploring expedition into Mexico, which is thus mentioned in the U. S. Senate Reports of "Explorations and Surveys for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean " (1853-6), "Should there be two species, and the smaller not named, I shall propose to call it C. Couehii, in honor of its indefatigable discoverer, Lieutenant D. M. Couch, who, at his own risk and cost, undertook a journey into northern Mexico, when the country was swarming with bands of marauders, and made large collections in all branches of zoology, which have furnished a great amount of information respecting the natural history of our borders, and the geographical distribution of vertebrata generally. Lieutenant Couch wrote an account of his expedition, entitled "Notes of Travel," but it is still in manuscript. He resigned on 30 April, 1855, was a merchant in New York City in 1855-'7, and engaged in manufacturing at Norton, Massachusetts, from 1858 till 15 June, 1861, when he became colonel of the 7th Massachusetts Volunteers. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers in August, his commission dating from 17 May, and on the reorganization of the Army of the Potomac was assigned a division in General Keyes's Corps, with which he distinguished himself at Fair Oaks, Williamsburg, and Malvern Hill. He was promoted to major- general on 4 July, 1862, commanded a division in the retreat from Manassas to Washington, 30 August to 2 Sept, and took part in the battle of Antietam in Franklin's Corps. He was soon afterward in command of the 2d Army Corps, and took a prominent part in Burnside's operations at Fredericksburg, and Hooker's at Chancellorsville. From 11 June, 1863, till 1 December, 1864, he commanded the Department of the Susquehanna, and was engaged in organizing Pennsylvania militia to resist Lee's invasion of July, 1863. He was at the head of the 2d Division of the 23d Army Corps from December, 1864, till May, 1865, was at the battle of Nashville, and took part in the operations in North Carolina, in February, 1865, to effect a junction with Schofield. He resigned on 26 May 1865, and was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for governor of Massachusetts. He was collector of the port of Boston from 1 October, 1866, till 4 March. 1867, when the failure of the Senate to confirm his appointment forced him to vacate the office. He became president of a Virginia Mining and Manufacturing Company in 1867, but subsequently moved to Norwalk Connecticut, was quartermaster-general of the state of Connecticut in 1877-8. and adjutant-general in 1883-4.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 753.

COUDIN, Robert
, soldier, born in Jamaica, Vermont, 18 September, 1805; died in Boston, Massachusetts , 9 July, 1874. His grandfather, Thomas Coudin, held a military commission under George II. Robert was educated in his native town, and in 1825 came to Boston, where he engaged in the lumber business. Before the Civil War he was colonel of the old 2d Massachusetts Militia Regiment. He was commissioned colonel of the 1st Massachusetts Volunteers on 25 May, 1861, and left for the seat of war on 15 June. His was the first regiment that volunteered "for three years or the war." Among the battles in which Colonel Coudin took part were Bull Run, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Glendale, Malvern Hill and Chantilly. At the battle of Bull Run, his horse being shot under him, he marched at the head of his men, loading and firing with them.  For bravery at Williamsburg he was recommended for promotion by General Hooker, and received his brigadier-general's commission on 26, Sept 1862. His appointment expired on 4 March, 1863. At the close of the war he became captain of the "Ancient and honorable Artillery Company of Boston, and was director of various public institutions.—His son, Robert Jackson, born in Boston, 21 May, 1839; died in 1864, entered the army as a private in his father's regiment. He rose by bravery on the battle-field to be captain in the 56th Massachusetts Regiment, and was probably killed in the battle of Cold Harbor, 3 June, 1864, as he was never heard from after that day.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 753-754.

COVERT, John M., physician, born in St. Augustine, Florida, 25 July, 1832; died in Brooklyn, New York, 18 February, 1872. He was graduated at Charleston College, South Carolina, in 1853, and at South Carolina Medical College in 1855. Soon after taking his medical degree he went to Norfolk as a volunteer in a yellow-fever epidemic, and settled there in the practice of his profession. He became surgeon of the 1st Louisiana Volunteers in 1861, and was subsequently medical director on General Lee's staff. He return to Norfolk after the war, and in 1867 volunteered to go to Galveston, Texas, to combat the yellow fever. He moved to Brooklyn, New York, in 1869, and at the time of his death was known in literary circles there as an excellent belles-lettres scholar, and the possessor of much poetical talent.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 756.

COX, Abraham L., 1800-1864, New York, surgeon, opponent of slavery, abolitionist leader.  Founding member and recording secretary of the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS), 1833-1836.  (Dumond, 1961, p. 218; Sorin, 1971, p. 32n; Abolitionist, Vol. I, No. XII, December, 1833; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I p. 757.

COX, Abraham Siddon, surgeon, born in New York in 1800; died at Lookout Mountain, Tennessee, 29 July, 1864. He had been for many years one of the most eminent medical practitioners of New York City. At the beginning of the war he became a surgeon in the army, and at the time of his death was surgeon-in-chief of the 1st Division, 20th Corps, Army of the Cumberland.
Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I. p. 757.

COX, Gershom A., Reverend, clergyman, abolitionist, Maine.  Founder and first Vice President of the Portland Anti-Slavery Society in 1833.

COX, Jacob Dolson, statesman, born in Montreal, Canada, 27 October, 1828. His parents were natives of the United States, but at the time of his birth were temporarily sojourning in Canada. He spent his boyhood in New York, moved with his Parents to Ohio in 1846, and was graduated at Oberlin in 1851. After leaving college he studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1853, and settled in Warren, Ohio. In 1859-'61 he was a member of the state senate, having been elected by the Republicans. At the beginning of the Civil War he held a state commission as brigadier-general of militia, and took an active part in raising troops. He entered the National Army on 23 April, 1861, and three weeks later received the commission of brigadier-general and was assigned to the command of the “Brigade of the Kanawha" in Western Virginia. On 29 July he drove out the Confederates under General Wise, taking and repairing Gauley and other bridges, which had been partially destroyed. General Cox remained in command of this department, with the exception of a short interval, until August, 1862, when he was assigned to the Army of Virginia under General Pope. He served in the 9th Corps at the battle of South Mountain, 14 September, 1862, assuming command when General Reno fell, and also at Antietam, three days later. For his services in this campaign he was commissioned major-general. On 16 April, 1863, General Cox was put in command of the District of Ohio, and also of a division of the 23d Army Corps. He served in the Atlanta Campaign, and under General Thomas in the campaigns of Franklin and Nashville. On 14 March, 1865, he fought the battle of Kingston, North Carolina, and then united his force with General Sherman's army. At the close of the war he resigned his command, and entered on the practice of law in Cincinnati. He was governor of Ohio in 1866-'7, declined the office of commissioner of internal revenue tendered him by President Johnson in 1868, and was secretary of the interior in President Grant's first cabinet from March, 1869, till December, 1870, when, on account of disagreement with certain measures of the administration, he resigned. Returning to Cincinnati, he resumed his legal practice. In October, 1873, he was elected president of the Wabash Railroad, and moved to Toledo to take charge of his new work. In 1876 the Republicans elected him representative to Congress, where he served from 15 October, 1877, till 3 March, 1879. The degree of LL.D. has been conferred upon him by the University of North Carolina, and also by Davison University, Ohio. He has published “Atlanta” and “The March to the Sea; Franklin and Nashville” (New York, 1882). Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 758.

COX, James, soldier, born in Monmouth, New Jersey, 14 June, 1753; died there, 12 September, 1810. His early education was received in the public schools. At the age of twenty-four he commanded a company of militia, and afterward served at the battles of Germantown and Monmouth, attaining to the rank of brigadier-general. He was for many years a  member of the state assembly, and one year its speaker. He was also a representative from New Jersey in the 10th Congress, serving from 22 May, 1800, until his death.—His grandson, Samuel Sullivan, statesman, born in Zanesville, Ohio, 30 September, 1824. He is a son of Ezekiel Taylor Cox, a member of the Ohio Senate in 1832-'8. He attended the Ohio University at Athens, and was graduated at Brown in 1846. During his stay in college he maintained himself by literary work, and obtained the prizes in classics, history, literary criticism, and political economy. Adopting the profession of the law, he returned to Ohio to begin practice, but soon laid it aside, and went to Europe. On his return he became, in 1853, editor of the Columbus, Ohio, "Statesman," and from that time turned his attention to political issues. While editing this journal he published a gorgeous description in sophomoric strain, which procured for him the sobriquet of  “Sunset” Cox. Mr. Cox was offered, in 1855, the secretaryship of legation in London, but declined it. The opportunity was given not long after of going to Lima, Peru, in a similar capacity, and he accepted. He remained in Peru one year, and on his return was elected to Congress, and re-elected three times, serving continuously from 7 December, 1857, till 3 March, 1865. During three terms he was chairman of the committee on Revolutionary claims. Mr. Cox was a delegate to the Chicago, New York, and St. Louis Democratic Conventions of 1864,1868, and 1876. During the Civil War he sustained the government by voting money and men, although he took a prominent part in opposing certain policies of the administration. In 1866 he took up his residence in New York City, and was elected as a representative to Congress in 1868, and re-elected three times. He served on the committees on foreign affairs, banking, the centennial exhibition, and rules. At the opening of the first session of the 45th Congress, in 1877, he was one of three candidates for the speakership. Although not elected, he served frequently as speaker pro tem. In this session he took upon himself, by a special resolution of his own, the work of the new census law. He was the author also of the plan of apportionment adopted by the house. He was the introducer and champion for many years of the bill concerning the life-saving service, and finally witnessed its passage. Mr. Cox's work in Congress included the raising of the salaries of letter-carriers, and granting them a vacation without loss of pay. This latter measure involved an appropriation of $96,000, but its results justified the action. He was on the committee to investigate the doings of Black Friday, Federal elections in cities, the New York post-office, and the Ku-klux troubles. He was also for many years one of the regents of the Smithsonian institution, his term closing in 1865. In 1869 he visited Europe and northern Africa, journeying through Italy, Corsica, Algeria, and Spain. In 1872 he was defeated as candidate at large for the state, but the death of his successful competitor necessitated another election, which resulted in Mr. Cox's return to his seat. He was re-elected in 1874, 1876, 1878, and 1880, serving twelve consecutive years, making a total Congressional service on his part of twenty years. The last effort of Mr. Cox. and for which the Chamber of Commerce of New York City thanked him, was the passage of a law uniting all jurisdictions in the Federal jurisdiction, so as to preserve New York Harbor and its tributaries from destruction. This had passed in the house, but it was defeated on a point of order in the Senate. In the summer of 1882 Mr. Cox visited Sweden, Norway, Russia, Turkey, and Greece. In 1885 he was appointed minister to Turkey, but returned to the United States in October 1886 after a year's absence, and in November was re-elected to Congress. He has a reputation as an effective and humorous speaker, writer, and lecturer. In addition to a large amount of newspaper and magazine work, he has published “The Buckeye Abroad" (New York, 1851); "Puritanism in Politics" (1863); "Eight Years in Congress " (1865); "A Search for Winter Sunbeams" (1870); "Why We Laugh" (1876); "Free Land and Free Trade" (1870); "Arctic Sunbeams" (1882); "Orient Sunbeams" (1882); and "The Three Decades of Federal Legislation " (1885).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 758-759.

CRAIG, James, soldier, born in Pennsylvania, 7 May, 1820. He studied law and moved to St. Joseph, Missouri, where he began practice. In the Mexican War he was a captain in the Missouri mounted rifles from August, 1847, till November, 1848. He was state attorney for the Twelfth Judicial Circuit in 1852-'6, and was then elected to Congress as a Democrat, serving from 7 December, 1857, till 3 March, 1861. President Lincoln appointed him brigadier-general of volunteers, 21 March, 1862, and he served in the west.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 765

CRAIGHILL, William Price, soldier, born in Charlestown, Jefferson County, West Virginia, 1 July, 1833. After attending Charlestown Academy he entered the U.S. Military Academy, where he was graduated in 1853, standing second in a class of fifty- two, and was assigned to the engineer company. He superintended the building of Fort Delaware in 1858, was made first lieutenant on 1 July, 1859, and served most of the time till 1864 at the Military Academy as instructor, treasurer, and in command of an engineer detachment there. He was made captain on 3 March, 1863, was engaged in constructing defences for Pittsburg when it was threatened  by Morgan and other raiders, and was chief engineer of the middle department from April till June, 1864. He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, 13 March, 1865, for his services in the defence of Cumberland Gap, and was made major on 23 November, serving on the board for carrying out in detail the modifications of the New York defences from 20 June till 10 November, 1865. From 1865 till 1867 he superintended the defences of Baltimore Harbor. Since then he has been engaged on a great number of important works, including the improvement of the Potomac near Washington, from 1870 till 1874, that of the Appomattox River, 1870–’71, and of the Delaware in 1873. He was sent to examine movable dams and other works in France and Great Britain in 1877-'8. On 2 January, 1881, he was promoted to lieutenant- colonel. Colonel Craighill is a member of the Maryland Historical Society, and was a delegate to the general convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1880, 1883, and 1886. He has compiled “Army Officer's Pocket Companion” (New York: 1861); translated Dufour's “Cours de tactiques” (1863); and, jointly with Captain Mendell, General Jomini's “Précis de l'art de la guerre” (1862).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 766.

CRAM, Thomas Jefferson, soldier born in New Hampshire about 1807; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 20 December, 1883. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1826, standing fourth in a class of forty-one, and served there as assistant professor of mathematics in 1826-'9, and of natural and experimental philosophy in 1829-'36. He resigned on 16 September, 1836, and was for two years assistant engineer on railroads in Maryland and Pennsylvania. He was reappointed, with the rank of captain, 7 July, 1838, and served as topographical engineer on various surveys. He aided m making military reconnaissance in Texas in 1845-46 and in 1855-'8 was chief topographical engineer, Department of the Pacific. He was promoted to major, 6 August, 1861, to lieutenant-colonel on 9 September, and was transferred to the Engineer Corps on 3 March, 1863. From 1861 till 1863 he acted as aide-de-camp to General Wool, being engaged in the capture of Norfolk, Virginia, 10 May, 1862. He was made colonel on 23 November, 1865, and on 13 January, 1866, was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general in the regular army for his services during the Civil War. After this he served on boards of engineers for the improvement of harbors on the great lakes, and on 22 February, 1869, was retired
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, pp. 767.

CRANE, William, 1790-1866, Richmond, Virginia, merchant, philanthropist.  Active supporter of the American Colonization Society in the Richmond auxiliary.  Created the Richmond African Baptist Ministry Society as a part of the Richmond Baptist Foreign Ministry Society.  (Appleton’s Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 1; Staudenraus, P. J. The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961, pp. 109, 128.

CRANE, Charles Henry, Surgeon-General, U. S. A., born in Newport, Rhode Island, 19 July, 1825; died in Washington, D. C., 10 October, 1883. He was graduated at Yale in 1844, and studied medicine at Harvard Medical School. In 1847 he passed the examination as acting assistant surgeon, and was at once ordered to Mexico, and, after attaining the full grade of assistant surgeon, served with the army of invasion till July, 1848. During the ten years that followed he was stationed in almost every state and territory of the Union, and was repeatedly in the field with expeditionary forces against the Indians, notably that against the Rogue River Tribe in 1850. He was promoted surgeon, 21 May, 1861, and in February, l862, was assigned to duty as medical director. Department of Key West. On 30 June he was appoints medical director, Department of the South. In September, 1863, he was placed on duty in the surgeon-general's office in Washington, and became assistant surgeon-general, with the rank of colonel, 28 July, 1866. On the retirement of Surgeon General Barnes, 3 July, 1882, he became surgeon-general of the U. S. Army. He received brevets to include the rank of brigadier-general in the regular service at the close of the Civil War. One of his most noteworthy characteristics was the facility with which he managed the complicated routine of his office, and the good judgment that he brought to bear in reconciling the often conflicting interests of the Army Medical Corps when it was at its numerical maximum during the Civil War. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 1

CRAVATH, Erastas Milo, 1833-1900, Homer, New York, clergyman, educator, abolitionist, Union Army soldier.  Field agent for the American Missionary Association (AMA), 1865.  Established schools for former slaves.  Co-founder of Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1866.

CRAVEN, Thomas Tingey, naval officer, born  in Washington, D. C., 30 December, 1808. He was the oldest son of Tunis Craven, of the U. S. Navy, and his wife, Hannah Tingey, daughter of Commodore Thomas Tingey, also of the U. S. Navy. Young Craven attended school in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, until in 1822, when he entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, and from 1823 till 1828 served in the Pacific Squadron on the “ United States" and on the "Peacock." In 1828 he joined the "Erie," of the West India Squadron, as sailing-master, and took part in the capture of the pirate "Federal." After being commissioned lieutenant in 1830, he spent three years in cruising on the " Boxer." and in 1885-'6 was attached to the receiving-ship at New York, after which he joined the "John Adams." In 1838 he commanded the "Vincennes," Captain Wilkes's flag-ship in the Antarctic exploring Expedition. He then served on the " Boxer, "Fulton," "Monroe," 'Macedonia," and "Porpoise," principally in the African Squadron, after which, during 1846, he was attached to the naval rendezvous in New York. He then served on the " Ohio," in the Pacific Squadron, and on the “ Independence," in the Mediterranean Squadron, returning home in January, 1850. In the following July he was made commandant of midshipmen in the U. S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, becoming commander in December, 1852, and remaining at the academy until June, 1855. After commanding the " Congress," of the Mediterranean Squadron, for several years, he was ordered to resume his post at Annapolis. In October, 1860, he was detached from this place, and, after a short time spent in recruiting-service in Portland, Maine, was commissioned captain in June, 1861, and assigned to the command of the Potomac Flotilla. In the autumn of 1861 he was placed in command of the “Brooklyn." participating in the capture of New Orleans and subsequent operations on the Mississippi. He was made commodore in July, 1862, and during the subsequent years of the Civil War commanded the "Niagara," on the coast of England and France. In September, 1866, he was placed in command of the U.S. Navy-yard at Mare Island, California, where he received, in October of the same year, his commission as rear-admiral, and continued there until August, 1868, when he assumed command of the Pacific Squadron. In December, 1869, he was retired, but continued on duty in San Francisco until that office was dispensed with. He now (1886) resides at Kittery Point, Maine Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 2-3.

CRAVEN, Tunis Augustus Macdonongh, naval officer, born  in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 11 January, 1813; died in Mobile Bay, Ala,, 5 August, 1864. He entered the U. S. Navy as a midshipman in February, 1829. and until 1837 served in different vessels, after which he was at his own request attached to the coast survey. In 1841 he was made a lieutenant and served in the "Falmouth" until 1843, when he was transferred to the "North Carolina." Three years later he was connected with the Pacific Squadron as lieutenant of the "Dale," and participated in the conquest of California. In 1849 he returned east, and for some time afterward was associated in the work of the coast-survey, having command of various vessels attached to this bureau. He commanded the Atrato Expedition which left New York in October, 1857, for the purpose of surveying the Isthmus of Darien by way of the Atrato River for a ship-canal. Later he commanded the "Mohawk," stationed off the coast of Cuba to intercept slavers. On one occasion he captured a brig containing 500 Negroes, who were afterward sent to Africa and liberated. He also saved the crew of a Spanish merchant vessel, for which he was presented by the queen of Spain with a gold medal and a diploma. About the same time the New York board of underwriters presented Mrs. Craven with a silver service of plate for the efficient services rendered to merchant vessels while at sea by her husband. At the beginning of the Civil War he was , placed in command of the "Crusader," and was instrumental in preserving for the Union the fortress at Key West. In April, 1861, he was made a commander, and ordered to the charge of the "Tuscarora," in search of Confederate cruisers. While so occupied he succeeded in blockading the "Sumter," so that, after it had been kept a close prisoner for two months in Gibraltar, the officers and crew deserted her. On his return home, he was given command of the monitor "Tecumseh," and directed to join the James River Flotilla. A few months later he was attached to Admiral Farragut's Squadron, then collected for the attack on Mobile. In the subsequent battle the "Tecumseh" was given the post of honor, and on the morning of 5 August, leading the fleet, she fired the first shot at 6:47 A. M. The general orders to the various commanders directed them, in order to avoid the line of torpedoes at the entrance of the bay, to pass eastward of a certain red buoy and directly under the guns of Fort Morgan. The Confederate ram "Tennessee" was on the port-beam of the "Tecumseh," inside of the line of torpedoes, and Craven, in his eagerness to engage the ram, passed to the west of the buoy, when suddenly the monitor reeled and sank with almost everyone on board, destroyed by a torpedo. As the "Tecumseh" was going down, Commodore Craven and his pilot, John Collins, met at the foot of the ladder leading to the top of the turret. Craven, knowing it was through no fault of the pilot, but by his own command, that the fatal change in her course had been made, stepped back, saying: "After you, pilot." There was no "after" for him. When the pilot reached the top round, the vessel seemed "to drop from  under him," and no one followed. A buoy that swings to and fro with the ebb and flow of the tide marks the scene of Commodore Craven's bravery and of his death, and beneath, only a few fathoms deep, lies the "Tecumseh." He has been called the "Sydney" of the American Navy.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 3-4.

CRAVEN, Charles Henderson, naval officer, son of Thomas Tingey, born in Portland, Maine, 30 November, 1843, was graduated at the U. S. U.S. Naval Academy in 1863, promoted to ensign, and served in that capacity in the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron until 1865. He participated in many of the engagements in the vicinity of Charleston and Savannah during 1863-'4, and was attached to the " Housatonic " when she was blown up in February, 1864. During 1865-'7 he served in the European Squadron on the " Colorado," and was commissioned lieutenant-commander in November, 1866. He then served on the "Wampanoag," and was made lieutenant-commander in March, 1868, after which he was attached to the Pacific Squadron. Subsequently he served on shore duty at Mare Island, California In 1874 he became executive officer of the "Kearsarge," of the Pacific Squadron, and later of the " Monocacy." He was detached from duty in June, 1879, broken down by over-work, and was retired in May, 1881. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 4.

CRAVEN, Henry Smith, son of Thomas Tingey, civil engineer, born  in Bound Brook, New Jersey, 14 October, 1845, studied in St. John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, and later in the scientific department of Hobart, but was not graduated, as he entered the army shortly before the close of the Civil War. He obtained employment on the Croton works in New York City, but in 1866 went to California and became secretary, with the rank of lieutenant, to his father, then commanding the North Pacific Squadron, and in 1869 was appointed assistant civil engineer of the U.S. Navy-yard at Mare Island. This office he resigned in 1872, and then practised his profession in San Francisco until 1879. He was commissioned civil engineer in the U. S. Navy during the latter year, and ordered to Chester, Pennsylvania, where he was occupied with the construction of the iron floating dock then building for the Pensacola Navy-yard. Later he was ordered to the U.S. Navy-yard at League Island, Pennsylvania, and in July, 1881, was sent to the U.S. Navy-yard at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and in September, 1882, assigned to special duty at Coaster's Harbor training station. He was granted leave of absence in 1883, and took charge of the construction of the new Croton Aqueduct in New York, up to March, 1886. He is the inventor of an automatic trip for mining buckets (1876), and of a tunneling machine (1883). Mr. Craven was given the honorary degree of B. S. by Hobart in 1878, and is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p.4.

CRAWFORD, Martin Jenkins, lawyer, born  in Jasper County, Georgia, 17 March, 1820; died in Columbus, Georgia, 22 July, 1883. He was educated at Mercer University, and, after studying law, was admitted to the bar in 1839. For a while he followed his profession, but the death of his father caused him to give his attention to planting. From 1845 till 1847 he was a member of the state legislature, and in 1850 was a delegate to the Southern Convention held in Nashville during May. In 1853 he was made judge of the superior courts of the Chattahoochee Circuit, and held that office until his election to Congress as a Democrat, where he served from 3 December, 1855, until his withdrawal on 23 January, 1861. He was then elected by the convention of Georgia a delegate to the Confederate Provisional Congress, serving from January, 1861, till February, 1862, and subsequently was appointed one of the three commissioners sent to treat with the authorities in Washington for a peaceful separation of the states. During 1862 he raised the 3d Georgia Cavalry, and after a year's service was transferred to the staff of General Howell Cobb, with whom he continued until the close of the war. He then resumed the practice of his profession, and in 1875 was appointed judge of the superior courts of the Chattahoochee Circuit, to which office in 1877 he was reappointed for a term of eight years. In 1880 he was appointed associate justice of the supreme court of Georgia, to fill the unexpired term of Logan E. Bleckley, on the completion of which he became his own successor by appointment from the state legislature.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 4.

CRAWFORD, Samuel Wylie, soldier, born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, 8 November, 1829. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1845, after which he studied medicine, and in 1851 became an assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army. He served in various forts in the southwest, principally in Texas, until 1860, when he was stationed at Fort Moultrie and later at Fort Sumter, being one of the garrison of that fort at the beginning of the Civil War, and having command of a battery during the bombardment. From that time till August, 1861, he was at Fort Columbus, New York Harbor. He then vacated his commission of assistant surgeon by accepting the appointment of major in the 13th Infantry, and in 1862 was commissioned a brigadier-general of volunteers. General Crawford served with distinction in the Shenandoah Campaign, being present at the battles of Winchester and Cedar Mountain, losing one half of his brigade in the last named action. At the battle of Antietam he succeeded General Mansfield in command of his division, and was severely wounded. Early in 1863 he was placed in command of the Pennsylvania reserves, then stationed about Washington, and with these troops, forming the 3d Division of the 5th Army Corps, he was engaged at Gettysburg, serving with great bravery. Subsequently he participated in all the operations of the Army of the Potomac until the close of the war. He was brevetted successively from colonel, in 1863, up to major-general in 1865, for conspicuous gallantry in the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Petersburg, Five Forks, and other engagements. General Crawford was mustered out of the volunteer service in 1866, and then served with his regiment in the south, becoming colonel of the 16th U.S. Infantry in February, 1869, and later of the 2d U.S. Infantry, he continued in the service until February, 1873, when, owing to disability resulting from wounds, he was retired with the rank of brigadier-general.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 4-5.

CREIGHTON. Johnston Blakeley, naval officer, born  in Rhode Island, 12 November, 1822; died in Morristown. New Jersey, 13 November, 1883. He entered the U.S. Navy as a midshipman, 10 February, 1838, became a lieutenant, 9 October, 1853, commanded the steamer "Ottawa," of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, in 1862, commissioned as commander, 20 September, 1862, was on special duty in 1863, and in commander of the steamer " Mahaska," of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, which was engaged in the bombardment of Forts Wagner and Gregg in August, 1863. He was transferred to the "Mingo," of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, and commanded that steamer till the close of the war. He was commissioned captain on 26 November, 1868, and became a commodore on 9 November, 1874. He was commandant of the Norfolk Navy-yard in 1879, and was retired with the rank of rear-admiral in 1883.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 7.

CRISPIN, Silas, soldier, born in Pennsylvania about 1830. He was appointed to the U. S. Military Academy in 1846, and at graduation ranked third in his class. Assigned to duty at the arsenal at Watervliet, New York, he remained there two years, and then served successively at the arsenals at Alleghany, Pennsylvania, St. Louis, Missouri, and the Leavenworth Ordnance Depot in Kansas. In 1860 he became assistant inspector of arsenals. He was promoted captain of ordnance, 3 August, 1861, and in that grade served through the Civil War, having charge of different depots for the Ordnance Department. He received successive brevets to include that of colonel in the regular army at the close of the Civil War, but did not receive his promotion as major of ordnance until 7 March, 1867. On 14 April, 1875, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and colonel, 23 August, 1881.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 9

CRITTENDEN, George Bibb, born in Russellville, Kentucky, 20 March, 1812; died in Danville. Kentucky, 27 November, 1880, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1832, served in the Black Hawk Expedition, though not at the seat of war, and resigned, 30 April, 1833. He volunteered in the Texan revolution of 1835, and was taken prisoner at Meir, on the Rio Grande, by the Mexicans, who carried him with his company to the city of Mexico, where he was confined in a foul prison until released, through the intervention of Daniel Webster, nearly a year afterward. On one occasion the Mexicans decided to shoot a certain number of the prisoners as a measure of retaliation, and Crittenden, being an officer, was one of the first to draw lots to determine which of them should die. He drew a favorable lot, but when a friend who had a family drew a fatal black bean, he gave to that soldier his white bean, and risked his life in another chance. He served through the Mexican War as captain of mounted rifles, and was brevetted major for gallantry at Contreras and Churubusco, was one of the first to enter the city of Mexico, became major of mounted rifles, 15 April, 1848. served on frontier duty, was promoted lieutenant-colonel, 30 December, 1856, and on 10 June, 1861, resigned and joined the Confederate Service. He was commissioned brigadier-general, and soon afterward major-general, and was assigned, in November, 1861, to the command of southeastern Kentucky and a part of eastern Tennessee. On learning that General Zollicoffer had moved his forces across the Cumberland at Mill Spring, he gave orders to recross the river, but Zollicoffer delayed executing the order until the rise of the river rendered it impracticable to transport the artillery. When General Thomas approached with a large force, on 18 January, 1862, General Crittenden ordered an attack. The Confederates attempted to surprise the Union troops at Fishing Creek; but only two regiments came "up to begin the attack in the morning of 19 January, and after the death of General Zollicoffer the troops were demoralized. General Crittenden effected the retreat of his forces across the river, leaving the artillery behind, he was severely censured for making the attack, was kept under arrest until November, and soon afterward resigned his commission. He continued to serve as a volunteer on the staff of General John S. Williams, who frequently followed his advice and gave him the command of bodies of troops. After the war he resided in Frankfort, Kentucky, where he was state librarian from 1867 to 1871.—Another son, Thomas Leonidus, born in Russellville, Kentucky, 15 May, 1815, studied law under his father, was admitted to the bar, and became commonwealth's attorney in Kentucky in 1842. He served in the Mexican War as lieutenant-colonel of Kentucky Infantry, and was volunteer aide to General Taylor at the battle of Buena Vista. In 1849 he was appointed by President Taylor consul to Liverpool, and served till 1853, then returned to the United States, resided for some time at Frankfort, and afterward engaged in mercantile business at Louisville. Kentucky At the beginning of the Civil War he espoused the national cause, and on 27 October, 1861, was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers. He commanded a division at the battle of Shiloh, and was promoted major-general, 17 July, 1862, for gallant services on that occasion, and assigned to the command of a division in the Army of the Tennessee. He commanded the 2d Corps, forming the left wing of the Army of the Ohio under General Buell. and afterward served under General Rosecrans in the battle of Stone River, and at Chickamauga commanded one of the two corps that were routed. In the Virginia Campaign of 1864 he commanded a division of the 9th Corps. He resigned, 13 December, 1864. but entered the regular army as colonel of the 32d U.S. Infantry on 28 July, 1866, was brevetted brigadier-general for gallantry at Stone River, 2 March, 1867, transferred to the 17th U.S. Infantry in 1869. and served with his regiment on the frontier until he was retired on 19 May, 1881.—Thomas T., a nephew of John Jordan, born in Alabama about 1838, served In the Mexican War as lieutenant of Missouri mounted volunteers, afterward settled in Indiana, and entered the volunteer army in 1861 as colonel of a regiment of three months' men, with a detachment of which he took part in the battle of Philippi. The regiment was reorganized under his command at the expiration of its term of service, and served for three years. He was promoted brigadier-general on 28 April, 1862, and taken prisoner at Murfreesboro on 12 July, and not released till October. He resigned 5 May. 1863.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 9-11.

CROASDALE, Samuel, soldier, born in Pennsylvania; died at Antietam, Maryland, 17 September, 1862. He was a lawyer in Doylestown, Pennsylvania. Immediately after the president's proclamation of 15 April, 1861, be volunteered for three months, and. after the governor's call for nine months' men in the summer of 1862, raised a company in Doylestown, and, upon the organization of the 128th Pennsylvania Regiment, was appointed its colonel. After a few weeks service in camps of instruction near Washington, the emergencies of the invasion of Maryland required the services of the regiment in the field. At Antietam it was assigned an important position, and Colonel Croasdale, having formed his men in line, was leading an assault under a heavy fire, when a ball killed him instantly.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 11.

CROCKER, Marcellus M., soldier, born in Franklin, Johnson County, Indiana, 6 February, 1830; died in Washington. D. C, 26 August, 1860, He entered the U. S. Military Academy in 1847, but left at the end of his second year, studied law, and practised in Des Moines, Iowa. He entered the national service as major of the 2d Iowa Infantry in May, 1861, was promoted colonel on 30 December, fought with distinction in the battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862, was promoted brigadier-general on 29 November, 1862, and engaged at the siege of Vicksburg, conducting a raid in Mississippi. After the re-enlistment of his brigade as veteran volunteers he fought through the Georgia Campaign of Senator Sherman, commanding a division a part of the time. He was suffering from consumption during the whole of his military career, and was assigned to duty in New Mexico on account, of sickness. The brigade that he had commanded and brought to a high state of discipline was nicknamed "Crocker's Greyhounds." It lost heavily in the assault of Bald Hill before Atlanta, on 22 July, 1864, and in Hardee's attack on their position later in the day fully half were killed, wounded, or captured.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 11-12.

CROGHAN, George St, John, a Confederate officer, was fatally wounded at McCoy's Mills, West Virginia, during Floyd's retreat from Cotton Hill, in December, 1861. Before his death he admitted to General Benham, by whose soldiers he had been wounded, that he had fought on the wrong side. He invented a peculiar packsaddle for mules, which had been successfully used in conveying wounded men over the mountain passes of western Virginia.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 13-14.

CROOK, George, soldier, born near Dayton, Ohio, 8 September, 1828; died in Chicago, Illinois, 21 March, 1890. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1852, and went to California in 1852-'61. He participated in the Rouge River Expedition in 1856, and commanded the Pitt River Expedition in 1857, where he was engaged in several actions, in one of which he was wounded by an arrow. He had risen to a captaincy when, at the beginning of the Civil War, he returned to the east and became colonel of the 36th Ohio Infantry. He afterward served in the West Virginia Campaigns, in command of the 3d Provisional Brigade, from 1 May till 15 August, 1862, and was wounded in the action at Lewisburg. He engaged in the northern Virginia and Maryland Campaigns in August and September, 1862, and for his services at Antietam was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, U. S. Army. He served in Tennessee in 1863, and on 1 July he was transferred to the command of the 2d Cavalry  Division . After various actions, ending in the battle of Chickamauga, he pursued Wheeler's Confederate Cavalry  from the 1st to the 10th of October, defeated it, and drove it across the Tennessee with great loss. He entered upon the command of the Kanawha District in Western Virginia in February, 1864, made constant raids, and was in numerous actions. He took part in Sheridan's Shenandoah Campaign in the autumn of that year, and received the brevets of brigadier-general and major-general in the U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865. General Crook had command of the cavalry of the Army of the Potomac from 26 March till 9 April, during which time he was engaged at Dinwiddie Court-House, Jettersville, Sailor's Creek, and Farmville, till the surrender at Appomattox. He was afterward transferred to the command of Wilmington, North Carolina, where he remained from 1 September, 1865, till 15 January, 1866, when he was mustered out of the volunteer service. After a six weeks' leave of absence he was assigned to duty on the board appointed to examine rifle tactics, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 23d Infantry, U. S. Army, on 28 July, 1866, and assigned to the Districts of Boisé, Idaho, where he remained until 1872, actively engaged against the Indians. In 1872 General Crook was assigned to the Arizona District, to quell the Indian disturbances. He sent an ultimatum to the chiefs to return to their reservations or “be wiped from the face of the earth.” No attention was paid to his demand, and he attacked them in the Tonto basin, a stronghold deemed impregnable, and enforced submission. In 1875 he was ordered to quell the disturbances in the Sioux and Cheyenne nations in the northwest, and defeated those Indians in the battle of Powder River, Wyoming. In March another battle resulted in the destruction of 125 lodges, and in June the battle of Tongue River was a victory for Crook. A few days later the battle of the Rosebud gave him another, when the maddened savages massed their forces and succeeded in crushing Custer. (See Custer, George Armstrong.) Crook, on receiving re-enforcements, struck a severe blow at Slim Buttes, Dakota, and followed it up with such relentless vigor that by May, 1877, all the hostile tribes in the northwest had yielded. In 1882 he returned to Arizona, forced the Mormons, squatters, miners, and stock-raisers to vacate the Indian lands on which they had seized, encouraged the Apaches in planting, and pledged them the protection of the government. In the spring of 1883 the Chiricahuas intrenched themselves in the fastnesses of the mountains on the northern Mexican boundary, and began a series of raids. General Crook struck the trail, and, instead of following, took it backward, penetrated into and took possession of their strongholds, and, as fast as the warriors returned from their plundering excursions, made them prisoners. He marched over 200 miles, made 400 prisoners, and captured all the horses and plunder. During the two years following, he had sole charge of the Indians, and in that time no depredation occurred. He set them all at work on their farms, abolished the system of trading and paying in goods and store orders indulged in by contractors, paid cash direct to the Indians for all his supplies, and stimulated them to increased exertion. The tribes became self-supporting within three years. Appleton’s pp. 14-15

CROSBY, Alpheus Benning, surgeon, born in Gilmanton, New Hampshire, 22 February, 1832; died in Hanover, New Hampshire. 9 August, 1877. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1853, and at the  medical department there in 1856. Meanwhile he had devoted one year as an assistant surgeon in the Marine Hospital at Chelsea, Massachusetts Returning to Hanover, he began practice, but at the beginning of the Civil War joined the 1st New Hampshire Volunteers as surgeon, and was afterward promoted to brigade-surgeon. In 1862 he resigned, and became associate professor of surgery to his father, who was professor of surgery and anatomy in Dartmouth. On his father's death, in 1868, he became his successor, and occupied the chair until 1877. Dr. Crosby was also, in 1866-72, a professor in the University of Vermont, in 1869-'70 a lecturer in the University of Michigan, in 1869 a professor and lecturer in Bowdoin College, in 1871-'2 a professor in the Long Island College Hospital, and in 1872-'7 professor of anatomy in Bellevue Hospital Medical College. In Jane," 1877, he presided at the annual meeting of the New Hampshire Medical Society, and delivered an address upon "The Ethical Relations of Physician and Patient." Many of his medical lectures have been published.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 16-17.

CROSBY,  Stephen Moody, born in Salisbury, Massachusetts, 14 August, 1827, was educated in the Boston Latin-school and the Lowell high-school, graduated at Dartmouth in 1849, and at Harvard law-school in 1852. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the national service, was paymaster from 1862 till 1866, and brevetted lieutenant-colonel for meritorious services. He was elected representative in the state legislature in 1869, was state senator in 1870-'l, state director of the Boston and Albany Railroad for 1871-'2. commissioner of the Hoosac Tunnel in 1874-'5. and treasurer of the Massachusetts Trust Company in 1870-'83, when he became president of that corporation.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 17.

CROSBY, Eben, soldier. Of his early life nothing is known, he served with distinction in the National Army throughout the Civil War, losing an arm at Gettysburg. He received, on 28 July, 1866, the appointment of second lieutenant of infantry in the U. S. Army, and on 27 May, 1869, was assigned to service on the western border. He was killed by Indians, near Heart River, fifteen miles from Fort Rice, while returning from the Yellowstone Expedition, 3 October, 1872.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 17.

CROSBY, John Schuyler, soldier, born in Albany, New York, 19 September, 1839. He was educated in the New York schools and at the University, but before graduation made a tour of the world. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the regular army as second lieutenant of artillery, served with his battery under McClellan in the Army of the Potomac, and in the Florida Campaign of 1862 was transferred to the Department of the Gulf under General Banks, and brevetted captain after the Teche Campaign. He carried the first despatches from the Red River to Farragut, for which he was brevetted major, and also brevetted major and lieutenant-colonel in the regular army for his services at Sabine Cross-Roads and Pleasant Hill. In August, 1864. he was commissioned colonel of the 7th New York Heavy  Artillery , but declined the appointment, becoming assistant adjutant-general on the staff of General Canby in the Department of the Gulf, and being afterward transferred to Sheridan's staff. In 1866 he served in the campaigns of Sheridan and Custer against the Indians. He resigned in 1872, and was appointed consul to Florence, Italy, in 1876. He became governor of Montana on 4 August, 1882, took an active part in preventing the Yellowstone Park from falling into the hands of a cattle syndicate, and in November, 1884, was appointed first assistant Postmaster-General, but resigned 4 March, 1886.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 17-18.

CROSBY, Peirce, naval officer, born near Chester, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, 16 January, 1823. He was educated at a private school, and was appointed in 1838 midshipman from Pennsylvania. He sailed in 1842 on the frigate " Congress" to the Mediterranean, serving on her six months, when he returned to the United States. In May, 1844, he was promoted to passed midshipman, and served on the coast survey in 1844-'6. He was six months on the " Decatur,'' in the Gulf of Mexico during the Mexican War, participated in the attack and capture of Tuxpan and Tobasco, and then served a year on the "Petrel." Peace being declared in 1848, he was transferred to other duties, and commissioned lieutenant, 3 September, 1853. At the beginning of the Civil War Lieutenant Crosby served in Chesapeake Bay, keeping the communications open between Annapolis and Havre de Grace, was detailed, on the night prior to the battle of Big Bethel, to transport troops across Hampton creek, and also upon their return from their unsuccessful expedition. In the attack on Forts Hatteras and Clark he commanded the "Fannie," a light-draught steamer, and superintended the landing of troops, until the surf swamped and broke his boats. He then took a ship's heavy launch and landed two more boat-loads of men; but the sea became so heavy that the launch was dashed upon the shore and the crew hurled out. He succeeded in landing 300 men, but, on account of the bad weather, the squadron stood off seaward, leaving him and his companions upon shore. Lieutenant Crosby put out a strong picket in front of the enemy's batteries, thus preventing their making a reconnaissance and ascertaining his weakness. On the following day the squadron returned and captured the forts, in the winter of 1861-'2 he took command of the gun-boat "Pinola," and joined the Gulf Squadron under Farragut. On his way he captured the "Cora," loaded with cotton. On arriving at the mouth of the Mississippi, he co-operated with the "Itasca" in breaking the chain barrier across the river below Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and participated in the capture of New Orleans, and also at the passage and repassage of the batteries at Vicksburg, 30 June and 15 July. He was promoted to commander, 3 September, 1862, and appointed fleet-captain of the North Atlantic Squadron, and did good service in various expeditions. In the winter of 1863 he took command of the "Florida," destroyed two blockade-runners at Masonboro inlet, was transferred to the "Keystone State" in 1864, and captured five blockade-runners, causing many others to throw overboard their cargoes in order to escape. In 1864-'5 he was in command of the "Metacomet," and planned and superintended the removal, by the use of drag-nets, of 140 torpedoes which interfered with the approaches to Mobile, successfully clearing the track so that vessels passed up the river and forced the surrender of the city. In 1865 he was transferred to the command of the "Shamokin," and sailed in her for the coast of Brazil, where he remained until 1868. On 27 May, 1868, while yet in Brazilian waters, he was promoted to a captaincy, and returned to the United States, becoming inspector of ordnance at Norfolk Navy-yard. He was promoted to commodore, 3 October, 1874, made rear-admiral, 10 March, 1882, and assigned to the command of the Asiatic Squadron. In 1883 he was placed on the retired list. He had been in active service more than forty- eight years, over twenty-three of which were at sea.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 18.

CROSMAN, George Hampton, soldier, born in Taunton, Massachusetts, in November, 1798; died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 28 May, 1882. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1828, assigned to the 6th U.S. Infantry, and served on frontier and garrison duty. He was promoted to first lieutenant on 30 August, 1828, and made assistant quartermaster on 15 October, 1830. He performed the duties of this office in the Indian country during the Black Hawk war of 1832, and in the Florida War of 1836-'7, and was promoted to captain, 30 April, 1837. He was chief quartermaster in the military occupation of Texas in 1845-'6, and distinguished himself at the storming of Palo Alto, 8 May, 1846, receiving the brevet of major for his gallantry on that occasion. He became major on the staff and quartermaster, 3 March, 1847, deputy quartermaster-general with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in 1856, and assistant quartermaster-general with rank of colonel in 1863, serving during this time in charge of various clothing depots and arsenals. From 1864 till 1866 he was occupied in preparing for publication a "Manual for the Quartermaster's Department," He was brevetted brigadier-general and major-general, U. S. Army, for his services during the Civil War, on 13 March, 1865, and was retired from active service in 1866, but was on duty again in Philadelphia as chief quartermaster of the Department of the East till 1868.—His son, Alexander Foster, naval officer, born in St. Louis, Missouri, 11 June, 1838; in Greytown, Nicaragua, 12 April, 1872, was appointed to the U. S. Naval Academy from Pennsylvania, and graduated in 1855. He was attached to the frigate "Congress," of the Mediterranean Squadron, in 1856-'8, made master, 4 November, 1858, served on the Paraguay Expedition of 1858-'9, and was promoted to lieutenant in 1861. He commanded the " Somerset," of the East Gulf Squadron, in 1862, was made lieutenant-commander on 16 July of that year, and served in the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron during the rest of the war, most of the time in the "Wabash." He was with the naval brigade of that squadron on General Hatch's expedition to sever the railroad from Charleston to Savannah, and co-operated several times with the army on Stono River, engaging Fort Lamar once. He was honorably mentioned in Commander George H. Preble's official report of 10 January, 1865. After the war he served on the " Ossipee," the "Onward, "and at Portsmouth Navy-yard. He was commissioned commander in 1870, ordered to the command of the Isthmus Surveying Expedition in January, 1872, and was drowned in the Harbor of Greytown. At the time of his death he was preparing a book on seamanship.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 19.

CROSS, Charles E., soldier, born in Massachusetts hi 1837; died near Fredericksburg, Virginia, 5 May, 1863. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in May, 1861, standing second in a class of forty, and was assigned to the Engineer Corps, he was engaged in drilling volunteers at Washington, D. C. and as assistant, engineer in constructing the defences of that city till March, 1862, participating in the battle of Bull Run on 21 July, 1861, and being promoted to first lieutenant on 6 August. In the Virginia Peninsular Campaign he was engaged in the siege of Yorktown. and in the construction of roads, field-works, and bridges for the passage of the army and its immense trains over White Oak Swamp and Chickahominy River. He commanded an engineer battalion at Antietam, and received the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for gallantry there, having previously been given that of major for services on the peninsula. He was engaged in building the pontoon bridges for the advance and retreat of the army at Fredericksburg, and was employed in throwing up field-works, making surveys, and guarding bridges, in the early part of 1863, being promoted to captain of engineers on 3 March. He was at the battle of Chancellorsville, 3-5 May, 1863, and was killed while assisting to throw a bridge across the Rappahannock, in the face of the enemy. For his gallantry on this occasion he was given, after his death, the brevet of colonel.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 19.

CROSS, Edward Ephram
, soldier, born in Lancaster, New Hampshire, 22 April, 1832: died near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 2 July, 1863. He was educated at Lancaster Academy, and began life as a journeyman printer. He went to Cincinnati in 1852, and in 1854 became an editor of the "Cincinnati Times," also acting as correspondent for the "New York Herald" and other journals. In 1854 he canvassed the state of  Ohio for the American Party. He was afterward employed as agent of the St. Louis and Arizona Mining Company, in which he subsequently became a large stockholder. In 1858 he made a trip across the plains, taking the first steam-engine and the first printing-press that ever crossed the Rocky mountains. In 1860 he held a lieutenant-colonel's commission in the Mexican Army, and when the news of the attack on Fort Sumter reached him he was in command of a large garrison at El Fuerte. He at once resigned, and hastened to Concord, New Hampshire, where he offered his services to the governor of the state, organized the 5th New Hampshire Regiment, and was commissioned as its colonel. Under his command the regiment distinguished itself in many important engagements, and won an enviable reputation for bravery, becoming known as the "Fighting Fifth." He was mortally wounded at the battle of Gettysburg while leading the 1st Brigade of the 1st Division , 2d Army Corps. He had been several times wounded before, and General Hancock had strongly recommended his promotion to brigadier-general, but, though he had commanded a brigade for several months with conspicuous gallantry, it  was delayed, as has been claimed, through political influence. Colonel Cross was the author of numerous poems and prose sketches, written under the pen-name of Richard Everett.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 19-29.

CROSS, Osborne, soldier, born in Maryland in 1803 ; died in New York City, 15 July, 1876, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1825, assigned to the infantry, and served on garrison, frontier, and commissary duty. He was made first lieutenant on 31 December, 1831, assistant quartermaster, 1 January, 1836, and became captain in the First U.S. Infantry, 7 July, 1838. He was chief quartermaster of Wool's Division  in 1846-'7, and of the Army of Mexico in 1848, promoted to major on 24 July, 1847, and served until the Civil War, during which he was chief quartermaster of various posts and camps. He was made deputy quartermaster-general, 26 February, 1863, and on 13 March, 1865, was brevetted brigadier-general in the regular army. He was promoted to colonel, 29 July, 1866, and on the same day was retired.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p 20.

CROWNINSHIELD, Arrant Schuyler, naval officer, born in New York State, 14 March, 1843, was graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1863. He was attached to the steam sloop " Ticonderoga," and participated in both attacks on Fort Fisher, being commended for his efficiency by Captain Charles Steedman. He was made lieutenant, 10 November, 1866, lieutenant-commander, 10 March, 1868, and commander, 25 March, 1880. He is a member of the Naval Advisory Board in New York City.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 22.

CRUFT, Charles, soldier, born in Indiana; died in Terre Haute, Indiana, 23 March, 1883. He was commissioned an officer of volunteers from Indiana, 16 July, 1862, and became a major-general of volunteers, 5 March, 1865. He served with credit throughout the war, and specially distinguished himself in the battles that were fought near Richmond, Kentucky, 29 and 30 August, 1862, having command of a brigade under General Mahlon D. Manson.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 22.

CULLUM, George W., soldier, born in New York City, 25 February, 1809. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1833, entered the Engineer Corps, was promoted captain on 7 July, 1838, superintended the construction of fortifications and other public works at New London, Connecticut, and in Boston Harbor, organized pontoon-trains for the army in Mexico, was engaged in 1847-'8 in preparing a "Memoir on Military Bridges with India-Rubber Pontoons," and from 1848 till 1855 was instructor of practical military engineering at the Military Academy, except two years, during which he travelled abroad on sick-leave. In 1853-'4 he constructed for the Treasury Department the assay-office in New York City, after which he was employed for five years on fortifications and harbor improvements at Charleston, South Carolina, and superintended works at New Bedford, Newport, New London, and the eastern entrance to New York Harbor. On 9 April, 1861, he was appointed aide-de-camp to the commander-in-chief of the army. He was promoted major of engineers on 6 August, 1861, commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers on 1 November, appointed chief engineer of the Department of the Missouri, was chief of staff to General Halleck while commanding the Departments of the Missouri and the Mississippi, and general-in-chief of the armies, directed engineer operations on the western rivers, was for some time in command at Cairo, was engaged as chief of engineers in the siege of Corinth, and, after accompanying General Halleck to Washington, was employed in inspecting fortifications, examining engineering inventions, and on various engineer boards. He was also a member of the U. S. Sanitary Commission from 1861 till 1864. In the autumn of 1864 he was employed in projecting fortifications for Nashville, Tennessee, which had been selected as a base of operations and depot of supplies for our western armies. From 8 September, 1864, till 28 August, 1866, he was superintendent of the U. S. Military Academy. He was brevetted colonel, brigadier, and major-general for meritorious services during the rebellion on 13 March, 1865, and mustered out of the volunteer service on 1 September, 1866. He was a member of the board for improving the defences of New York, and then of the board for fortifications and river and harbor obstructions required for the national defence from 1867 till 13 January, 1874, when he was retired from active service, after which he resided in New York, and devoted himself to literary, scientific, and military studies. He was chosen in that year vice-president of the American Geographical Association, and has been president of the Geographical Library Society since 1880. He has published a "Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the United States Military Academy, from 1802 to 1850," afterward enlarged to cover the period until the army reorganization of 1867, with a supplement continuing the register to 1879 (New York, 1879); a translation of Duparcq's "Elements of Military Art and History" (1863); "Systems of Military Bridges" (1863); "Sketch of Major-General Richard Montgomery, of the Continental Army" (1876); "Campaigns and Engineers of the War of 1812—'5" (1879); "Historical Sketch of the Fortification Defences of Narragansett Bay since the Founding, in 1638. of the Colony of Rhode Island" (Washington, 1884).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 27

CUMMING, Gilbert W., lawyer, in Delaware County, N. Y., in 1817. He was apprenticed to a carriage-maker, but spent his spare hours in study. He began to study law in 1838, and became prominent in his profession. During the anti-rent troubles of 1845 he commanded a military regiment, and succeeded in restoring quiet. He moved, in 1853, to Janesville, Wisconsin, and in 1858 to Chicago. In September, 1861, he raised the 51st Illinois Regiment, and was appointed its colonel. He was afterward assigned to the command of a brigade, and did good service at Island Number Ten, New Madrid, and Corinth.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 29

CUMMING, Kate, author, born about 1835. She is of Scottish descent, and has resided in Mobile, Alabama, since her childhood. During the Civil War she was with one of the Confederate Armies, receiving the wounded and assisting in organizing the field hospitals in the campaigns in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Georgia, when the army was retreating. Every evening she spent a few moments over her diary, recording the incidents that had taken place around her. She published " Hospital Life in the Army of Tennessee" (Louisville, Kentucky, 1866).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 29

CUMMING, William, soldier, born in Georgia about 1790; died in Augusta, Georgia, in February, 1863. He studied at. the Litchfield, Connecticut, law-school, but inherited a fortune and never practised. He was appointed major in the 8th U.S. Infantry on 25 March, 1813, and was wounded in the battle of Chrysler's Field, 11 November He was made adjutant general, with the rank of colonel, on 16 February, 1814, being severely wounded at Lundy's Lane on 25 July, and resigning 31 March, 1815. He declined the appointment of quartermaster-general, with the rank of brigadier-general, in April, 1818, and also that of major-general, tendered him by President Polk on 3 March, 1847. Colonel Cumming was a leader of the Union Party in the nullification struggle, and his quarrel with George McDuffie, of South Carolina, on this issue was notorious. The two men, attended by a long train of friends in their own equipages, rushed from one point to another in the attempt to find a place of meeting, and loudly accused each other of betraying their intentions to the officers of the law. They were widely caricatured, and their actions were watched with interest all over the country. They finally succeeded in meeting twice, and exchanged three shots, by one of which McDuffie was wounded in the hip and lamed for life.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 29

CUMMING, Alfred, governor of Utah, born about 1802; died in Augusta, Georgia, 6 October, 1873, was a sutler during the Mexican War. He had been superintendent of Indian affairs on the upper Missouri, and in 1857 President Buchanan appointed him governor of Utah territory, and sent him there with a force of 2,500 men to protect him in the discharge of his functions, which constituted the famous "Utah Expedition" of that year. On 27 November the governor issued a proclamation declaring the territory to be in a state of rebellion, and this document was sent to Salt Lake City by a Mormon prisoner, accompanied by a letter to Brigham Young, evincing a willingness to temporize. The expedition went, into winter quarters at Camp Scott, on Black's Fork, and in March, 1858, Colonel Thomas L. Kane arrived in the camp, having been sent by the president as special envoy to Brigham Young. The relations between Governor Cumming and General Albert Sidney Johnston, commander of the expedition, had become somewhat strained, and. soon after Colonel Kane's arrival, that gentleman, taking offence at a fancied slight, wrote a challenge to General Johnston with Governor Cumming's consent. During the spring difficulties constantly arose, through a misunderstanding on Cumming's part, as to the power he possessed over the troops. On 8 March Judge Cradlebaugh made requisition for soldiers to protect his court, sitting at Provo, during the trial of the Mormons indicted for complicity in the Mountain Meadows massacre, and they were furnished by General Johnston, whereupon Governor Camming protested against their use, and on 27 March issued a proclamation denouncing the general's action. The Secretary of War afterward forbade General Johnston to use troops for such purposes. After the proclamation of pardon to the Mormons, in accordance with the temporizing policy adopted by Buchanan's administration. Governor Cumming objected to the farther advance of the army, but, notwithstanding his protest, it was marched into Salt Lake City, and did much to preserve order. Governor Cumming held his office till 1861, when he was succeeded by Stephen S. Harding.—Alfred's nephew, Alfred, born in Augusta, Georgia, 30 January, 1829, was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1849. He was aide to General Twiggs at New Orleans in 1851-'3, was made first lieutenant on 8 March, 1855, and captain in the 10th U.S. Infantry, 20 July, 1856. He was on the Utah Expedition of 1859- 60, and on 19 January, 1861, resigned, and was soon commissioned lieutenant-colonel in the Confederate Army. He rose to the rank of brigadier-general, and served until disabled by wounds received at the battle of Jonesboro, Georgia, 31 August, 1864. After the war he became a planter near Rome, Georgia
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 29-30.

CUMMINGS, Amos Jay, journalist, born in Conkling, New York, in 1842. His father edited and published a weekly religious paper in Irvington, and the youth entered the printing-office at the age of twelve years. After attaining manhood, he travelled and worked at the case in many states of the Union and in Canada. He also visited Mexico, Central America, and Europe. At the beginning of the Civil War he was a compositor on the New York " Tribune," but soon joined a regiment of volunteers, and fought in the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. Soon afterward he returned to work at the " Tribune " establishment, becoming successively night editor, city editor, and political editor of that paper. At present (1887) he is on the editorial staff of the New York "Sun." In 1885-'6 he was president of the New York Press Club Mr. Cummings is known as a ready extemporaneous speaker. In 1886 he was elected a representative in Congress.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 30

CUMMINGS, Andrew Boyd, naval officer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 22 June, 1830: died in New Orleans, Louisiana, 18 March, 1863. He entered the U. S. Navy as midshipman in April, 1847, and was successively advanced through the different grades until he became lieutenant-commander in July, 1862. During the passage of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, and the capture of New Orleans, he was executive officer of the "Richmond." During the subsequent engagement with the batteries at Port Hudson he fell mortally wounded while cheering the men at their guns. He was removed to New Orleans, but died four days later. Admiral Porter said in a letter written at that time: "He was a gallant officer, and too good a man to lose." Admiral Farragut wrote: "Poor Cummings was a great loss, both to the country and to his family."
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 30

CURRY, Jabez Lamar Monroe, educator, born in Lincoln County, Georgia, 5 June, 1825 He moved with his father to Talladega County, Alabama, in 1838, was graduated at the University of Georgia in 1843, and at Harvard law-school in 1845. After entering on the practice of his profession in Talladega County, he served in the Mexican War as a private of Texas Rangers in 1846, but resigned on account of his health. He was chosen to the Alabama legislature in 1847, 1853, and 1855, and in 1850 was an elector on the Democratic ticket. He was then elected to Congress without opposition, as a state-rights House of Representatives, and served from 7 December, 1857, till 21 January, 1861, when he resigned, having previously joined with the other Alabama representatives at Washington in advising the immediate secession of the state. He was a deputy from Alabama to the Provisional Confederate Congress, a representative in the first Confederate Congress, and in 1864-'5 served in the Confederate Army, under General Joseph E. Johnston, as lieutenant-colonel of cavalry. At the close of the war he was ordained as a Baptist clergyman, was president of Howard College, Alabama, in 1866-'8, and professor of English, philosophy, and constitutional law in Richmond College, Virginia, in 1868-'81. He was president of the foreign mission board of the southern Baptist Convention in 1874-'85, and of the trustees of Richmond College in 1882- 5. In 1881-5 Dr. Curry was general agent of the Peabody Educational Fund, and he has "labored in behalf of public-school education, higher, normal, and industrial, for all the people of both races." Dr. Curry is one of the most effective platform speakers in the country, and has declined numerous invitations to become a pastor, preferring to preach occasionally. An address made by him before the Evangelical alliance, urging the complete separation of church and state, was reprinted and distributed in England by the disestablishment party. In the spring of 1885 Dr. Curry was appointed U. S. minister to Spain, and in that capacity he has settled several important questions that have been pending for years. Mercer University, Georgia, gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1867, and Rochester University that of D. D. in 1871. He is a contributor to the religious press, and has published speeches and pamphlets.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 33

CURTIS, Benjamin Robbins, 1809-1874, Watertown, Massachusetts, jurist, lawyer, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, 1851-1857.  Dissented from majority court decision on the Dred Scott case.  Argued that U.S. Congress had the legal right to prohibit slavery, and disagreed with the decision that held that “a person of African descent could not be a citizen of the United States.”  (Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 35; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 2, Pt. 2, p. 609)

CURTIS, Joseph Brigham, soldier, born in Providence, Rhode Island, 25 October, 1830; killed near Fredericksburg, Virginia, 13 December, 1862, was graduated at the Lawrence scientific school of Harvard in 1856. In 1857 he became a member of the New York Central Park Engineer Corps, and in April, 1861, was appointed engineer, with the rank of captain, in the 9th New York Volunteers. After that regiment was mustered out, he became, on 16 September, 1861, second lieutenant in the 4th Rhode Island Volunteers, and was promoted to first lieutenant on 2 October He served with Burnside in North Carolina, distinguished himself by his coolness and daring at the capture of Roanoke Island, 7 February, 1802, and on 9 June was appointed assistant adjutant-general on General Rodman's staff. In August he was promoted, at General Burnside's special request, to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 4th Rhode Island Regiment, joined the Army of the Potomac, and was with it in the succession of battles between the Rappahannock and Washington. In the battle of Antietam his regiment suffered so much that it was withdrawn from the field by the general's command, whereupon Colonel Curtis took a musket and cartridge-box from a dead soldier and did duty as a private in a Pennsylvania regiment till the close of the battle. He was killed at Fredericksburg while in command of his regiment, the colonel having been disabled by a wound. See a memoir by George William Curtis, in John R. Bartlett's "Rhode Island in the Rebellion" (1867).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 36.

CURTIS, Edward, born in Providence, Rhode Island, 4 June, 1838, was graduated at Harvard in 1859, and received his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1804. He had entered the army as medical cadet on 6 September, 1861, became acting assistant surgeon on 5 May, 1863, assistant surgeon in 1864, and was brevetted captain and major on 13 March. 1865. He resigned from the army in 1870, and began practice in New York City. During the later years of his army service he was in charge of the microscopical section of the medical museum, and was especially engaged in developing the art of photographing through the microscope. He became lecturer on histology in the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1870, and in 1873 was given the chair of materia mediea and therapeutics, becoming professor emeritus in 1886. He was made assistant surgeon to the New York Eye and Ear infirmary in 1872, surgeon in 1874, and in 1870 became medical director of the Equitable Life Assurance Society, retiring from active practice. Dr. Curtis has published a "Catalogue of the Microscopical Section of the U. S. Army Medical Museum (Washington, 1867), and "Manual of General Medicinal Technology" (New York, 1883).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 36.

CURTIS, Josiah, physician, born in Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1816. He was graduated at Yale in 1840, and soon afterward became principal of an academy in Salem, New Jersey, and later taught in Philadelphia, where he studied medicine, and in 1843 was graduated at Jefferson Medical College. After spending a year in lecturing on physiology and public health, he" settled for practice in Lowell, Massachusetts. In 1849 he moved to Boston, and between 1850 and 1855 twice visited Europe for the purpose of studying the sanitary condition of the large cities. In 1861 he was called to Washington to superintend the mortality statistics of the U. S. Census of 1860. He there entered the army, and remained with it until 1865, when he took up his residence in Knoxville, Kentucky In 1872 Dr. Curtis filled the place of surgeon, microscopist, and naturalist to the U. S. Geological Survey, and in 1873 became chief medical officer of the U. S. Indian Service. He has published numerous articles on ventilation and kindred subjects, and is the author of a report on the " Hygiene of Massachusetts" (1849), and earlier reports to the Massachusetts legislature on the registration of births, marriages, and deaths. he is noted as the discoverer of collodion.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 36-37.

CURTIS, Newton Martin, soldier, born in De Peyster, St. Lawrence County, New York, 21 May, 1835. He was educated at common schools, and at Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary, in 1854-'5. He became a prominent Democrat, was postmaster of his native town in 1857-'61, and Democratic candidate for assembly in 1860. He enrolled a volunteer company on 14 April, 1861, was commissioned captain in the 16th New York Regiment on 7 May, and served in the Army of the Potomac. He became lieutenant-colonel and then colonel of the 142d New York Infantry, and during the battle of Cold Harbor was assigned to the command of a brigade whose leader had been killed in the action. He was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers, 28 October, 1864, and for his services at the capture of Fort Fisher was promoted on the field to brigadier-general of volunteers, and was also thanked by the legislature of New York. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865, and assigned to duty as chief of staff to General E. O. C. Ord. On 1 July, 1865, he was given the command of southwestern Virginia, with headquarters at Lynchburg, and was mustered out on 15 January, 1866. He was collector of customs in the District of Oswegatchie, New York, in 1866-7, special agent of the U. S. Treasury from 1867 till his resignation in 1880, and a member of the legislature in 1883-'5, having been elected as a Republican. He was president of the State Agricultural Society in 1880, and has been secretary and trustee of the state agricultural station since its organization in that year.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 37.

CURTIS, Samuel Ryan, soldier, born in New York state, 3 February, 1807; died in Council Bluffs, Iowa, 26 December, 1806. He moved when a child to Ohio and was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1831, but resigned from the army in 1832, and became a civil engineer, superintending the Muskingum River improvements in 1837-'9. He then studied law. and practised in Ohio from 1841 till 1846. He had become a captain of militia in 1833, was lieutenant-colonel in 1837-'42, colonel in l843-"45. In 1846 he was made adjutant-general of Ohio for the special purpose of organizing the state's quota of volunteers for the Mexican War. He served in that war as colonel of the 2d Ohio Regiment, and was commandant of Camargo, a large military depot, holding it on 18 February, 1847, against General Urrea, and then pursuing the enemy by forced marches through the mountains to Ramos, Mexico, thus opening General Taylor's communications. After the discharge; of his regiment he served on General Wool's staff, and as governor of Saltillo, Mexico, in 1847-'8. He then engaged in engineering in the west, and in 1855 settled as a lawyer in Keokuk, Iowa. While a resident of this place he was elected to Congress as a Republican, and served two terms and part of a third, from 1837 till 1861, being a member of the committees on military affairs and the Pacific Railroad. He was also a delegate from Iowa to the Peace Congress of February, 1861. He resigned from Congress in 1861 to become colonel of the 2d Iowa Regiment, and on 17 May was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, being on the first list sent to the Senate for confirmation. He took charge of the large camp of instruction near St. Louis in August and September, 1861, commanded the southwestern District of Missouri from 26 December, 1861, till February, 1862, and the Army of the Southwest till August, 1862. On 6-8 March, at Pea Ridge, Ark., he gained a decisive victory over a Confederate force, commanded by Generals Price and McCulloch. He was promoted to major-general of volunteers on 21 March. 1862, and from 14 July till 29 August occupied Helena, Arkansas, having marched over one thousand miles through wildernesses and swamps. While on leave of absence, from 29 August till 24 September, 1862, he was president of the Pacific Railroad Convention in Chicago. He was at the head of the Department of the Missouri from September, 1862, till May, 1863, and of that of Kansas from 1 January, 1864, till 7 February, 1865, commanding at Fort Leavenworth during the Price raid of October, 1864, and aiding in the defeat and pursuit of General Price's army. He commanded the Department of the Northwest from 16 February till 26 July, 1865, was U. S. commissioner to negotiate treaties with various Indian tribes from August till November, 1865, and to examine the Union Pacific Railroad till April, 1866.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 37.

CUSHING, William Barker
, naval officer, born in Wisconsin, 24 November, 1842; died in Washington, D. C., 17 December, 1874. He was appointed to the Naval Academy from New York in 1857, but resigned on 23 March, 1861. In May, 1861, he volunteered, was appointed master's mate, and on the day of his arrival at Hampton Roads captured and brought into port a tobacco-schooner, the first prize of the war. He was attached to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron during the war, and repeatedly distinguished himself by acts of bravery. He was commissioned lieutenant on 16 July, 1862. In November, 1862, he was ordered in the steamer "Ellis" to capture Jacksonville. Florida, intercept the Wilmington mail, and destroy the saltworks at New Juliet. He captured a large mail, took two prizes, and shelled a Confederate camp, but was unable to cross the bar that night, and in the morning ran aground. The crew transferred everything except the pivot-gun to one of the captured schooners, and sailed to a place of safety, a mile and a half away; but dishing remained with six volunteers on board the steamer until she was disabled by a cross-fire from the shore, when he set her on fire and made his escape to the schooner in a row-boat. He distinguished himself the same year on the Blackwater and in the sounds of North Carolina. In 1863 he added to his reputation for bravery and judgment by an expedition up the Cape Fear and Little Rivers and operations on the Nansemond. His most brilliant exploit was the destruction of the Confederate ironclad ram "Albemarle" on the night of 27 October, 1864. This powerful vessel had successfully encountered a strong fleet of U. S. gunboats, and fought them for several hours without sustaining material damage. There was nothing able to cope with her in the sounds. Cushing volunteered to destroy her, and with a steam launch and a volunteer crew he ascended Roanoke River, towing an armed cutter. The river was lined with pickets to guard against just such an attack as this: but Cushing's luck did not desert him, and he was within a few  yards of the "Albemarle" before he was discovered. Casting off the boat that was in tow, he ordered its crew to attack a picket-post nearby, while, with a full head of steam, he drove the launch straight at the huge bulk of the iron-clad, whose crew rushed to quarters and at once opened fire. The launch replied effectively with her howitzer. A raft of heavy logs surrounded the larger vessel, but the launch was driven over them, and by the time she had received her death-wound from the "Albemarle's" guns, Gushing had coolly swung the torpedo-boom under the great ship's overhang and exploded the charge. A large hole was blown in the iron-clad's side, she sank at her moorings, and was never raised. Telling his companions to look out for themselves, Gushing left his sinking launch and swam downstream, reaching the bank, thoroughly exhausted, half a mile below. As soon as he recovered his strength he plunged into the dense swamp, and after many hours of tedious wading came out upon the shore of a creek, where, with his usual good luck, he found a picket-boat, and at 11 p. m. the following night reached a U. S. gun-boat at the mouth of the river. Of the gallant fellows who risked their lives with him, only one escaped besides himself. Two were drowned, and most of the others captured. Lieutenant Gushing did not expect to return alive from this enterprise, whether he succeeded in sinking the " Albemarle" or not, and before setting out he had visited Massachusetts in order to bid his friends good-by. Five times the Secretary of the Navy officially wrote him commendatory letters, and for the "Albemarle " affair he received the thanks of Congress, and was promoted lieutenant-commander, 27 October, 1864. At Fort Fisher, under a constant and heavy fire, he buoyed out the channel in a small skiff, and continued the work for six hours till he had completed it. At the final assault on Fort Fisher be fed a force of sailors and marines from the “Monticello " in an attack on the sea-front of the fort, and amid an unceasing fire at short range, which cut down his men in windrows, he crossed a hundred yards of sand, rallied his men, and lent such efficient assistance to the troops that, before midnight the fort was surrendered. After the war he served in the Pacific and Asiatic Squadrons, being in command of the steamer "Lancaster" in 186-'7, and of the "Maumee," in the Asiatic Squadron, in 1868-'9. On the return of the " Maumee" to the United States, Lieutenant-Commodore Gushing was advanced to the rank of commander. 31 January, 1872, being the youngest officer of that rank in the nary. He was allowed leave of absence, but his health, which had been impaired by over-exertion, failed completely, and he died of brain fever.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 40-41.

CUSHMAN, Pauline, spy, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, 10 June, 1833. She was the daughter of a Spanish refugee, who became a tradesman in New Orleans, and afterward an Indian trader at Grand Rapids, Michigan After reaching womanhood she returned to the south as a variety actress, and attracted attention by her beauty. When acting in Louisville, Kentucky, in March, 1863, she was offered a bribe if she would give a toast to Jefferson Davis during the performance, and, on informing the provost-marshal. Colonel Moore, was induced to carry out the plot. She was afterward employed by the government as a detective to discover the southern sympathizers and spies in Louisville, and their methods of conveying information and medical supplies across the lines, and frequently also as a scout. Securing a theatrical engagement at Nashville, where she was welcomed as a secessionist, she performed valuable services for the army police in detecting thefts from the government stores, trade in contraband, and the practices of guerillas. Thence she was sent beyond the lines in May, 1863, ostensibly as a rebel sympathizer, in order to gain information of the strength of the Confederate forces and fortifications, the extent of their supplies, and their contemplated movements. She was captured, taken to the headquarters of General Bragg, and sentenced by a court-martial to be hanged as a spy, but was left behind at the evacuation of Shelbyville, where she was found by the Union troops. The fame of her adventures extended over the country, and after her escape from imprisonment she was given by the soldiers the title of major, and was accoutered as an officer. Her knowledge of the roads in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi was of great service to the Army of the Cumberland. See her “Life," by F. L. Sarmiento (Philadelphia, 1865).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 42.

CUSTER, George Armstrong, soldier, born in New Rumley, Harrison County, Ohio, 5 December, 1839; died in Montana, 25 June, 1876. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in June, 1861, and reported for duty at Washington. General Winfield Scott gave him despatches to carry to General Irwin McDowell, then in command of the Army of the Potomac, he was assigned to duty as lieutenant in the 5th U.S. Cavalry , and participated, on the day of his arrival at the front, in the first battle of Bull Run. General Philip Kearny selected him as his first aide-de-camp, and he afterward served on the staff of General William F. Smith. While on this duty he was given charge of the balloon ascensions, to make rcconnoissances. In May, 1862, General George B. McClellan was so impressed with the energy and perseverance that he showed in wading the Chickahominy alone, to ascertain what would be a safe ford for the army to cross, and with his courage in reconnoitering the enemy's position while on the other side, that he was appointed aide-de-camp, with the rank of captain, to date from 15 June, 1862. Captain Custer applied at once for permission to attack the picket-post he had just discovered, and at daylight the next morning surprised the enemy, drove them back, capturing some prisoners and the first colors that were taken by the Army of the Potomac. After General McClellan's retirement from command of the army, Captain Custer was discharged from his volunteer appointment and returned to his regiment as lieutenant. He had served there but a short time when General Alfred Pleasonton, on 15 May, 1863, made him aide-de-camp on his staff. For daring gallantry in a skirmish at Aldie and in the action at Brandy Station, as well as in the closing operations of the Rappahannock Campaign, he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, dating from 29 June, 1863, and assigned to duty as commander of the Michigan brigade. At Gettysburg his brigade, together with those of Gregg and McIntosh, defeated General Stuart's efforts to turn the left flank. For this action he was brevetted major in the U.S. Army, to date from 3 July, 1863. At Culpepper Court-House he was wounded by a spent ball, which killed his horse. He took part in General Sheridan's cavalry raid toward Richmond, in May, 1864, and was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Yellow Tavern, 11 May. In General Sheridan's second raid on Richmond the Michigan brigade made a most gallant fight at Trevillion Station; but so great was their peril that the colors of the brigade were only saved from capture by General Custer's tearing them from the standard, held in the grasp of a dying color-sergeant, and concealing the flag in his bosom. On 19 September, 1864, he was made brevet-colonel, U. S. Army, for gallantry at the battle of Winchester, and on 19 October he was brevetted major-general of volunteers for gallantry and meritorious services at Winchester and Fisher's Hill. On 30 September he assumed command of the 3d Division of Cavalry , with which he fought the brilliant battle of Woodstock on 9 October, where he was confronted by his former classmate at West Point, the Confederate General Rosser. He drove the enemy twenty-six miles, capturing everything they had on wheels except one gun. At Cedar Creek he confronted the enemy from the first attack in the morning until the battle ended. The 3d Division  recaptured, before the day was over, guns and colors that had been taken from the army earlier in the fight, together with Confederate flags and cannon. After this brilliant success General Ouster was sent to Washington in charge of the captured colors, and recommended for promotion. In the spring of 1865, when General Sheridan moved his cavalry toward Richmond again, the 3d Division  fought alone the battle of Waynesboro. The enemy's works were carried, and 11 guns, 200 wagons, 1,000 prisoners, and 17 battle-flags were captured. On reaching Fredrickshall Station, General Custer found that General Early had rallied from his retreat at Waynesboro and was preparing for another attack. He therefore sent a regiment to meet him at once. General Early was nearly captured, his command destroyed, and a campaign ended in which he lost his army, every piece of artillery, and all his trains. For gallant and meritorious services at the battles of Five Forks and Dinwiddie Court-House, Gen Custer was brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. Army, to date from 13 March, 1865. In a general order addressed to his troops, dated at Appomattox Court-House, 9 April, 1865, General Custer said: “During the past six months, though in most instances confronted by superior numbers, you have captured from the enemy in open battle 111 pieces of field artillery, 65 battle-flags, and upward of 10,000 prisoners of war, including seven general officers. Within the past ten days, and included in the above, you have captured 46 field-pieces of artillery, and 37 battle-flags. You have never lost a gun, never lost a color, and never been defeated; and, notwithstanding the numerous engagements in which you have borne a prominent part, including those memorable battles of the Shenandoah, you have captured every piece of artillery which the enemy has dared to open upon you.”

General Custer received the first flag of truce from the Army of Northern Virginia, and was present at the surrender at Appomattox Court-House. He was brevetted major-general for his services in the last campaign, and appointed major-general of volunteers, to date from 15 April, 1865. He participated in all but one of the battles of the Army of the Potomac. After the grand review he was ordered to Texas, to command a division of cavalry. In November, 1865, he was made chief of cavalry, and remained on this duty until March, 1866, when he was mustered out of the volunteer service, to date from February, 1866. He then applied to the government for permission to accept from President Juarez the place of chief of Mexican cavalry in the struggle against Maximilian. President Johnson declined to give the necessary leave of absence, and General Ouster decided to accept the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 7th Cavalry , his appointment dating from 28 July, 1866. He joined his regiment at Fort Riley, Kansas, in November, 1866, and served on the plains until 1871. On 27 November he fought the battle of the Washita, in Indian territory, and inflicted such a defeat upon the Indians that the entire tribe of Cheyennes were compelled to return to their reservation. He was ordered, with his regiment, to Kentucky, in 1871, where he remained until 1873. In the spring of that year he was sent, with the 7th, to Fort Rice, Dakota, and from there accompanied an expedition to the Yellowstone. On 4 August he fought the Sioux, with his regiment, on the Yellowstone, near the mouth of Tongue River, and on the llth had another engagement three miles below the mouth of the Big Horn. In July, 1874, the government ordered an expedition, commanded by General Custer, into the Black Hills, which resulted in a hitherto unexplored region being opened to miners and frontiersmen. On 15 May, 1876, General Custer commanded his regiment in a campaign against the confederated Sioux tribes. The Indians were discovered encamped on the Little Big Horn River, in a region almost unknown. Eleven tribes, numbering nearly 9,000, had their villages on and in the vicinity of the Little Big Horn. The government expedition consisted of 1,100 men. The strength of the enemy not being known, General Custer was ordered to take his regiment and pursue a trail. He arrived at what was supposed to be the only Indian village on 25 June, and an attack was made by a portion of the regiment numbering fewer than 200 cavalry, while General Custer, with 277 troopers, charged on the village from another direction. They were met by overwhelming numbers, and General Custer, with his entire command, was slain. The officers and men were interred upon the battle-field, and in 1879 it was made a national cemetery. A monument recording the name and rank of all who fell was erected by the U. S. government on the spot where General Ouster made his last stand. In 1877 his remains were removed to the cemetery at West Point, New York.

He was nearly six feet in height, broad-shouldered, lithe, and active, with a weight never above 170 pounds. His eyes were blue, his hair and mustache of golden tint. He was a man of immense strength and endurance, and, as he used neither liquors nor tobacco, his physical condition was perfect through all the hardships of his life. Eleven horses were shot under him in battle. At the age of twenty-three he was made a brigadier-general, at twenty-five a major-general. The close of the war reduced his command from thousands to hundreds; but his enthusiastic devotion to duty was not diminished, and his form was seen at the head of his men in his Indian service just as it had been during the Civil War. He reverenced religion, he showed deference to the aged, he honored womankind, he was fond of children, and devoted to animals. His domestic life was characterized by a simplicity, joyous contentment, and fondness for home that was surprising when it is remembered that, out of the thirty-seven years of his brief life, fourteen were spent in active warfare. One of his friends wrote his history under his name in one sentence, “This was a man.” In 1871 General Custer began to contribute articles on frontier life to the “Galaxy,” which were published in book-form under the title “ My Life on the Plains” (New York, 1874). He was engaged on a series of “War Memoirs” for the “Galaxy” at the time of his death. He occasionally contributed articles on hunting to “Turf, Field, and Farm” and “Forest and Stream.” His life has been written by Frederick Whittaker (New York, 1878). — His wife, Elizabeth Bacon, whom he married in February, 1804, was with him at the front during the last year of the war, and also accompanied him in his nine years' service on the western frontier. She has published “Boots and Saddles, or Life with General Custer in Dakota” (New York, 1885), and “Tenting on the Plains, or General Custer in Kansas and Texas,” with a sketch of his life (1888). — His brother, Thomas Ward, soldier, born in New Rumley, Harrison County, Ohio, 15 March, 1845; died in Montana, 25 June, 1870. After repeated attempts, which failed on account of his youth, he succeeded in enlisting as a private in an Ohio regiment, and served in the west until he was made aide-de-camp on his brother's staff, then with the Army of the Potomac. His appointment as second lieutenant in the 6th Michigan Cavalry  dated from 8 November, 1864. His horse was often neck and neck with that of his brother in the famous cavalry charges, and in the fight at Namozine Church, 2 April, 1865, he captured a Confederate flag. At Sailor's Creek, 6 April, he captured a second flag, but was shot by the standard-bearer and severely wounded in the face. He was preparing to charge again, when stopped by his brother and told to go to the rear and have his wound dressed. As he paid no attention to this request, it became necessary for General Custer to order him under arrest before he could check his ardor. He received a medal from Congress for the capture of the colors at Sailor's Creek. In the spring of 1865 he accompanied General Custer to Texas and served on the staff until mustered out of service in November. He received the brevets of captain, major, and lieutenant-colonel. On 28 February, 1866, he was appointed second lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Infantry of the regular army, and on 28 July was promoted to a first lieutenancy in his brother's regiment, the 7th U.S. Cavalry , with which he served on frontier duty until he fell beside his brother in the battle of the Little Big Horn. When he was asked his opinion of his brother, just before the final campaign, General Custer said: “If you want to know my opinion of Tom, I can only say that I think he should be the general and I the captain.” Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 43-45.

CUTLER, Hannah Maria Tracy, 1815-1896, Becket, Massachusetts, abolitionist, physician.  Leader of the Temperance and women’s suffrage-rights movements, lecturer, educator, physician.  Helped found Women’s Anti-Slavery Society, member of the Free Soil Party, organizer of the Woman’s Kansas Aid Convention in 1856.  Served as President of the Western Union Aid Commission in Chicago, 1862-1864.  (Yellin, 1994, p. 58n40; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 46)

CUTLER, Hannah Maria Tracy, physician, born in Becket, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, 25 December, 1815. She is a daughter of John Conant, and was educated in the common school of Becket. In 1834 she married the Reverend J. M. Tracy, who died in 1843. Subsequently she prepared herself for teaching, and was matron of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Cleveland, Ohio, in 1848-'9. In July, 1851, she visited England as a newspaper correspondent at the World's Fair. She was also at the same time a delegate from the United States at the Association in London, and while in England delivered the first lectures ever given there on the legal rights of women. In 1852 she married Samuel Cutler and moved to Illinois, where she labored assiduously for the reform of the laws relating to women. She was president of the Western Union Aid commission, Chicago, Illinois, in 1862-'4. In 1873 she visited France, in company with her son, J. M. Tracy, artist, and remained there till 1875. After her graduation as a physician at the Homoeopathic College in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1879, she settled at Cobden, Illinois, where she has practised with success. She is the author of "Woman as she Was, Is, and Should be" (New York, 1846); "Phillipia, or a Woman's Question" (Dwight, Illinois, 1886): and "The Fortunes of Michael Doyle, or Home Rule for Ireland " (Chicago, 1886). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 46.

CUTLER, Lysander, soldier, born in Maine about 1806; died in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 30 July, 1866. He offered his services to the government at the beginning of the Civil War, and was given command of the 6th Wisconsin Regiment, which he speedily brought into a state of discipline, and rendered one of the best in the service, Subsequently he was in command of the " Iron Brigade " (originally Meredith's), of the Army of the Potomac, to which his regiment was attached, and won the promotion of brigadier-general and afterward major-general. He was twice wounded.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 47.

CUTT, Richard Dominions, surveyor, born in Washington, D. C., 21 September, 1817; died there, 13 December, 1883. He was educated at Georgetown College, and entered the U.S. Coast Survey in 1843, remaining in its service for over forty years. His first efforts were directed toward raising the standard of topographical work, which he accomplished with eminent success. Of late years the higher scientific work of the survey has occupied his attention, and his operations have extended to all parts of the country. The shores of the Chesapeake, the coasts of the Pacific, the plains of Texas, and the mountains of New England equally bear testimony to his professional ability. To him the navigators of the Pacific are indebted for the first surveys of San Francisco, San Diego, and Monterey Bays, and some other minor harbors on the coast. In 1855 he was appointed U. S. surveyor upon the International fisheries commission for the settlement of the limits of the fishing-grounds between the United States and the British Dominions in North America. In the Civil War he was on the staff of General Henry W. Halleck, and received the brevet rank of brigadier-general of volunteers in March, 1865. In 1873 he was one of the U. S commissioners to the Vienna International Exposition, and in 1883 he attended the International Geodesic Conference in Rome, which was convened for the purpose of considering a universal prime meridian and the unification of time. He held at his death the office of first assistant superintendent of the U.S. Coast Survey, having direct charge of the office and topography. In 1845 he married Martha Jefferson Hackley, granddaughter of Thomas Mann Randolph, of Tuckahoe, Georgia
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 48.

CUTTER, Calvin, physician, born in Jaffrey, New Hampshire, in 1807; died in Greene, Maine, 25 March, 1830. He was a pupil at the New Ipswich Academy, and afterward taught in Wilton, New Hampshire. and Ashby, Massachusetts. In 1829 he studied medicine, and practised his profession in Rochester, New Hampshire from 1831 till 1833, in Nashua from 1834 till 1837, and in Dover from 1838 till 1841. Between 1842 and 1856 Dr. Cutter visited twenty-nine states of the Union, delivering  medical lectures. In 1847 he began the compilation of "Cutter's Physiology," a text-book for schools mud colleges, of which, prior to 1871, about 500,000 copies had been sold. It has been translated into several oriental languages. In 1856 Dr. Cutter was chosen to convey a supply of Sharpe's rifles to Kansas, a hazardous task, which was successfully performed. Later in the same year he led into Kansas the Worcester armed company of sixty men, and also the force known as "Jim Lane’s army." which he commanded for nearly a year. He was president of the military council in Kansas, and instrumental in the capture of Colonel Titus. In 1861 Dr. Cutter became surgeon of the 21st Massachusetts Infantry, and served in the National Army nearly three years. He was twice wounded, and made prisoner at Bull Run. During most of his term of service he had charge of the medical depot of the 9th Army Corps as surgeon-in-chief.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, pp. 48-49.

CUTTER, George Washington, poet, born in Massachusetts in 1801; died in Washington, D. C, 24 December, 1865. He studied law, and followed his profession with success in Kentucky until about 1845. During the Mexican War he raised a company of infantry, of which he became captain, and which subsequently was included in the 2d Kentucky Volunteers under Colonel McKee. Later he married Miss Drake, an actress of Cincinnati, and for a time made his home in Covington, Kentucky Afterward he became interested in politics, and was known favorably as an eloquent orator. His services were rewarded with a clerkship in the Treasury Department, an office that he retained during several administrations. "The Song of Steam, "The Song of the Lightning," and "E Pluribus Unum," are his best-known pieces. He published " Buena Vista and other Poems" (Cincinnati, 1848); "Song of Steam and other Poems"(1857); and "Poems, National and Patriotic" (Philadelphia, 1857). 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 49.

CUYLER, John M., surgeon, U. S. Army, born in Georgia, about 1810; died in Morristown, New Jersey, 26 April, 1884. He entered the army as assistant surgeon in 1834, being among the first to pass the rigid examination instituted in 1833. He was actively engaged in the Creek War of 1838, and the Seminole War of 1840, and served with distinction through the Mexican War, receiving promotion as major and surgeon on 16 February, 1847. From 1848 till 1855 he served at West Point. As senior medical officer at Fort Monroe, during the first years of the Civil War, his services were invaluable in organizing the medical department of the armies congregated there. He served afterward as medical inspector and acting medical inspector-general. He served on examining boards, and sought to uphold a high professional standard among army surgeons. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel and medical inspector on 11 June, 1862, brevetted brigadier-general on 13 March, 1865, and promoted to the rank of colonel on 26 June, 1876. After the war he was medical director of important departments until his retirement, 30 June, 1882.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. II, p. 50.