American Abolitionists and Antislavery Activists:
Conscience of the Nation

Updated April 4, 2021

l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

l to r: Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips

Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography - A


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A                    B                    C                    D                    E                    F               

                      Bab-Blu         Cab-Clu
                      Boa-Byr         Cob-Cuy

G                    H                    I                     J                     K                    L


M                    N                    O                    P                    Q                    R


S                     T                    U                    V                    W                    XYZ

Sac-Sha                                                                             Wad-Whe
She-Spo                                                                             Whi-Wyt



Encyclopedia of Civil War Military Biography - A

ABADIE, Eugene H.,
surgeon, born in France, about 1814; died in St. Louis, 12 December, 1874. He entered the Medical Corps of the U.S. Army in 1836, with the rank of assistant surgeon. In 1853 he was promoted surgeon, and as such served through the Civil War, receiving the brevet rank of colonel in March, 1865. His first service was with the Creek Nation, then recently removed from their hereditary lands in Georgia, and until the Seminole War he was engaged with the migrating tribes. After this service he was stationed at the forts in New York Harbor, and at various regular posts in the interior until the war with Mexico, where he was on duty in 1848, but was ordered to Point Isabel, Texas, in 1849. Changing from station to station as the exigencies of the service demanded, he was in Texas when the U.S. forces in that state were surrendered by General Twiggs, and before the close of 1861 he was paroled as a prisoner of war and permitted to go north. He was stationed at West Point in 1862-’64, during which period he was detailed to serve on medical boards in Philadelphia and New York. In 1865, he became chief medical officer of the Military Division of West Missouri in 1866 Medical Director of the Department of Missouri, and lastly acting assistant medical purveyor at St. Louis. At the time of his death he had seen more years of actual service than any, save two, of the army surgeons.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 1

ABBOT, Henry Larcom, soldier, born in Beverly, Massachusetts, 13 August, 1831. He was graduated at West Point in 1854, and made brevet second lieutenant of Topographical Engineers. His first service was in the office of the Pacific Railroad Surveys in Washington, whence in 1855 he was transferred to the Pacific Railroad Survey of the route between California and Oregon, and afterward served on the Hydrographic Survey of the delta of the Mississippi River. During the Civil War he was principally engaged as a military engineer, and rose by successive steps until brevetted brigadier-general, U. S. Army, 13 March, 1865, and made lieutenant-colonel of engineers, 31 March, 1880. He served in various actions, and was wounded at Bull Run in 1861. Since the close of the war he has been engaged in superintending the defences of the East River; in command of the engineer post and depot at Willet's Point, New York, and of the engineer battalion and the engineer school of application, the latter of which he has created. He was a member of the expedition to Sicily to observe the solar eclipse in 1870, member of the engineer board on the U. S. military bridge equipage and drill, of one on a plan for the protection of the alluvial region of the Mississippi against overflows, and of various other boards connected with fortifications and river and harbor improvements. He invented and developed the U. S. system of submarine mines for coast and river defence, 1869 to 1886. He has published “Vol. VI., Pacific Railroad Reports” (Washington, 1857); “Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi,” jointly with Captain. A. A. Humphreys (Philadelphia, 1861); “Siege Artillery in the Campaign against Richmond” (Washington, 1867); “Experiments and Investigations to develop a System of Submarine Mines for defending Harbors of the United States” (1881); jointly with boards and commissioners, “United States Bridge Equipage and Drill” (1870); “Reclamation of the Alluvial Basin of the Mississippi River” (1875); “Report of Gun-Foundry Board” (1884); and “Report of the Board on Fortifications or other Defences” (1886).
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 4

ABBOTT, Joseph Carter, journalist, born in Concord, New Hampshire, 15 July, 1825; died in Wilmington, North Carolina, 8 October, 1882. He studied at Phillips Andover Academy, and subsequently under private instruction, covering the usual college course. He then read law in Concord, and was admitted to the bar in 1852, at which time he had already edited the “Daily American” for six months. He continued to edit this journal until 1857, and in the meantime (1855) he was appointed adjutant-general of New Hampshire, and in that capacity effectively reorganized the State militia. In 1859-'61 he assumed the editorship of the Boston “Atlas and Bee,” but continued to discharge his duties as adjutant-general. He early joined the “Know Nothing” Party, and during all these years was a frequent contributor to the magazines, being particularly interested in historical matters. He was a member of the commission for adjusting the boundary between New Hampshire and Canada. When the Civil War broke out he showed great energy and efficiency in raising and organizing troops until, yielding to the desire for active service, he obtained a commission as lieutenant-colonel of the 7th Regiment, New Hampshire Volunteers. On various occasions he distinguished himself, but especially at the attack on Fort Fisher, North Carolina, where his brigade stormed successively several positions where the Confederates made a stand. He was promoted colonel 22 July, 1863, and commanded his regiment in active service until the summer of 1864, when he was placed in charge of a brigade and brevetted brigadier-general. After the war he moved to Wilmington, North Carolina, where he was a member of the constitutional convention, was elected U. S. Senator by the Republicans for a partial term ending in 1871, served as collector of the port under President Grant, and was inspector of ports under President Hayes.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 7

ABBOTT, Robert Osborne, surgeon, born in Pennsylvania in 1824; died in Brooklyn, New York, 16 June, 1867. He entered the army in 1849 U.S. assistant surgeon, and in that capacity accompanied Magruder's battery to California. He subsequently served in the East, and also in Florida and Texas. During 1861 he was assistant to the chief medical purveyor in New York. In 1862, he was made medical director of the Fifth Army Corps, and later in the same year was appointed medical director of the Department of Washington, having charge of all the hospitals in and around the capital, together with all the hospital transports. The incessant and arduous duties of this office, which he held until November, 1860, seriously impaired his health. A six months' sick-leave failed to restore it, and he died a victim of over-work.    
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 7-8

ABERCROMBIE, John Joseph, soldier, born in Tennessee in 1802; died in Roslyn, New York, 3 January, 1877. He was graduated at West Point in 1822, served as adjutant in the 1st U.S. Infantry from 1825 to 1888, and was made captain in 1836. He served in the Florida Ear, and was brevetted major for gallant conduct at the battle of Okeechobee. He was engaged in frontier duty in the west until the Mexican War. For gallantry at the battle of Monterey, where he was wounded, he received the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was at the siege of Vera Cruz and at Cerro Gordo, and served in 1847 as aide-de-camp to General Patterson. When the Civil War broke out he was stationed in Minnesota. He took part in the Shenandoah Campaign and was in command at the action of Falling Waters. He served through the Peninsular Campaign as brigadier-general of volunteers, was wounded at Fair Oaks, and was present at Malvern Hill and in several skirmishes on the retreat to Harrison's Landing. He was engaged in the defence of Washington in 1862 and 1863, had charge of depots at Fredericksburg in May, 1864, and took part in the defence against Hampton's Legion in June, 1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general at the close of the war, and retired 12 June, 1865.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p.  8

ABERT, John James, soldier, born in Shepherdstown, Virginia, 17 September, 1788; died in Washington,. D. C., 27 September, 1863. He was the son of John Abert, who came to this country with Rochambeau in 1780. Young Abert was graduated at West Point in 1811, but at once resigned, and was then employed in the war office. Meanwhile he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in the District of Columbia in 1813. In the War of 1812 he volunteered as a private soldier for the defence of the capital. He was reap pointed to the army in 1814 as topographical engineer, with the rank of major. In 1829 he succeeded to the charge of the topographical bureau at Washington, and in 1838 became colonel in command of that branch of the engineers. He was retired in 1861 after "long and faithful service." Colonel Abert was associated in the supervision of many of the earlier national works of engineering, and his reports prepared for the government are standards of authority. He was a member of several scientific societies, and was one of the organizers of the national Institute of science, which was subsequently merged into the Smithsonian Institute. His sons served with distinction in the U. S. Army during the Civil War.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p.  8

ABERT, James William, soldier, born in Mount Holly, New Jersey, 18 November, 1820, was graduated at West Point in 1842. After service in the U.S. Infantry he was transferred to the Topographical Engineers, and was engaged on the survey of the northern lakes in 1843-'44. He then served on the expedition to New Mexico, and published a report (Senate documents, 1848). From 1848 to 1850 he was assistant in drawing at West Point, and from 1851 to 1860 he was engaged in the improvement of western rivers, except during the Seminole War in 1856-'58, when he was in Florida. During the Civil War he served on the staffs of General Patterson and General Banks in the Virginia Campaign of 1861–62. He was severely injured at Frederick, Maryland, in 1862, and subsequently served on General Gillmore's staff, having attained the rank of major in 1863. He resigned on 25 June, 1864. For a short time he was an examiner of patents in Washington, and later he became professor of mathematics and drawing in the University of Missouri, at Rolla. He is a contributor to current literature in science, art, and history.
[son of John James Abert; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp.  8-9

ABERT, Silvanus Thayer, civil engineer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 22 July, 1828. He was educated at Princeton, and in 1848 began his engineering career in the government service on the construction of the James River and Kanawha Canal. For eleven years he was actively engaged on government work at various localities. In 1859 he was appointed engineer in charge of all the works of construction at the Pensacola U.S. Navy-yard. During the Civil War he served at first on the staff of General Banks in his Virginia Campaign, and later under General Meade with the Army of the Potomac. From 1865 to 1866 he was engaged on the surveys of the Magdalena River for the Colombian government. On his return he again joined the engineering Corps, and has been occupied on numerous government surveys. Since 1873 he has been in charge of the geographical division extending from Washington, D. C., to Wilmington, North Carolina. Colonel Abert is the author of numerous valuable reports on his work, and has also published “Notes, Historical and Statistical, upon the Projected Route for an Interoceanic Ship Canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans” (Cincinnati, 1872).
[son of John James Abert; Appleton’s 1887] p. 9

ABERT, William Stretch, soldier, born in Washington, D.C., 1 February, 1836; died in Galveston, Texas, 25 August, 1867. He was appointed lieutenant in the artillery in 1855, and at the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 was stationed at Fort Monroe, Virginia He was appointed captain in the Cavalry in 1861, and fought in the battles of Williamsburg and Hanover Court House. Later he joined General McClellan's staff, and was at Antietam. From November, 1862, to October, 1864, he was assistant inspector-general at New Orleans under General Banks, after which he served in the defences of Washington as colonel of the 3d Massachusetts Artillery. Subsequent to the war he was with his regiment in Texas, and became assistant inspector-general of the District of Texas. In June, 1867, he was advanced to the rank of major in the 7th U. S. Cavalry. He received several brevets, the highest of which was that of lieutenant-colonel.
[son of John James Abert; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 9

ADAMS, Charles Follen, author, born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, 21 April, 1842. He received a common-school education, and at the age of fifteen entered into mercantile pursuits. At the age of twenty-two he enlisted in the 13th Massachusetts Infantry; was in all the battles in which his regiment participated, was wounded at Gettysburg, taken prisoner; released, and detailed for hospital duty. Since 1872 he has been known as a writer of German dialect poems, chiefly humorous. The first that appeared was “The Puzzled Dutchman” in “Our Young Folks” in 1872. This was followed by various others of which “Leedle Yawcob Strauss” (1876) became immediately a favorite. Mr. Adams is a frequent contributor to periodical literature, and has published in a volume “Leedle Yawcob Strauss and other Poems” (Boston, 1877). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I, p. 12.

Family of John Quincy Adams:

ADAMS, Henry A., Jr., naval officer, born in Pennsylvania in 1833. He entered the naval school at Annapolis in 1849, and was graduated in 1851; became a passed midshipman in 1854, and a master the following year, when, while attached to the sloop of war “Levant,” he took part in the engagement with the forts at the mouth of Canton River, China. He was commissioned as lieutenant in 1856, and was on the “Brooklyn” at the passage of forts St. Philip and Jackson, and the capture of New Orleans in April, 1862. Commissioned as lieutenant-commander and transferred to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, he participated in both the attacks on Fort Fisher, and received the encomium from Admiral Porter in his official despatch of 28 January, 1865, “I recommend the promotion of Lieutenant-Commodore H. A. Adams, without whose aid we should have been brought to a standstill more than once. He volunteered for anything and everything.” After the taking of Richmond he was one of the party that accompanied President Lincoln on his entry into the city. He was commissioned as commander in July, 1866, and was ordered to the store-ship “Guard,” of the European Squadron, where he remained during 1868-'9, and was afterward assigned to duty in 1870 in the U.S. Navy-yard at Philadelphia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I, p.

ADAMS, John, soldier, born in Tennessee in 1825; killed in the battle of Franklin, Tennessee, 30 November, 1864. He was graduated at West Point in 1846, and joined the 1st U.S. Dragoons. He was brevetted 1st lieutenant for gallantry at Santa Cruz de Rosales, Mexico, 16 March, 1848, after several years of frontier duty was promoted to 1st lieutenant, 9 October, 1851, and in 1853 served as aide to the governor of Minnesota with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was promoted captain of 1st Dragoons, 30 November, 1856, but resigned 81 May, 1861, and became a Confederate major-general. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,

ADAMS, Samuel, military surgeon, born in Maine; died in Galveston, Texas, 9 September, 1867. He entered the National Army 16 April, 1862, and, after a year spent in the active duties of the permanent hospitals, joined the Army of the Potomac and served constantly with it until it was disbanded. During his field service he rose from the rank of regimental surgeon to that of medical inspector of the Ninth Army Corps, receiving also a brevet for “meritorious conduct at the capture of Petersburg.” During one of the closing battles of the war, at a time when the brilliant and rapid series of federal successes tended to obscure acts of individual gallantry, Dr. Adams distinguished himself by riding along the advanced line of combatants, and, under the fire of the enemy, dressing the wounds of General Potter, who could not be removed from the spot where he fell, and, but for the action of Surgeon Adams, would have lost his life. At the close of the war Surgeon Adams received an invitation from a wealthy and well-known gentleman to accompany his family on a European tour as his physician; but an application for leave of absence was refused by the war department, on the ground that his services could not be spared. Soon afterward he was ordered to Texas, where yellow fever was epidemic, and his last days were spent among the victims of the disease, of which he died. He was highly esteemed for his Christian character. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 31.

AGNEW, Cornelius Rea, physician, born in New York City, 8 August, 1830; died there, 18 April, 1888. He was graduated at Columbia College in 1849, studied medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and received his degree in 1852. During the following year he was house surgeon, and subsequently curator, at the New York Hospital. After studying in Europe, he was surgeon to the New York Eye and Ear infirmary until 1864. In 1858, he was appointed surgeon general of the state of New York, and at the outbreak of the Civil War he became medical director of the New York state volunteer hospital, in which capacity he performed most efficient service. He was a prominent member of the U. S. Sanitary Commission, and much of its success must be attributed to his labors. In 1868 he established an ophthalmic clinic in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and during the following year he was elected clinical professor of diseases of the eye and ear in the same institution. He founded in 1868 the Brooklyn eye and ear hospital, and in 1869 the Manhattan eye and ear hospital. For several years he was one of the managers of the New York State Hospital for the Insane, at Poughkeepsie. Dr. Agnew exhibited considerable interest in the educational institutions of New York City. In 1859 he was elected a trustee of the public schools, and subsequently he was president of the board. In 1864 he was associated in the establishment of the Columbia College school of mines, and in 1874 became one of the trustees of the college. In 1872 he was elected president of the State Medical Society. He contributed numerous papers to the current medical journals, most of which are devoted to diseases of the eye and ear, and he also published brief monographs and a " Series of American Clinical Lectures," edited by E. C. Seguin, M. D. (New York, 1875). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I,

ALBERT, John S., engineer, born in 1835; died in Philadelphia, 3 July, 1880. He entered the U. S. Navy in 1855 from New York, and was appointed chief engineer in 1861, in which capacity he served during the war with credit. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 39

ALCOTT, Louisa May, 1832-1888, writer, opponent of slavery, feminist.  Author of Little Women: Or Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy (1868).  Daughter of abolitionist Amos Bronson Alcott. Their home was a station on the Underground Railroad.  (Eisenlein, 2001; MacDonald, 1983; Saxton, 1977; Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888, Vol. I, p. 41; Dictionary of American Biography, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, 1936, Vol. 1, Pt. 1, p. 141)

ALCOTT, Louisa May,
author, born in Germantown, now a part of Philadelphia, 29 November, 1832. She is a daughter of Amos Bronson Alcott. When she was about two years of age her parents moved to Boston, and in her eighth year to Concord, Massachusetts At the age of eleven she was brought under the influence of the community that endeavored to establish itself near Harvard, in Worcester County Thoreau was for a time her teacher; but she was instructed mainly by her father. She began to write for publication at the age of sixteen, but with no marked success for fifteen years. During that time she devoted ten years to teaching. In 1862 she went to Washington as a volunteer nurse, and for many months labored in the military hospitals. At this time she wrote to her mother and sisters letters containing sketches of hospital life and experience, which on her return were revised and published in book form (Boston, 1863), and attracted much attention. In 1866 she went to Europe to recuperate her health, which had been seriously impaired by her hospital work, and on her return in 1867 she wrote “Little Women,” which was published the following year, and made her famous. The sales in less than three years amounted to 87,000 copies. Her characters are drawn from life, and are full of the buoyant, free, hopeful New England spirit which marks her own enthusiastic love for nature, freedom, and life. Her other stories are conceived in the same vein, and have been almost equally popular. They are: “Flower Fables or Fairy Tales” (Boston, 1855); '”Hospital Sketches,” her first book, now out of print, reissued with other stories (1869); “An Old-Fashioned Girl” (1869); “Little Men” (1871); a series called “Aunt Jo's Scrap Bag” (1871-'82), containing “My Boys,” “Shawl Straps,” “Cupid and Chow-Chow,” “My Girls,” “Jimmy's Cruise in the Pinafore,” and “An Old-Fashioned Thanksgiving”; “Work, A Story of Experience” (1873); “Eight Cousins” (1874); “Rose in Bloom” (1876); “Silver Pitchers” (1876); “Under the Lilacs” (1878); “Jack and Gill” (1880); “Moods” (1864), reissued in a revised edition (1881); “Proverb Stories” (1882); “Spinning- Wheel Stories” (1884); “Lulu's Library,” the first of a new series (1885). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1888 p.41.

ALDEN, James, naval officer, born in Portland, Maine, 31 March, 1810  died in San Francisco, California, 6 February, 1877. He was appointed midshipman in 1828, and in that capacity accompanied the Wilkes Exploring Expedition around the world in 1838-'42. He was commissioned lieutenant in 1841, and served during the Mexican War, being present at the capture of Vera Cruz, Tuxpan, and Tabasco. In 1855-56 he was actively engaged in the Indian War on Puget's Sound. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was in command of the steamer "South Carolina," re-enforced Fort Pickens, Florida, and was in an engagement at Galveston, Texas. He commanded the sloop of war " Richmond " at the passage of Forts Jackson and St. Philip and the capture of New Orleans (April, 1862). and was also at Port Hudson. He was made captain in 1863, and commanded the " Brooklyn," participating in the capture of Mobile Bay (August, 1864) and in the two attacks on Fort Fisher. He was commissioned commodore in 1866, and two years later was placed in charge of the U.S. Navy-yard at Mare Island, California In 1869 he was appointed chief of the bureau of navigation and detail in the U.S. Navy Department. He was promoted to the rank of rear admiral in 1871, and assigned command of the European Squadron. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I,
pp. 42.

ALEXANDER, Barton Stone, soldier, born in Kentucky in 1819; died in San Francisco, California, 15 December, 1878. He was appointed to the U. S. Military Academy from Kentucky, was graduated in 1842, and became lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers. He superintended the repairs at various fortifications, and also in the erection of Minot's Ledge Lighthouse, at the entrance of Boston Harbor. During the Civil War he served as engineer in the construction of the defences of Washington, took part in the Manassas Campaign of 1861, and was brevetted major for gallant and meritorious services in the battle of Bull Run. He continued with the Army of the Potomac, rendering important aid at the siege of Yorktown, for which he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel in 1862. In 1864 he was consulting engineer with General Sheridan's army, and in 1865 was made brevet brigadier-general for meritorious services during the war. For the next two years he had charge of the construction of most of the public works in Maine, when he became senior engineer with the rank of lieutenant-colonel and member of the Pacific Board of Engineers. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1900, Vol. I,
p. 46.

ALEXANDER, Edmund Brooke, soldier, born in Hay Market, Prince William County, Virginia, 2 October, 1802 ; died in Washington, D. C, 3 January, 1888. He was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in 1823. After twenty years of frontier and garrison duty he had an opportunity for service in Mexico, where he won a major's brevet at Cerro Gordo (18 April, 1847), and a lieutenant-colonel's at Contreras and Churubusco (20 August, 1847). He became major of the 8th U.S. Infantry, 10 November, 1851, and colonel of the 10th U.S. Infantry, a new regiment, 3 March, 1855. In 1857-"58 he commanded the Utah Expedition until relieved by General Johnston. During the Civil War he was retained at St. Louis on provost-marshal's duty, involving delicate and responsible administration of important matters. He was also superintendent of the volunteer recruiting service, and chief mustering and disbursing officer for Missouri. He was brevetted brigadier-general, 13 March, 1865, and commanded his regiment at Fort Snelling till retirement, 22 February, 1869, by operation of law. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,
p. 46.

ALGER, Russell Alexander, governor of Michigan, born in Lafayette, Medina County, Ohio, 27 February, 1836. He was left an orphan at eleven years of age, worked on a farm till he was eighteen, attending school in the winters, and then, after teaching, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1859. He began to practice in Cleveland, but was forced by impaired health to remove to Grand Rapids, Michigan, where he engaged in the lumber business. He became captain in the 2d Michigan Cavalry at the beginning of the Civil War, and at Boonesville. Mississippi, 1 July, 1862, was sent by Philip H. Sheridan, then colonel of that regiment, to attack the enemy's rear with ninety picked men. The Confederates were routed, but Captain. Alger was wounded and taken prisoner. He escaped on the same day, and on 16 October was made lieutenant-colonel of the 6th Michigan Cavalry. On 28 February, 1863, he became colonel of the 5th Michigan Cavalry, and on 28 June his command was the first to enter the town of Gettysburg. He was specially mentioned in General Custer's report of the cavalry operations there, and in the pursuit of the enemy he was severely wounded at Boonesborough, Maryland, on 8 July. He was with Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley in 1864, and on 11 June, at Trevillian station, by a brilliant charge, he captured a large force of Confederates. On 11 June, 1865, he was given the brevets of brigadier-general and major-general of volunteers. He then resumed the lumber business in Detroit, Michigan, and has acquired a fortune, serving also as president or director of various corporations. His great pine forest on Lake Huron comprises more than 100 square miles and produces annually more than 75,000,000 feet of lumber. In 1884 he was the successful Republican candidate for governor of the state, serving from 1885 till 1887. In March, 1897, General Alger was appointed Secretary of War in President McKinley's cabinet. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,
p. 49.

ALLEN, Harrison, physician, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 17 April, 1841  died there, 14 November, 1897. He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1861, in 1862 became assistant surgeon in the U. S. Army, and served with the h of the Potomac until March, 1863, when he was transferred to hospital duty at Washington, where he remained until his resignation in December, 1865, and attained the brevet rank of major. From 1865 to 1878 he was professor of comparative anatomy and medical zoology in the University of Pennsylvania, and since then he has filled the chair of physiology. In 1867 he was elected professor of anatomy and surgery in the Philadelphia dental College, and in 1870 surgeon to the Philadelphia Hospital and secretary of its medical board. He is a member of numerous medical societies, and was a delegate from the Centennial Commission to the International Medical Congress. His contributions to the various medical journals relate chiefly to osteomyelitis, human anatomy, and morbid anatomy, he has published "Outlines of Comparative Anatomy and Medical Zoology" (Philadelphia, 1867), " Studies in the Facial Region " (1874), and "An Analysis of the Life-form in Art" (1875). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,
p. 52.

ALLEN, Henry Watkins, soldier and statesman, born in Prince Edward County, Virginia, 29 April, 1820; died in the city of Mexico, 22 April, 1860. His father, a physician of note, moved to Lexington, Missouri, while Henry was young. The latter, at his solicitation, was taken from the shop where he was employed and placed in Marion College, Missouri, but, in consequence of a dispute with his father, he ran away and became a teacher in Grand Gulf, Mississippi Then he studied law, and was in successful practice in 1842 when President Houston called for volunteers in the Texan War against Mexico. He raised a company, and acquitted himself well during the campaign, then resumed his practice in Grand Gulf, and was elected to the legislature in 1846. He settled a few years later on an estate in West Baton Rouge, and was elected to the Louisiana Legislature in 1853. A year later he went to Cambridge University to pursue a course of legal studies. In 1859 he went to Europe with the intention of taking part in the Italian struggle for independence, but arrived too late. He made a tour through Europe, the incidents of which are recounted in "Travels of a Sugar Planter." He was elected to the legislature during his absence, and on returning took a prominent part in the business of that body. He had been a Whig in politics, but had joined the Democratic Party when Buchanan was nominated for president in 1856. When the Civil War broke out he volunteered in the Confederate service, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and was stationed for some time at Ship Island. He was subsequently made colonel of the 4th Louisiana Regiment, and was appointed military governor of Jackson. He fought gallantly at Shiloh, where he was wounded. At Vicksburg he rendered important service in the construction of fortifications, a part of the time under fire. At the battle of Baton Rouge he commanded a brigade, where he was badly wounded in both legs by a shell. On his recovery he was commissioned a brigadier-general, in September, 1864, and almost immediately afterward was elected governor of Louisiana. He arranged to have the cotton tax to the Confederate government paid in kind, and opened a route by which cotton was exported through Texas to Mexico, and medicine, clothing, and other articles introduced into the state. These necessities were sold at moderate prices and given to the poor. In the suppression of the manufacture of liquor and other similar measures Governor Allen exercised dictatorial powers. After the war he settled in Mexico and established an English paper, the " Mexican Times." See  Recollections of Henry W. Allen," by Sarah A. Dorsey (New York, 1867). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,
p. 53.

ALMY, John J., naval officer, born in Rhode Island, 25 April, 1814. He entered the U. S. Navy  as a midship-man in 1829, and rose through the successive grades to be commodore, 30 December, 1869, and rear-admiral 24 August, 1873. He was retired in July, 1876, after fifty-six years and eleven months of service. As midshipmen and lieutenant he cruised all over the world in the old sailing navy, was at the surrender of Walker and his filibusters, commanded the “Fulton” in the expedition to Paraguay, was at the siege of Vera Cruz and the capture of Tuxpan during the Mexican War, and at the Navy-yard, Brooklyn, New York, in 1861–62. As commander he had charge successively of the gunboats “South Carolina,” “Connecticut,” and “Juniata.” While in command of the “Connecticut.” he captured four noted blockade-runners with valuable cargoes, and ran ashore and destroyed four others. As captain he commanded the “Juniata" which was in the South Atlantic Squadron, until 1867, and was then assigned to the Brooklyn U. S. Navy-yard, then the Signal Corps, and after a cruise in the Pacific was retired, 24 April, 1877. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 59.

ALVORD, Benjamin, soldier, born in Rutland, Vermont, 18 August. 1813; died 16 October, 1884. He was graduated at West Point in 1833, joined the 4th Infantry, served in the Seminole War (1835-'37), was instructor in mathematics and physics at West Point until 1839, and was on frontier, garrison, and engineer duty until 1846, when he participated in the military occupation of Texas, and subsequently in the war with Mexico. He received the successive brevets of captain and major for gallantry in several of the more important engagements, and was chief of staff to Majors Tally's column on the march from Vera Cruz to Mexico in 1847. He was made pay-master 22 June, 1854, and served as such until 1862, when he became a brigadier-general of volunteers, which grade he resigned 8 August, 1865. He was brevetted brigadier in the regular army in April, 1865, and was made chief paymaster of the District of Omaha 25 May, 1867. He is the author of several treatises on mathematics and of numerous essays and reviews. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 62

ALVORD, John Watson, 1807-1880, abolitionist, anti-slavery agent, clergyman. Congregational minister.  Worked around Ohio area.  Secretary, Boston Tract Society.  Chaplain with General Sheridan’s Union Forces in Civil War.  Worked with former slaves.  (Dumond, 1961, pp. 164, 185; American National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2002, Vol. 1, p. 399)

AMES, Adelbert, soldier, born in Rockland, Maine, 31 October, 1835. He was graduated at West Point in 1861, and assigned to the 5th Artillery. He was wounded at the battle of Bull Run and brevetted for gallantry in that action, and was present at the siege of Yorktown, and the battles of Gaines's Mills, Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Antietam, and Gettysburg, besides many of the minor engagements in Virginia throughout the Civil War. He was brevetted colonel for gallantry, and commanded a brigade, and at times a division in the army of the Potomac, and in the operation before Petersburg in 1864. He was brevetted major-general of volunteers for his conduct at the capture of Fort Fisher, 18 March, 1865, and brevetted major-general, U. S. Army, for "gallant and meritorious conduct in the field during the rebellion," and on 30 April, 1866, mustered out of the volunteer service. On 28 July, 1866, he was promoted to the full rank of lieutenant-colonel, 24th Infantry. On 15 July, 1868, he was appointed provisional governor of Mississippi, under acts of Congress providing for such temporary government, and on 17 March, 1869, his command extended to include the 4th Military District. The lately insurrectionary states were at the time divided into five such districts, each with a general officer in command, and a military force at his disposal. Mississippi was among the last of the states to comply with the conditions of reconstruction, and in the interval the community drifted into a state bordering upon anarchy, the provisional governor at times interfering in the interest of order. Un- der his direction an election was held 30 November, 1869, and on 11 January, 1870, the legislature was convened by his direction. General Ames was elected U. S. Senator for the unexpired term from 4 March, 1869. In 1873 he was chosen governor of Mississippi by a popular vote, and resigned his seat in the Senate. His administration was so repugnant to the Democrats—or, in other words, to the white population—that between them and the Republicans, mostly blacks, a feeling of hostility arose so bitter that it culminated in a serious riot in Vicksburg, 7 December, 1873, and this was followed by atrocities all over the state, consisting for the most part in the punishment, often in the murder, of obnoxious Republicans, white and black. The civil officers were unable to enforce the laws, and Governor Ames appealed to the general government for aid. Upon this, despatches of the most contradictory character were forwarded to Washington by the opposing parties, and, pending an investigation by Congress, affairs were in a deplorable state of disorganization. An election held in November resulted in a general defeat of the Republicans, both branches of the legislature becoming distinctly democratic. Governor Ames held that this election was largely carried by intimidation and fraud, and vainly sought to secure Congressional interference. Soon after the legislature convened in January, 1876, articles of impeachment were prepared against all the executive officers, and, pending the trials, the machinery of state government was nearly at a standstill. Governor Ames, seeing that conviction was inevitable, offered through his counsel to resign, provided the articles of impeachment were withdrawn. This was done, and he resigned at once and moved to Minnesota.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 63-64.

AMES, Nathan P,, manufacturer, born in 1803; died in Cabotville, Massachusetts, 23 April, 1847. He established a cutlery business in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, in 1829, and became known as a skilful sword-maker, furnishing large numbers by contract to the U. S. government. His business having increased, he moved to Cabotville, Massachusetts, and with his associates incorporated in 1834 the Ames Manufacturing Company. In 1836 the works were supplemented by the addition of a foundry for casting bronze cannon and church-bells. This establishment soon became famous, and furnished most of the brass cannon for the U. S. Army. The statues of De Witt Clinton, in Greenwood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York, of Washington, in Union Sq., New York, and of Franklin, in School St., Boston, Massachusetts, were cast at this foundry. In 1840 Mr. Ames visited Europe for the purpose of inspecting the various armories and of acquiring the latest information in regard to improved processes. In 1854 he received an important order from the British government for machines used in the manufacture of muskets. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 65.

Ammen, Daniel, Union naval officer
, born in Ohio, 15 May, 1820. He was appointed midshipman 7 July, 1836, and served as passed midshipman in the Wilkes Exploring Expedition, in the Mediterranean, in the East India Squadron, and on the coast survey. As lieutenant (from 4 November, 1849) he was attached to a commission to select a naval station on the Pacific coast, accompanied the expedition to Paraguay River in 1853-'54, and was on the steam frigate " Merrimac " in 1859-'60. In 1861, at the out- break of the Civil War, he was executive officer of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. At the reduction of Port Royal, 7 November, 1861, he commanded the " Seneca," and was sent ashore to hoist the flag over the surrendered forts, and hold them, till the army took possession. He was promoted to be commander 21 February, 1863, was assigned to the monitor " Patapsco," and participated in the attack on Fort McAllister, 3 March, 1863. In May, 1864, he was despatched to the Pacific in command of 220 seamen as passengers on board a California steamer. Two days out from New York a well-organized attempt at mutiny was suppressed by Com. Ammen and Boatswain Bell, aided by Captain Tinklepaugh, of the steamer, and a few volunteer from among the passengers. He participated u the two attacks on Fort Fisher in the winter of 1864-'65, was commissioned captain 26 July, 1861 and was on special and sea service until 11 December 1877, when he was made rear-admiral and was placed on the retired list after 49 years and 6 months of service. He is the author of “The Atlantic Coast,” a volume in the series entitled “The Navy in the Civil War” (New York, 1883). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 66-67.

AMMEN, Jacob, soldier, born in Botetourt County, Virginia, 7 January, 1808. He was graduated at West Point in 1831, and served there as assistant instructor in mathematics, and afterward of infantry tactics until 31 August, 1832. During the threaten “nullification ” of South Carolina he was on duty in Charleston Harbor. From 4 October, 1834, to November, 1837, he was again at West Point as an instructor, and he resigned from the army, 30 November, 1837, to accept a professorship of mathematics at Bacon College, Georgetown, Kentucky Thence he went to Jefferson College, Washington, Miss., in 1839, to the University of Indiana in 1840, to Jefferson College again in 1843, and returned to Bacon College in 1848. From 1855 to 1861 he was a civil engineer at Ripley, Ohio, and on April 18 of that ear became captain in the 12th Ohio Volunteers. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel 2 May, and participated in the West Virginia Campaign (June and July) under McClellan, where the first considerable federal successes of the war were gained. After the campaigns in Tennessee and Mississippi he was promoted to be brigadier-general of volunteers 16 July, 1862, and was in command of camps of instruction in Ohio and Illinois until 16 December, 1863. From 10 April, 1864, to 14 January, 1865, when he resigned, he was in command of the District of East Tennessee. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 67

AMORY, Thomas J. C., soldier, born in Massachusetts about 1830; died of yellow fever in Newbern, North Carolina, 8 October, 1864. He was graduated at West Point in 1851, and served on garrison and frontier duty in the Utah Expedition (1858–60), and on recruiting service until 1861, when he became colonel of the 17th Massachusetts Volunteers. He was stationed at Baltimore with his regiment until March, 1862, when he was ordered to North Carolina and took part in the operations about Newbern, Beaufort, Goldsboro, and Kinston, until 1 March, 1864, when he was assigned to a general command of the forces south of the Trent River, and on 5 July to the Sub-District of Beaufort. He was promoted to be major 19 September, and was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers 1 October. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 67.

ANDERSON, George B., soldier, born in Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1831; died in Raleigh, North Carolina, 16 October, 1862. He was graduated at West Point in 1852, and was appointed brevet 2d lieutenant in the 2d Dragoons, promoted to be 1st lieutenant in 1855, and in 1858 appointed adjutant of his regiment. He resigned in April, 1861, and entered the Confederate Army, where he was soon appointed brigadier-general and given direction of coast defences in North Carolina. At the battle of Antietam, where he commanded a brigade, he received a wound in the foot, which eventually proved fatal.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 68

ANDERSON, James Patton, soldier, born in Tennessee about 1820; died in Memphis in 1873. He served in Mexico, commanding Mississippi volunteers, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He afterward settled at Olympia, Washington territory, and sat in the House of Representatives as a delegate from that territory in 1855-57. He held the rank of brigadier-general in the Confederate Army, distinguished himself at Shiloh and Stone River, and was promoted to major-general 17 February, 1864, was assigned to the command of the District of Florida, and subsequently commanded a division in Polk's corps. Army of the Tennessee. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 69.

ANDERSON, Richard Henry, soldier, born in South Carolina in 1816; died in Beaufort, 26 June, 1879. On graduation at West Point in 1842, he was assigned to the 2d Dragoons, and served on frontier and garrison duty until 1845, when he joined the expedition for the military occupation of Texas. In the war with Mexico he took part in the siege of Vera Cruz and the various operations preceding  and including the capture of the city of Mexico, 12–14 September, 1847. He became first lieutenant of the 2d Dragoons 13 July, 1848, and captain 3 March, 1855, served frequently at the cavalry school for practice at Carlisle barracks, and was on duty in Kansas during the border troubles of 1856– '57. He was on duty at Fort Kearney, Nebraska, from 1859 to 1861, when he resigned, 3 March, to accept a brigadier's commission from the Confederate government. He was promoted to major-general in August, 1862, and given the command of the 5th Division of Bragg's army in Tennessee, but was soon ordered to the army of Virginia, and was wounded at Antietam. He commanded a division at Gettysburg 1–3 July, 1863, and was promoted to lieutenant-general in May, 1864. It was his unexpected night march (because he could not find a suitable place to encamp) that took the van of Lee's army to the defences of Spottsylvania before Grant could reach that place, and thus prolonged a campaign that might otherwise have ended there with a decisive battle. General Anderson took a prominent part in the defence of Petersburg, and in the closing engagements that preceded the surrender, commanded the 4th Corps of the Confederate Army under Lee. After the war he remained in private life.  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 71.

ANDERSON, Robert, soldier, born at “Soldier's Retreat,” near Louisville, Kentucky, 14 June, 1805; died in Nice, France, 27 October, 1871. He graduated at West Point in 1825, and was appointed second lieutenant in the 3d Artillery. He served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 as colonel of the Illinois volunteers. In 1835–37 he was instructor of artillery at West Point, and in 1837–38 he served in the Florida War, and was brevetted captain. Subsequently he was attached to the staff of General Scott as assistant adjutant-general, and was promoted to captain in 1841. He served in the Mexican War, and was severely wounded at Molino del Rey. In 1857 he was appointed major of the 1stAartillery, and on 20 November, 1860, he assumed command of the troops in Charleston Harbor, with headquarters at Fort Moultrie. Owing to threatened assaults, he withdrew his command, on the night of 26 December, to Fort Sumter, where he was soon closely invested by the Confederate forces. On 13 April, 1861, he evacuated the fort, after a bombardment of nearly thirty-six hours from batteries to which he replied as long as his guns could be worked. He marched out, with his seventy men, with the honors of war, on the his flag as it was hauled down, and New York on the following day. In recognition of this service he was appointed brigadier-general in the U.S. Army by President Lincoln, and was assigned to the command of the Department of Kentucky, and subsequently to that of the Cumberland. In consequence of failing health, he was relieved from duty in October, 1861. He was retired from active service 27 October, 1863, and on 3 February, 1865, he was brevetted major-general. He sailed for Europe in 1869 for his health, but died there. He translated and adapted from the French “Instructions for Field Artillery, Horse and Foot” (1840), and “Evolutions of Field Batteries” (1860), both of which have been used by the War Department. It was largely owing to his personal efforts that the initial steps were taken organizing the Soldiers' Home in Washington, which now harbors about 2,000 veterans of the regular army.—His brother, Larz, capitalist, born near Louisville, Kentucky, 9 April, 1805; died in Cincinnati, Ohio, 27 February, 1878, was graduated at Harvard in 1822. He was a son-in-law of Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati, in which city he resided and was respected for his profuse charities and public spirit. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 70-71.

ANDERSON, Robert Houstoun soldier, born about 1837; killed in action, 1 September, 1864. He was graduated at West Point in 1857, and served as second lieutenant of the 9th Infantry at Fort Columbus, New York Harbor, and at Fort Walla-Walla, Washington Territory, until 1861, when he absented himself without leave, but subsequently resigned (3 May, 1861), and entered the Confederate service. He became a brigadier-general, and was killed in the battle of Jonesboro, Georgia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 71.

ANDREWS, Christopher Columbus, lawyer, born in Hillsborough, N.H., 27 October, 1829. He was a farmer's son and attended school during the winter until 1843, when he went to Boston. Later he attended the Francestown Academy, studied law in 1848 at Cambridge, and in 1850 was admitted to the bar. He followed his profession in Newton, and was also a member of the school board during 1851-52. In 1853 he settled in Boston, but in the following year moved to Kansas, and latter went to Washington to further the interests of Kansas during a session of Congress. After two years' service in the treasury department as law clerk, he settled in St. Cloud, Minnesota, and in 1859 was elected state senator. During the presidential canvass of 1860 he actively supported Douglas and was nominated as elector on that ticket. In 1861 he assisted in bringing out the " Minnesota Union " in support of the administration, and for a time edited that paper. Soon after the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted as a private, but was commissioned captain in the 3d Minnesota Infantry. He was surrendered in a fight near Murfreesboro, and from July to October, 1862, was a prisoner. After his exchange he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, and was present in the operations around Vicksburg. He became colonel in July, 1863, and served in the campaign that resulted in the capture of Little Rock, Arkansas, where he was placed in command with a brigade. Here he was very active in fostering the union element, and his influence went far in the movement that in January, 1864, resulted in the reorganization of Arkansas as a free state, for which he received the thanks of the constitutional convention. During 1864 he was in command of the forces near Augusta, Ark., fortified Devall's Bluff, General Steele's base of supplies, and organized numerous successful scouting parties. He was promoted to brigadier-general, and assigned to the command of the 2d Division, 18th Corps, and participated in the siege and storming of Port Blakely, Georgia. On 9 March. 1865, he was commissioned brevet major- general. Subsequently he commanded the District of Mobile, and later that of Houston, Texas. In the reconstruction of that state General Andrews showed much interest, and made speeches at Houston and elsewhere which produced a better public opinion. Afterward he was ordered to accompany Governor A. J. Hamilton to Austin on his reinstatement to civil authority. He returned to Minneapolis during the autumn of 1865, and was mustered out of service 15 January, 1866. He was appointed minister resident to Sweden and Norway in 1869, and continued there until 1877, furnishing the U. S. government with frequent valuable reports on important subjects, which have been published in the "Commercial Relations of the United States." He was supervisor of the U. S. Census in the 3d District of Minnesota during 1880, and from 1882 till 1885 was consul-general to Brazil. General Andrews has also been a frequent contributor to current literature, and is the author of "Minnesota and Dacotah " (Washington, 1856); " Practical Treatise on the Revenue Laws of the United States" (Bos- ton, 1858); "Hints to Company Officers on their Military Duties " (New York, 1868); "Digest of the Opinions of the Attorneys-General of the United States" (Washington, 1867); and "History of the Campaign of Mobile" (1867).  Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 73-74.

ANDREWS, Edmund, surgeon, born in Putney, Vermont, 22 April, 1824. He was graduated at the University of Michigan in 1849; then, studying medicine, he received his degree from the medical department of the university in 1852. He settled in Ann Arbor and became demonstrator of anatomy and professor of comparative anatomy in the university, but in 1856 moved to Chicago, where he has since resided. Here he has filled the place of demonstrator of anatomy at the Rush Medical College, and subsequently the chairs of the principles and practices of surgery and of clinical and military surgery in the Chicago Medical College, of which institution he is one of the founders. In 1859 he became surgeon to the Mercy Hospital, and during the Civil War he served in a similar capacity with the 1st Illinois Light Artillery. He is a member of numerous medical and scientific societies, and is president of the Illinois State Medical Society and of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. Dr. Andrews was one of the founders of the Michigan State Medical Society, and is a trustee of the North-Western University. He is the author of a great number of articles in different branches of surgery which have been published in medical journals and proceedings of the societies to which he belongs. Numerous improvements in surgical apparatus and operations have been made by him among them is the practical demonstration of the value of free incision, digital exploration, and disinfection of lumbar abscesses, a treatment previously forbidden. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 74.

ANDREWS, George L., soldier, born in Bridgewater, Mass., 31 August, 1828. He was graduated at West Point in 1851, the highest in his class. He superintended the erection of fortifications in Boston Harbor, and in 1854 and 1855 was assistant professor of engineering at West Point. Resigning in 1855, he was employed as a civil engineer until the beginning of the Civil War. He served as lieutenant-colonel, and subsequently as colonel of the 2d Massachusetts Regiment in the Shenandoah Valley, and conducted the rear guard in the retreat at Cedar Mountain. He fought through Pope's campaign, and was at Antietam. For distinguished bravery he was promoted brigadier-general, 10 November, 1862, and in Banks's expedition led a brigade. From July, 1863, to 13 February, 1865, he commanded the Corps d'Afrique. For his services at the capture of Mobile he was brevetted major-general of volunteers, 26 March, 1865. On 8 April, 1867, he was appointed U.S. Marshal for Massachusetts, and on 27 February, 1871, went to West Point as professor of the French language. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 75.

ANDREWS, Loren, educator, born in Ashland County, Ohio, 1 April, 1819; died in Gambier, Ohio, 18 September, 1861. He was educated at Kenyon College, devoted himself to teaching, and the excellence of the present common-school system of Ohio is largely due to his labors. He filled various important educational places until 1854, when he was elected president of Kenyon College. During his administration the affairs of the college flourished greatly; additions were made to the faculty, new buildings were erected, and the number of students increased from thirty to more than two hundred. On the outbreak of the Civil War, in 1861, President Andrews raised a company in Knox County, of which he was made captain, Later he was elected colonel of the 4th Ohio Volunteers, and, after service at Camp Dennison, he was ordered to Virginia. He was in the field a short time, where he was subjected to fatiguing service, and was afterward stationed at Oakland, remaining until he was taken home ill at the end of August, the severe exposure having brought on an attack of camp fever, from the effects of which he died a few weeks later. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 75.

ANDREWS, Timothy Patrick, soldier, born in Ireland in 1794; died 11 March, 1868. During the war of 1812, when Barney's flotilla, in Patuxent River, was confronting the enemy, he tendered his services without the knowledge of his father, was employed by the commodore as his aide, and rendered important services. He subsequently was in active service in the field, and in 1822 appointed paymaster in the army. In 1847 he resigned to take command of the regiment of voltigeurs raised for the Mexican War. He was distinguished in the battle of Molino del Rey, and brevetted a brigadier-general for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Chapultepec. On the close of the war and the disbandment of the voltigeurs, he was reinstated, by Act of Congress, as pay-master, and in 1851 was made deputy paymaster-general. During the Civil War, on the death of General Larned, Colonel Andrews succeeded him as paymaster-general of the army. He was retired 20 November, 1864. 
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, pp. 76-77.

ANTHONY, Daniel Read, 1824-1904, newspaper publisher, abolitionist, member Hicksite Quakers, opposed slavery, active in temperance and women’s rights movements, brother of Susan B. Anthony.  Publisher of the Leavenworth Times newspaper in Leavenworth, Kansas. Lieutenant Colonel, 7th Regiment, Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, 1861-1862.  Mayor, Leavenworth, Kansas, 1863. (Rodriguez, 2007, p. 169)

ARMISTEAD, Lewis Addison, soldier, born in Newbern, N. C., 18 February, 1817; died at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 3 July, 1863. He was a son of General Walker Keith Armistead. He entered West Point in 1834, but left it in 1836. He was appointed second lieutenant in the 6th Infantry 10 July, 1839, became first lieutenant in March, 1844, and received brevets for gallantry at Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, and Chapultepec in 1847. Promoted to be captain 3 March, 1855, he rendered good service in Indian warfare, but resigned at the beginning of the Civil War, and with much reluctance entered the Confederate service, receiving a brigadier-general's commission in 1862. He was wounded at Antietam. 17 September of that year. At Gettysburg he was one of the few in Pickett's division who nearly reached the federal lines in the desperate charge made on the third day, was mortally wounded, and died a prisoner. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 90.

ARMSTRONG, James, naval officer, born in Shelbyville, Kentucky, 17 January, 1794; died 27 August, 1868. He joined the U. S. Navy  as midshipman in 1809, and was assigned to the sloop of war “Frolic,” which was captured by the British 20 April, 1814, her guns having been thrown overboard during the chase in the hope of escaping from a superior enemy. He rose by the regular steps of promotion to be a captain in 1841. He commanded the East India Squadron in 1855, and assisted at the capture of the barrier forts near Canton, China, in 1857. He was in command of the U. S. Navy-yard at Pensacola, Florida, when that state seceded in 1861, and surrendered without resistance when a greatly superior military force demanded possession. In 1866 he was promoted to be commodore.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 91.

ARMSTRONG, James F., naval officer, born in New Jersey, 20 November, 1817; died in New Haven, Connecticut, 19 April, 1873. He was appointed midshipman from Connecticut in 1832. His first service was on the sailing frigate “Delaware” in the Mediterranean, whence he was transferred to the sloop “Boston” in the West India Squadron, in 1837. He became passed midshipman 23 June, 1838, and lieutenant 8 December, 1842, and in this grade was alternately on sea and shore duty until the Civil War, when he was placed in command of the steamer “Sumpter” on the blockading squadron. As commander, dating from 27 April, 1861, he continued on the blockading service, took part in the capture of Fort Macon, 25 April, 1862, and was subsequently commissioned captain 16 July, 1862. His last cruise was in 1864, after which he was on the reserve list until 1871, when he was reinstated and was detailed for shore duty on the Pacific Coast.  
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 91.

ARNOLD, Lewis G., soldier, born in New Jersey in December, 1815; died in South Boston, 22 September, 1871. He was graduated at West Point in 1837. He served as second lieutenant in the Florida War of 1837–38 with the 2d artillery, and as first lieutenant in the same regiment, on the Canada frontier, at Detroit, in 1838-’39. In 1846 he accompanied his regiment to Mexico, and was engaged on the southern line of operations under General Scott, being present at the siege of Vera Cruz, in which he was slightly wounded; in the battles of Cerro Gordo and Amozoque; the capture of San Antonio, and the battle of Churubusco. In the last-named battle he led his company with con- £ gallantry, and in the storming of the téte de pont was severely wounded. He was brevetted captain 20 August, 1847, for gallant conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, and major, 13 September, for gallant conduct at Chapultepec. He served again in Florida in 1856, and commanded a detachment in a conflict with a large force of Seminoles at Big Cypress on 7 April of that year. The breaking out of the war in 1861 found Major Arnold at the Dry Tortugas, whence he was transferred to Fort Pickens on 2 August He remained there until 9 May, 1862, being in command after 25 February On 9 October, 1861, he aided in repelling the attack of the Confederates on Santa Rosa Island, and commanded a detachment sent the next morning to pursue them to the mainland. In the successive bombardments of Fort Pickens, which followed in November, January, and May, Major Arnold, as executive officer of the work, distinguished himself by his energy, judgment, and gallantry. In recognition of the value of his services on these occasions he was brevetted a lieutenant-colonel, to date from 22 November, 1861; appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers, to date from 24 January, 1862; and assigned to the command of the department of Florida, with his headquarters first at Fort Pickens and afterward at Pensacola. On 1 October, 1862, he was placed in command of the forces at New Orleans and Algiers, Louisiana, which command he retained until 10 November, when he was disabled by a stroke of paralysis, from which he never recovered. In February, 1864, all hope of his restoration to active life having been abandoned, General Arnold was retired.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 97.

ARNOLD, Richard, soldier, born in Providence, Rhode Island, 12 April, 1828; died on Governor's Island, New York Harbor, 8 November, 1882. He was a son of Governor L. H. Arnold, was graduated at West Point in 1850. He took part in the Northern Pacific Railroad exploration in 1853, and was aide to General Wool in California from 1855 to 1861. At the beginning of the Civil War he was made captain in the 5th Artillery, and served at Bull Run and through the Peninsular Campaign. On 29 June, 1862, he was brevetted major for services at the battle of Savage Station, Virginia, and on 29 November he was made brigadier-general of volunteers. On 8 July, 1863, he was brevetted lieutenant-Colonel in the regular army for services at the siege of Port Hudson. He commanded a cavalry division in General Banks's Red River Expedition in 1864, and later in the same year rendered important services at the reduction of Fort Morgan, Mobile Bay, for which, on 22 August, 1865, he was made brevet major- general of volunteers. For his services through the war he was, on 13 March, 1865, brevetted colonel, brigadier-general, and major-general in the regular army. After the close of the war he commanded various posts, and on 5 December, 1877, was made acting assistant inspector-general of the department of the east. At the time of his death he was major in the 5th Artillery.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 97.

ARTHUR, Chester Alan, twenty-first president of the United States, born in Fairfield, Franklin County, Vermont, 5 October, 1830; died in New York City, 18 November, 1886. His father was Reverend William Arthur (given below). His mother was Malvina Stone. Her grandfather, Uriah Stone, was a New Hampshire pioneer, who about 1763 migrated from Hampstead to Connecticut River, and made his home in Piermont, where he died in 1810, leaving twelve children. Her father was George Washington Stone. She died 16 January, 1869, and her husband died 27 October, 1875, at Newtonville, New York Their children were three sons and six daughters, all of whom, except one son and one daughter, were alive in 1886.

Chester A. Arthur, the eldest son, prepared for college at Union Village in Greenwich, and at Schenectady, and in 1845 he entered the sophomore class of Union. While in his sophomore year he taught school for a term at Schaghticoke, Rensselaer County, and a second term at the same place during his last year in college. He joined the Psi-Upsilon Society, and was one of six in a class of one hundred who were elected members of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the condition of admission being high scholarship. He was graduated at eighteen years of age, in the class of 1848. While at college he decided to become a lawyer, and after graduation attended for several months a law school at Ballston Spa, returned to Lansingburg, where his father then resided, and continued his legal studies. During this period he fitted boys for college, and in 1851 he was principal of an academy at North Pownal, Bennington County, Vermont In 1854, James A. Garfield, then a student in Williams College, taught penmanship in this academy during his winter vacation.

In 1853, Arthur, having accumulated a small sum of money, decided to go to New York City. He there entered the law office of Erastus D. Culver as a student, was admitted to the bar during the same year, and at once became a member of the firm of Culver, Parker & Arthur. Mr. Culver had been an anti-slavery member of Congress from Washington county when Dr. Arthur was pastor of the Baptist Church in Greenwich in that county. Dr. Arthur had also enjoyed the friendship of Gerrit Smith, who had often been his guest and spoken from his pulpit. Together they had taken part in the meeting convened at Utica, 21 October, 1835, to form a New York anti-slavery Society. This meeting was broken up by a committee of pro-slavery citizens; but the members repaired to Mr. Smith's home in Peterborough, and there completed the organization. On the same day in Boston a women's anti-slavery society, while its president was at prayer, was dispersed by a mob, and William Lloyd Garrison was dragged through the streets with a rope around his body, threatened with tar and feathers, and for his protection lodged in jail by the mayor. From these early associations Arthur naturally formed sentiments of hostility to slavery, and he first gave them public expression in the Lemmon slave case. In 1852 Jonathan Lemmon, a Virginia slave-holder, determined to take eight of the slaves of his wife, Juliet — one man, two women, and five children — to Texas, and brought them by steamer from Norfolk to New York, intending to re-ship them from New York to Texas. On the petition of Louis Napoleon, a free colored man, on 6 November, a writ of habeas corpus was issued by Judge Elijah Paine, of the superior court of New York City, and after arguments by Mr. Culver and John Jay for the slaves, and H. D. Lapaugh and Henry L. Clinton for the slave-holder, Judge Paine, on 13 November, released the slaves on the ground that they had been made free by being brought by their master into a free state. The decision created great excitement at the south, and the legislature of Virginia directed its attorney-general to appeal to the higher courts of New York. The legislature of New York passed a resolution directing its governor to defend the slaves. In December, 1857, the supreme court, in which a certiorari had been sued out, affirmed Judge Paine's decision (People v. Lemmon, 5 Sandf., 681), and it was still further sustained by the court of appeals at the March term, 1860 (Lemmon v. People, 20 New York Rep., 562). Arthur, as a law student, and after his admission to the bar, became an earnest advocate for the slaves. He went to Albany to secure the intervention in their behalf of the legislature and the governor, and he acted as their counsel in addition to attorney-general Ogden Hoffman, E. D. Culver, Joseph Blunt, and (after Mr. Hoffman's death) William M. Evarts. Charles O'Conor was employed as further counsel for the slave-holder, and argued his side before the court of appeals, while Mr. Blunt and Mr. Evarts argued for the slaves. Until 1855 the street-car companies of New York City excluded colored persons from riding with the whites, and made no adequate provision for their separate transportation. One Sunday in that year a colored woman named Lizzie Jennings, a Sabbath-school superintendent, on the way home from her school, was ejected from a car on the Fourth avenue line. Culver, Parker & Arthur brought a suit in her behalf against the company in the supreme court in Brooklyn, the plaintiff recovered a judgment, and the right of colored persons to ride in any of the city cars was thus secured. The Colored People's Legal Rights Association for years celebrated the anniversary of their success in this case. Mr. Arthur became a Henry Clay Whig, and cast his first vote in 1852 for Winfield Scott for president. He participated in the first Republican state Convention at Saratoga, and took an active part in the Fremont Campaign of 1856. On 1 January, 1861, Governor Edwin D. Morgan, who on that date entered upon his second term, and between whom and Mr. Arthur a warm friendship had grown up, appointed him on his staff as engineer-in-chief, with the rank of brigadier-general. He had previously taken part in the organization of the state militia, and had been judge-advocate of the second brigade. When the Civil War began, in April, 1861, his active services were required by Governor Morgan, and he became acting quartermaster-general, and as such began in New York City the work of preparing and forwarding the state's quota of troops. In December he was called to Albany for consultation concerning the defences of New York Harbor. On 24 December he summoned a board of engineers, of which he became a member; and on 18 January, 1862, he submitted an elaborate report on the condition of the national forts both on the sea-coast and on the inland border of the state. On 10 February, 1862, he was appointed inspector-general, with the rank of brigadier-general, and in May he inspected the New York troops at Fredericksburg and on the Chickahominy. In June, 1862, Governor Morgan ordered his return from the Army of the Potomac, and he acted as secretary of the meeting of the governors of the loyal states, which was held at the Astor House, New York City, 28 June. The governors advised President Lincoln to call for more troops; and on 1 July he called for 300,000 volunteers. At Governor Morgan's request, General Arthur resumed his former work, resigned as inspector-general, and 10 July was appointed quartermaster-general. In his annual report, dated 27 January, 1863, he said: “Through the single office and clothing department of this department in the City of New York, from 1 August to 1 December, the space of four months, there were completely clothed, uniformed, and equipped, supplied with camp and garrison equipage, and transported from this state to the seat of war, sixty-eight regiments of infantry, two battalions of cavalry, and four battalions of artillery.” He went out of office 31 December, 1862, when Horatio Seymour succeeded Governor Morgan, and his successor, Quartermaster-General S. V. Talcott, in his report of 31 December, 1863, spoke of the previous administration as follows: “I found, on entering on the discharge of my duties, a well-organized system of labor and accountability, for which the state is chiefly indebted to my predecessor, General Chester A. Arthur, who by his practical good sense and unremitting exertion, at a period when everything was in confusion, reduced the operations of the department to a matured plan, by which large amounts of money were saved to the government, and great economy of time secured in carrying out the details of the same.”

Between 1862 and 1872 General Arthur was engaged in continuous and active law practice — in partnership with Henry G. Gardner from 1862 till 1867, then for five years alone, and on 1 January, 1872, he formed the firm of Arthur, Phelps & Knevals. He was for a short time counsel for the department of assessments and taxes, but resigned the place. During all this period he continued to take an active interest in politics; was chairman in 1868 of the central Grant club of New York; and became chairman of the Executive Committee of the Republican state Committee in 1879.

On 20 November, 1871, he was appointed by President Grant collector of the port of New York, and assumed the office on 1 December; was nominated to the Senate 6 December, confirmed 12 December, and commissioned for four years 16 December On 17 December, 1875, he was nominated for another term, and by the Senate confirmed the same day, without reference to a committee — a courtesy never before extended to an appointee who had not been a senator. He was commissioned 18 December, and retained the office until 11 July, 1878, making his service about six and two thirds years.

The New York Republican state Convention, held at Syracuse, 22 March, 1876, elected delegates to the national convention in favor of the nomination of Senator Conkling for president. The friends of Mr. Conkling in the state convention were led by Alonzo B. Cornell, then naval officer in the New York custom-house. A minority, calling themselves reform Republicans, and favoring Benjamin H. Bristow for president, were led by George William Curtis. At the national convention at Cincinnati, 14 June, sixty-nine of the New York delegates, headed by Mr. Cornell, voted for Mr. Conkling, and one delegate, Mr. Curtis, voted for Mr. Bristow. At the critical seventh ballot, however, Mr. Conkling's name was withdrawn, and from New York sixty-one votes were given for Rutherford B. Hayes, against nine for James G. Blaine; and the former's nomination was thus secured. At the New York Republican state Convention to nominate a governor, held at Saratoga, 23 August, Mr. Cornell and ex-Governor Morgan were candidates, and also William M. Evarts, supported by the reform Republicans led by Mr. Curtis. Mr. Cornell's name was withdrawn, and Governor Morgan was nominated. In the close state and presidential canvass that ensued, Messrs. Arthur and Cornell made greater exertions to carry New York for the Republicans than they had ever made in any other campaign; and subsequently General Arthur's activity in connection with the contested countings in the southern states was of vital importance. Nevertheless, President Hayes, in making up his cabinet, selected Mr. Evarts as his secretary of state, and determined to remove Messrs. Arthur and Cornell, and to transfer the power and patronage of their offices to the use of a minority faction in the Democratic Party. The president had, however, in his inaugural of 5 March, 1877, declared in favor of civil service reform — “a change in the system of appointment itself; a reform that shall be thorough, radical, and complete; that the officer should be secure in his tenure so long as his personal character remained untarnished, and the performance of his duties satisfactory.” In his letter of acceptance of 8 July, 1876, he had used the same words, and added: “If elected, I shall conduct the administration of the government upon these principles, and all constitutional powers vested in the executive will be employed to establish this reform.” It became necessary, therefore, before removing Arthur and Cornell, that some foundation should be laid for a claim that the custom-house was not well administered. A series of investigations was thereupon instituted. The Jay commission was appointed 14 April, 1877, and during the ensuing summer made four reports criticising the management of the custom-house. In September, Secretary Sherman requested the collector to resign, accompanying the request with the offer of a foreign mission. The newspapers of the previous day announced that at a cabinet meeting it had been determined to remove the collector. The latter declined to resign, and the investigations were continued by commissions and special agents. To the reports of the Jay commission Collector Arthur replied in detail, in a letter to Secretary Sherman, dated 23 November On 6 December, Theodore Roosevelt was nominated to the Senate for collector, and L. Bradford Prince for naval officer; but they were rejected 12 December, and no other nominations were made, although the Senate remained in session for more than six months. On 11 July, 1878, after its adjournment, Messrs. Arthur and Cornell were suspended from office, and Edwin A. Merritt was designated as collector, and Silas W. Burt as naval officer, and they took possession of the offices. Their nominations were sent to the Senate 3 December, 1878. On 15 January, 1879, Secretary Sherman communicated to the Senate a full statement of the causes that led to these suspensions, mainly criticisms of the management of the custom-house, closing with the declaration that the restoration of the suspended officers would create discord and contention, be unjust to the president, and personally embarrassing to the secretary, and saying that, as Collector Arthur's term of service would expire 17 December, 1879, his restoration would be temporary, as the president would send in another name, or suspend him again after the adjournment of the Senate. On 21 January, 1879, Collector Arthur, in a letter to Senator Conkling, chairman of the committee on commerce, before which the nominations were pending, made an elaborate reply to Secretary Sherman's criticisms, completely demonstrating the honesty and efficiency with which the custom-house had been managed, and the good faith with which the policy and instructions of the president had been carried out. A fair summary of the merits of the ostensible issue is contained in Collector Arthur's letter of 23 November, 1877, from which the following extract is taken: “The essential elements of a correct civil service I understand to be: first, permanence in office, which of course prevents removals except for cause; second, promotion from the lower to the higher grades, based upon good conduct and efficiency; third, prompt and thorough investigation of all complaints, and prompt punishment of all misconduct. In this respect I challenge comparison with any department of the government under the present, or under any past, national administration. I am prepared to demonstrate the truth of this statement on any fair investigation.” In a table appended to this letter Collector Arthur showed that during the six years he had managed the office the yearly percentage of removals for all causes had been only 2¾ per cent. as against an annual average of 28 per cent. under his three immediate predecessors, and an annual average of about 24 per cent, since 1857, when Collector Schell took office. Out of 923 persons who held office when he became collector, on 1 December, 1871, there were 531 still in office on 1 May, 1877, having been retained during his entire term. In making promotions, the uniform practice was to advance men from the lower to the higher grades, and all the appointments except two, to the one hundred positions of $2,000 salary, or over, were made in this method. The expense of collecting the revenue was also kept low; it had been, under his predecessors, between 1857 and. 1861, 59/100 of one per cent. of the receipts; between 1861 and 1864, 87/100; in 1864 and 1865, 1 30/100; between 1866 and 1869, 74/100; in 1869 and 1870, 85/100; in 1870 and 1871, 60/100; and under him, from 1871 to 1877, it was 62/100 of one per cent. The influence of the administration, however, was sufficient to secure the confirmation of Mr. Merritt and Mr. Burt on 3 February, 1879, and the controversy was remitted to the Republicans of New York for their opinion. Mr. Cornell was nominated for governor of New York 3 September, 1879, and elected on 4 November; and Mr. Arthur was considered a candidate for U. S. Senator for the term to begin 4 March, 1881.

On retiring from the office of collector, General Arthur resumed law practice with the firm of Arthur, Phelps, Knevals & Ransom. But he continued to be active in politics, and, in 1880, advocated the nomination of General Grant to succeed President Hayes. He was a delegate at large to the Chicago Convention, which met 2 June, and during the heated preliminary contest before the Republican National Committee, which threatened to result in the organization of two independent conventions, he conducted for his own side the conferences with the controlling anti-third term delegates relative to the choice of a temporary presiding officer, and the arrangement of the preliminary roll of delegates in the cases to be contested in the convention. The result of the conferences was an agreement by which all danger was avoided, and when, upon the opening of the convention, an attempt was made, in consequence of a misunderstanding on the part of certain Grant delegates, to violate this agreement, he resolutely adhered to it, and insisted upon and secured its observance. After the nomination, 10 June, of General Garfield for president, by a combination of the anti-third term delegates, a general desire arose in the convention to nominate for vice-president some advocate of Grant and a resident of New York state. The New York delegation at once indicated their preference for General Arthur, and before the roll-call began the foregone conclusion was evident: he received 468 votes against 283 for all others, and the nomination was made unanimous. In his letter of acceptance of 5 July, 1880, he emphasized the right and the paramount duty of the nation to protect the colored citizens, who were enfranchised as a result of the southern rebellion, in the full enjoyment of their civil and political rights, including honesty and order, and excluding fraud and force, in popular elections. He also approved such reforms in the public service as would base original appointments to office upon ascertained fitness, fill positions of responsibility by the promotion of worthy and efficient officers, and make the tenure of office stable, while not allowing the acceptance of public office to impair the liberty or diminish the responsibility of the citizen. He also advocated a sound currency, popular education, such changes in tariff and taxation as would “relieve any overburdened industry or class, and enable our manufacturers and artisans to compete successfully with those of other lands,” national works of internal improvement, and the development of our water-courses and harbors wherever required by the general interests of commerce. During the canvass he remained chairman of the New York Republican state Committee. The result was a plurality for Garfield and Arthur of 21,000 in the state, against a plurality of 32,000 in 1876 for Tilden and Hendricks, the Democratic candidates against Hayes and Wheeler.

Vice-President Arthur took the oath of office 4 March, 1881, and presided over the extra session of the Senate that then began, which continued until 20 May. The Senate contained 37 Republicans and 37 Democrats, while Senators Mahone, of Virginia, and Davis, of Illinois, who were rated as independents, generally voted, the former with the Republicans and the latter with the Democrats, thus making a tie, and giving the vice-president the right to cast the controlling vote, which he several times had occasion to exercise. The session was exciting, and was prolonged by the efforts of the Republicans to elect their nominees for secretary and sergeant-at-arms, against dilatory tactics employed by the Democrats, and by the controversy over President Garfield's nomination, on 23 March, for collector of the port of New York, of William H. Robertson, who had been the leader of the New York anti-third term delegates at the Chicago Convention. During this controversy the vice-president supported Senators Conkling and Platt in their opposition to the confirmation. On 28 March he headed a remonstrance, signed also by the senators and by Postmaster-General James, addressed to the president, condemning the appointment, and asking that the nomination be withdrawn. When the two senators hastily resigned and made their unsuccessful contest for a reelection by the legislature of New York, then in session at Albany, he exerted himself actively in their behalf during May and June.

President Garfield was shot 2 July, 1881, and died 19 September His cabinet announced his death to the vice-president, then in New York, and, at their suggestion, he took the oath as president on the 20th, at his residence, 123 Lexington avenue, before Judge John R. Brady, of the New York supreme court. On the 22d the oath was formally administered again in the vice-president's room in the capitol at Washington by Chief-Justice Waite, and President Arthur delivered the following inaugural address:

“For the fourth time in the history of the republic its chief magistrate has been removed by death. All hearts are filled with grief and horror at the hideous crime which has darkened our land; and the memory of the murdered president, his protracted sufferings, his unyielding fortitude, the example and achievements of his life, and the pathos of his death, will forever illumine the pages of our history. For the fourth time the officer elected by the people and ordained by the constitution to fill a vacancy so created is called to assume the executive chair. The wisdom of our fathers, foreseeing even the most dire possibilities, made sure that the government should never be imperilled because of the uncertainty of human life. Men may die, but the fabrics of our free institutions remain unshaken. No higher or more assuring proof could exist of the strength and permanence of popular government than the fact that, though the chosen of the people be struck down, his constitutional successor is peacefully installed without shock or strain, except the sorrow which mourns the bereavement. All the noble aspirations of my lamented predecessor which found expression in his life, the measures devised and suggested during his brief administration to correct abuses and enforce economy, to advance prosperity and promote the general welfare, to insure domestic security and maintain friendly and honorable relations with the nations of the earth, will be garnered in the hearts of the people, and it will be my earnest endeavor to profit and to see that the nation shall profit by his example and experience. Prosperity blesses our country, our fiscal policy is fixed by law, is well grounded and generally approved. No threatening issue mars our foreign intercourse, and the wisdom, integrity, and thrift of our people may be trusted to continue undisturbed the present assured career of peace, tranquillity, and welfare. The gloom and anxiety which have enshrouded the country must make repose especially welcome now. No demand for speedy legislation has been heard; no adequate occasion is apparent for an unusual session of Congress. The constitution defines the functions and powers of the executive as clearly as those of either of the other two departments of the government, and he must answer for the just exercise of the discretion it permits and the performance of the duties it imposes. Summoned to these high duties and responsibilities, and profoundly conscious of their magnitude and gravity, I assume the trust imposed by the constitution, relying for aid on Divine guidance and the virtue, patriotism, and intelligence of the American people.”

He also on the same day appointed Monday, 26 September, as a day of mourning for the late president. On 23 September he issued a proclamation convening the Senate in extraordinary session, to meet 10 October, in order that a president pro tem. of that body might be elected. The members of the cabinet were requested to retain their places until the regular meeting of Congress in December, and did remain until their successors were appointed, except Secretary Windom, who, desiring to become a candidate for senator from Minnesota, resigned from the treasury 24 October Edwin D. Morgan was nominated and confirmed secretary of the treasury, but declined the appointment; and Charles J. Folger, of New York, was then nominated and confirmed, was commissioned 27 October, and qualified 14 November He died in office, 4 September, 1884. The other members of the cabinet of President Arthur, and the dates of their commissions, were as follows: State Department, Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, of New Jersey, 12 December, 1881; treasury, Walter Q. Gresham, of Indiana, 24 September, 1884; Hugh McCulloch, of Maryland, 28 October, 1884; war, Robert T. Lincoln, of Illinois, 5 March, 1881 (retained from Garfield's cabinet); U.S. Navy, William E. Chandler, of New Hampshire, 12 April, 1882; interior, Henry M. Teller, of Colorado, 6 April, 1882; attorney-general, Benjamin H. Brewster, of Pennsylvania, 19 December, 1881; postmaster-general, Timothy O. Howe, of Wisconsin, 20 December, 1881 (died in office, 25 March, 1883); Walter Q. Gresham, 3 April, 1883; Frank Hatton, of Iowa, 14 October, 1884. Messrs. Frelinghuysen, McCulloch, Lincoln, Chandler, Teller, Brewster, and Platton remained in office until the end of the presidential term, 4 March, 1885.

The prominent events of President Arthur's administration, including his most important recommendations to Congress, may be here summarized: Shortly after his accession to the presidency he participated in the dedication of the monument erected at Yorktown, Virginia, to commemorate the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at that place, 19 October, 1781. Representatives of our French allies and of the German participants were present. At the close of the celebration the president felicitously directed a salute to be fired in honor of the British flag, “in recognition of the friendly relations so long and so happily subsisting between Great Britain and the United States, in the trust and confidence of peace and good-will between the two countries for all the centuries to come, and especially as a mark of the profound respect entertained by the American people for the illustrious sovereign and gracious lady who sits upon the British throne.” On 29 November, 1881, an invitation was extended to all the independent countries of North and South America to participate in a Peace Congress, to be convened at Washington 22 November, 1882. The president, in a special message, 18 April, 1882, asked the opinion of Congress as to the expediency of the project. No response being elicited, he concluded, 9 August, 1882, to postpone indefinitely the proposed convocation, believing that so important a step should not be taken without the express authority of Congress; or while three of the nations to be invited were at war; or still, again, until a programme should have been prepared explicitly indicating the objects and limiting the powers of the Congress. Efforts were made, however, to strengthen the relations of the United States with the other American nationalities. Representations were made by the administration with a view to bringing to a close the devastating war between Chili and the allied states of Peru and Bolivia. Its friendly counsel was offered in aid of the settlement of the disputed boundary-line between Mexico and Guatemala, and was probably influential in averting a war between those countries. On 29 July, 1882, a convention was made with Mexico for relocating the boundary between that country and the United States from the Rio Grande to the Pacific, and on the same day an agreement was also effected permitting the armed forces of either country to cross the frontier in pursuit of hostile Indians. A series of reciprocal commercial treaties with the countries of America to foster an unhampered movement of trade was recommended. Such a treaty was made with Mexico, 20 January, 1883, General U. S. Grant and Mr. Wm. H. Trescott being the U. S. commissioners, and was ratified by the Senate 11 March, 1884. Similar treaties were made with Santo Domingo 4 December, 1884; and 18 November, 1884, with Spain, relative to the trade of Cuba and Porto Rico, both of which, before action by the Senate, were withdrawn by President Cleveland, who, in his message of 8 December, 1885, pronounced them inexpedient. In connection with commercial treaties President Arthur advised the establishment of a monetary union of the American countries to secure the adoption of a uniform currency basis, and as a step toward the general remonetization of silver. Provision for increased and improved consular representation in the Central American states was urged, and the recommendation was accepted and acted upon by Congress. A Central and South American commission was appointed, under the Act of Congress of 7 July, 1884, and proceeded on its mission, guided by instructions containing a statement of the general policy of the government for enlarging its commercial intercourse with American states. Reports from the commission were submitted to Congress in a message of 13 February, 1885. Negotiations were conducted with the republic of Colombia for the purpose of renewing and strengthening the obligations of the United States as the sole guarantor of the integrity of Colombian territory, and of the neutrality of any interoceanic canal to be constructed across the isthmus of Panama. By correspondence upon this subject, carried on with the British government, it was shown that the provisions of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty of 19 April, 1850, cannot be urged, and do not continue in force in justification of interference by any European power, with the right of the United States to exercise exclusive control over any route of isthmus transit, in accordance with the spirit and purpose of the so-called “Monroe doctrine.” As the best and most practicable means of securing a canal, and at the same time protecting the paramount interests of the United States, a treaty was made with the republic of Nicaragua, 1 December, 1884, which authorized the United States to construct a canal, railway, and telegraph line across Nicaraguan Territory by way of San Juan River and Lake Nicaragua. This treaty was rejected by the Senate, but a motion was made to reconsider the vote. Before final action had been taken it was withdrawn, 12 March, 1885, by President Cleveland, who withheld it from re-submission to the Senate, and in his message of 8 December, 1885, expressed his unwillingness to assert for the United States any claim of paramount privilege of ownership or control of any canal across the isthmus. Satisfaction was obtained from Spain of the old claim on account of the “Masonic,” an American vessel, which had been seized at Manila unjustly, and under circumstances of peculiar severity. Prom the same government was also secured a recognition of the conclusiveness of the judgments of the U. S. courts naturalizing citizens of Spanish nativity. From the British government a full recognition of the rights and immunities of naturalized American citizens of Irish origin was obtained, and all such that were under arrest in England or Ireland, as suspects, were liberated. Notice was given to England, under the joint resolution of Congress of 3 March, 1883, of the termination of the fishery clauses of the treaty of Washington. A complete scheme for re-organizing the extra-territorial jurisdiction of American consuls in China and Japan, and another for re-organizing the whole consular service, were submitted to Congress. The former recommendation was adopted by the Senate. The balance of the Japanese indemnity fund was returned to Japan by Act of 22 February, 1883, and the balance of the Chinese fund to China by Act of 3 March, 1885. A bill that was passed by Congress prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers for a term of twenty years was vetoed, 4 April, 1882, as being a violation of the treaty of 1880 with China, which permitted the limitation or suspension of immigration, but forbade its absolute prohibition. The veto was sustained and a modified bill, suspending immigration for ten years, was passed 6 May, 1882, which received executive approval, and also an amendatory Act of 5 July, 1884. Outstanding claims with China were settled, and additional regulations of the opium traffic established. Friendly and commercial intercourse with Corea was opened under the most favorable auspices, in pursuance of the treaty negotiated on 22 May, 1882, through the agency of Commodore R. W. Shufeldt, U. S. N. The friendly offices of the United States were extended to Liberia in aid of a settlement, favorable to that republic, of the dispute concerning its boundary-line, with the British possession of Sierra Leone. The flag of the international association of the Congo was, on 22 April, 1884, recognized first by the United States. A commercial agent was appointed to visit the Congo basin, and the government was represented at an international conference at Berlin, called by the emperor of Germany, for the promotion of trade and the establishment of commercial rights in the Congo region. The renewal of the reciprocity treaty with Hawaii was advised. Remonstrances were addressed to Russia against any prescriptive treatment of the Hebrew race in that country. The international prime meridian of Greenwich was established as the result of a conference of nations, initiated by the U. S. government, and held at Washington. 1 October to 1 November, 1884. In response to the appeal of Cardinal John McCloskey, of New York, the Italian government, on 4 March, 1884, was urged to exempt from the sale of the property of the propaganda the American College in Rome, established mainly by contributions from the United States, and in consequence of this interposition the college was saved from sale and virtual confiscation. On 3 August, 1882, a law was passed for returning convicts to Europe, and on 26 February, 1885, importation of contract-laborers was forbidden.

The suspension of the coinage of standard silver dollars, and the redemption of the trade dollars, were repeatedly recommended. The repeal of the stamp taxes on matches, proprietary articles, playing-cards, bank checks and drafts, and of the tax on surplus bank capital and deposits, was recommended. These taxes were repealed by Act of Congress of 3 March, 1883; and by executive order of 25 June, 1883, the number of internal revenue collection districts was reduced from 126 to 83, The tax on tobacco was reduced by the same Act of Congress; and in his last annual message, of 5 December, 1884, the president advised the repeal of all internal revenue taxes except those on distilled spirits and fermented liquors. Congress was advised to undertake the revision of the tariff, but “without the abandonment of the policy of so discriminating in the adjustment of details as to afford aid and protection to American labor.” The course advised was the organization of a tariff commission, which was authorized by Act of Congress of 15 May, 1882. The report of the commission submitted to Congress 4 December was made the basis of the tariff revision Act of 3 March, 1883. On 12 July, 1882, an act became a law enabling the national banks, which were then completing their twenty-year terms, to extend their corporate existence. Overdue five per cent. bonds to the amount of $469,651,050, and six per cent. bonds to the amount of $203,573,750, were continued (except about $56,000,000 which were paid) at the rate of 3½ per cent, interest. The interest-bearing public debt was reduced $478,785,950, and the annual interest charge $29,831,880 during the presidential term. On 1 July, 1882, “An act to regulate the carriage of passengers by sea” was vetoed because not correctly or accurately phrased, although the object was admitted to be meritorious and philanthropic. A modified bill passed Congress, and was approved 2 August The attention of Congress was frequently called to the decline of the American merchant marine, and legislation was recommended for its restoration, and the construction and maintenance of ocean steamships under the U. S. flag. In compliance with these recommendations, the following laws were enacted: 26 June, 1884, an act to remove certain burdens from American shipping; 5 July, 1884, an act creating a bureau of navigation, under charge of a commissioner, in the treasury Department; and 3 March, 1885, an amendment to the postal appropriation bill appropriating $800,000 for contracting with American steamship lines for the transportation of foreign mails. Reasonable national regulation of the railways of the country was favored, and the opinion was expressed that Congress should protect the people at large in their inter-state traffic against acts of injustice that the state governments might be powerless to prevent.

The attention of Congress was often called to the necessity of modern provisions for coast defence. By special message of 11 April, 1884, an annual appropriation of $1,500,000 for the armament of fortifications was recommended. In the last annual message an expenditure of $60,000,000, one tenth to be appropriated annually, was recommended. In consequence, the fortifications board was created by Act of 3 March, 1885, which made an elaborate report to the 49th Congress, recommending a complete system of coast defence at an ultimate cost estimated at $126,377,800. The gun-foundry board, consisting of army and navy officers, appointed under the Act of 3 March, 1883, visited Europe and made full reports, advising large contracts for terms of years with American manufacturers to produce the steel necessary for heavy cannon, and recommending the establishment of one army and one navy gun factory for the fabrication of modern ordnance. This plan was commended to Congress in a special message 26 March, 1884, and in the above-mentioned message of 11 April; also in the annual message of that year. In the annual message of 1881 the improvement of Mississippi River was recommended. On 17 April, 1882, by special message, Congress was urged to provide for “closing existing gaps in levees,” and to adopt a system for the permanent improvement of the navigation of the river and for the security of the valley. Special messages on this subject were also sent 8 January and 2 April, 1884. Appropriations were made of $8,500,000 for permanent work; and in 1882 of $350,000, and in 1884 of over $150,000, for the relief of the sufferers from floods, the amount in the latter year being the balance left from $500,000 appropriated on account of the floods in the Ohio. These relief appropriations were expended under the personal supervision of the Secretary of War. On 1 August, 1882, the president vetoed a river-and-harbor bill making appropriations of $18,743,875, on the ground that the amount greatly exceeded “the needs of the country” for the then current fiscal year, and because it contained “appropriations for purposes not for the common defence or general welfare,” which did not “promote commerce among the states, but were, on the contrary, entirely for the benefit of the particular localities” where it was “proposed to make the improvements.” The bill, on 2 August, passed Congress over the veto by 122 yeas to 59 nays in the house, and 41 yeas to 16 nays in the Senate. In connection with this subject it was suggested to Congress, in the annual messages of 1882, 1883, and 1884, that it would be wise to adopt a constitutional amendment allowing the president to veto in part only any bill appropriating moneys. A special message of 8 January, 1884, commended to Congress, as a matter of great public interest, the cession to the United States of the Illinois and Michigan Canal in order to secure the construction of the Hennepin Canal to connect Lake Michigan by way of Illinois River with the Mississippi. Unlawful intrusions of armed settlers into the Indian territory for the purpose of locating upon lands set apart for the Indians were prevented, or the intruders were expelled by the army. On 2 July, 1884, the president vetoed the bill to restore to the army and place on the retired list Major-General Fitz-John Porter, who, on the sentence of a court-martial, approved by President Lincoln 27 January, 1863, had been dismissed for disobedience of orders to march to attack the enemy in his front during the second battle of Bull Run. The reasons assigned for the veto were, (1) that the Congress had no right “to impose upon the president the duty of nominating or appointing to office any particular individual of its own selection,” and (2) that the bill was in effect an annulment of a final judgment of a court of last resort, after the lapse of many years, and on insufficient evidence. The veto was overruled in the house by 168 yeas to 78 nays, but was sustained in the Senate by 27 to 27.

A new naval policy was adopted prescribing a reduction in the number of officers, the elimination of drunkards, great strictness and impartiality in discipline, the discontinuance of extensive repairs of old wooden ships, the diminution of navy-yard expenses, and the beginning of the construction of a new navy of modern steel ships and guns according to the plans of a skilful naval advisory board. The first of such vessels, the cruisers “Chicago,” “Boston,” and “Atlanta,” and a steel despatch-boat, “Dolphin,” with their armaments, were designed in this country and built in American workshops. The gun foundry board referred to above was originated, and its reports were printed with that of the department for 1884. A special message of 26 March, 1884, urged continued progress in the reconstruction of the navy, the granting of authority for at least three additional steel cruisers and four gun-boats, and the finishing of the four double-turreted monitors. Two cruisers and two gun-boats were authorized by the Act of 3 March, 1885. An Arctic expedition, consisting of the steam whalers “Thetis” and “Bear,” together with the ship “Alert,” given by the British admiralty, was fitted out and despatched under the command of Commander Winfield Scott Schley for the relief of Lieutenant A. W. Greely, of the U. S. Army, who with his party had been engaged since 1881 in scientific exploration at Lady Franklin Bay, in Grinnell Land; and that officer and the few other survivors were rescued at Cape Sabine 22 June, 1884. On recommendation of the president, an Act of Congress was passed directing the return of the “Alert” to the English government.

The reduction of letter postage from three to two cents a half ounce was recommended, and was effected by the Act of 3 March, 1883; the unit of weight was on 3 March, 1885, made one ounce, instead of a half ounce; the rate on transient newspapers and periodicals was reduced, 9 June, 1884, to one cent for four ounces, and the rate on similar matter, when sent by the publisher or from a news agency to actual subscribers or to other news agents, including sample copies, was on 3 March, 1885, reduced to one cent a pound. The fast-mail and free-delivery systems were largely extended; and also, on 3 March, 1883, the money-order system. Special letter deliveries were established 3 March, 1885. The star service at the west was increased at reduced cost. The foreign mail service was improved, the appropriation of $800,000, already alluded to, was made, and various postal conventions were negotiated.

Recommendations were made for the revision of the laws fixing the fees of jurors and witnesses, and for prescribing by salaries the compensation of district attorneys and marshals. The prosecution of persons charged with frauds in connection with the star-route mail service was pressed with vigor (the attorney-general appearing in person at the principal trial), and resulted in completely breaking up the vicious and corrupt practices that had previously nourished in connection with that service. Two vacancies on the bench of the supreme court were filled — one on the death of Nathan Clifford, of Maine, by Horace Gray, of Massachusetts, commissioned on 20 December, 1881. For the vacancy occasioned by the retirement of Ward Hunt, of New York, Roscoe Conkling was nominated 24 February, 1882, and he was confirmed by the Senate; but on 3 March he declined the office, and Samuel Blatchford, of New York, was appointed and commissioned 23 March, 1882.

Measures were recommended for breaking up tribal relations of the Indians by allotting to them land in severalty, and by extending to them the laws applicable to other citizens; and liberal appropriations for the education of Indian children were advised. Peace with all the tribes was preserved during the whole term of the administration. Stringent legislation against polygamy in Utah was recommended, and under the law enacted 22 March, 1882, many polygamists were indicted, convicted, and punished. The Utah commission, to aid in the better government of the territory, was appointed under the same act. The final recommendation of the president in his messages of 1883 and 1884 was, that Congress should assume the entire political control ot the territory, and govern it through commissioners. Legislation was urged for the preservation of the valuable forests remaining upon the public domain. National aid to education was repeatedly urged, preferably through setting apart the proceeds of the sales of public lands.

A law for the adjudication of the French spoliation claims was passed 20 January, 1885, and preparation was made for carrying it into effect. Congress was urged in every annual message to pass laws establishing safe and certain methods of ascertaining the result of a presidential election, and fully providing for all cases of removal, death, resignation, or inability of the president, or any officer acting as such. In view of certain decisions of the supreme court, additional legislation was urged in the annual message of 1883 to supplement and enforce the 14th amendment to the constitution in its special purpose to insure to members of the colored race the full enjoyment of civil and political rights. The subject of reform in the methods of the public service, which had been discussed by the president in his letter of 23 November, 1877, while collector, to Secretary Sherman, and in his letter of 15 July, 1880, accepting the nomination for vice-president, was fully treated in all his annual messages, and in special messages of 29 February, 1884, and 11 February, 1885. The “act to regulate and improve the civil service of the United States” was passed 16 January, 1883, and under it a series of rules was established by the president, and the law and rules at all times received his unqualified support, and that of the heads of the several departments. The final distribution of the moneys derived from the Geneva award among meritorious sufferers on account of the rebel cruisers fitted out or harbored in British ports was provided for by the Act of 5 June, 1882. In the annual message of 1884 a suitable pension to General Grant was recommended, and, upon his announcement that he would not accept a pension, a special message of 3 February, 1885, urged the passage of a bill creating the office of general of the army on the retired list, to enable the president in his discretion to appoint General Grant. Such a bill was passed 3 March, 1885, and the president on that day made the nomination, and it was confirmed in open session amid demonstrations of approval, in a crowded Senate-chamber, a few minutes before the expiration of the session.

The president attended, as the guest of the city of Boston, the celebration of the Webster Historical Society at Marshfield, Massachusetts, and made brief addresses in Faneuil Hall, 11 October, 1882, and at Marshfield, 13 October He commended the Southern Exposition at Louisville, Kentucky, by a letter of 9 June, 1883, attended its opening, and delivered an address on 2 August He aided in many ways the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition at New Orleans; and on 16 December, 1884, in an address sent by telegraph from the executive mansion in Washington, he opened the exposition, and set in motion the machinery by the electric current. On 25 September, 1883, he was present at the unveiling of the Burnside monument at Bristol, Rhode Island On 26 November, 1883, he attended the unveiling of the statue of Washington on the steps of the sub-treasury building in New York City; and 21 February, 1885, he made an address at the dedication, at the national capital, of the Washington monument, which had been completed during his term.

President Arthur's name was presented to the Republican presidential Convention that met at Chicago 3 June, 1884, by delegates from New York, Pennsylvania, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Louisiana. On the first ballot he received 278 votes against 540 for all others, 276 on the second, 274 on the third, and 207 on the fourth, which resulted in the nomination of James G. Blaine. He at once telegraphed to Mr. Blaine, “As the candidate of the Democratic Party you will have my earnest and cordial support,” and in the canvass which ensued he rendered all possible assistance to the Republican cause and candidates. The national convention, in its resolutions, declared that “in the administration of President Arthur we recognize a wise, conservative, and patriotic policy, under which the country has been blessed with remarkable prosperity, and we believe his eminent services are entitled to and will receive the hearty approval of every citizen.” The conventions in all the states had also unanimously passed resolutions commendatory of the administration.

Mr. Arthur married, 29 October, 1859, Ellen Lewis Herndon, of Fredericksburg, Virginia, who died 12 January, 1880, leaving two children, Chester Alan Arthur, born 25 July, 1865, and Ellen Herndon Arthur, born 21 November, 1871. Their first child, William L. H. Arthur, was born 10 December, 1860, and died 8 July, 1863. Mrs. Arthur was the daughter of Commander William Lewis Herndon, of the U. S. Navy, who, in 1851-'2, explored the Amazon River under orders of the government. He perished in a gale at sea, 12 September, 1857, on the way from Havana to New York, while in command of the merchant-steamer, “Central America.” (See Herndon.)

In person, Mr. Arthur was tall, large, well-proportioned, and of distinguished presence. His manners were always affable. He was genial in domestic and social life, and warmly beloved by his personal friends. He conducted his official intercourse with unvarying courtesy, and dispensed the liberal hospitalities of the executive mansion with ease and dignity, and in such a way as to meet universal commendation from citizens and foreigners alike. He had a full and strong mind, literary taste and culture, a retentive memory, and was apt in illustration by analogy and anecdote. He reasoned coolly and logically, and was never one-sided. The style of his state papers is simple and direct. He was eminently conscientious, wise, and just in purpose and act as a public official; had always the courage to follow his deliberate convictions, and remained unmoved by importunity or attack. He succeeded to the presidency under peculiarly distressing circumstances. The factional feeling in the Republican Party, which the year before had resulted in the nomination of General Garfield for president as the representative of one faction, and of himself for vice-president as the representative of the other, had measurably subsided during the canvass and the following winter, only to break out anew immediately after the inauguration of the new administration, and a fierce controversy was raging when the assassination of President Garfield convulsed the nation and created the gravest apprehensions. Cruel misjudgments were formed and expressed by men who would now hesitate to admit them. The long weeks of alternating hope and fear that preceded the president's death left the public mind perturbed and restless. Doubt and uneasiness were everywhere apparent. The delicacy and discretion displayed by the vice-president had compelled approval, but had not served wholly to disarm prejudice, and when he took the murdered president's place the whole people were in a state of tense and anxious expectancy, of which, doubtless, he was most painfully conscious. All fears, however, were speedily and happily dispelled. The new president's inaugural was explicit, judicious, and reassuring, and his purpose not to administer his high office in the spirit of former faction, although by it he lost some friendships, did much toward healing the dissensions within the dominant party. His conservative administration of the government commanded universal confidence, preserved public order, and promoted business activity. If his conduct of affairs be criticised as lacking aggressiveness, it may confidently be replied that aggressiveness would have been unfortunate, if not disastrous. Rarely has there been a time when an indiscreet president could have wrought more mischief. It was not a time for showy exploits or brilliant experimentation. Above all else, the people needed rest from the strain and excitement into which the assassination of their president had plunged them. The course chosen by President Arthur was the wisest and most desirable that was possible. If apparently negative in itself, it was positive, far-reaching, and most salutary in its results. The service which at this crisis in public affairs he thus rendered to the country must be accounted the greatest of his personal achievements, and the most important result of his administration. As such, it should be placed in its true light before the reader of the future; and in this spirit, for the purpose of historical accuracy only, it is here given the prominence it deserves. His administration, considered as a whole, was responsive to every national demand, and stands in all its departments substantially without assault or criticism.

He died suddenly, of apoplexy, at his residence, No. 123 Lexington avenue. New York, Thursday morning, 18 November, 1886. The funeral services were held on the following Monday, at the Church of the Heavenly Rest. President Cleveland and his cabinet, Chief-Justice Waite, ex-President Hayes, James G. Blaine, Gens. Sherman, Sheridan, and Schofield, and the surviving members of President Arthur's cabinet, were in attendance. On the same day a special train conveyed his remains to Albany, where they were placed by the side of his wife in the family burial-place in Rural cemetery. [Appleton’s 1900]   

ASBOTH, Alexander Sandor, soldier, born in Keszthely, Hungry, 18 December, 1811; died in Buenos Ayres, S.A., 21 January, 1868. He was educated in Oldenburg, and served for some time as a cuirassier in the Austrian army. Subsequently he studied law at Presburg, and then, turning his attention to engineering, was employed upon various important works in the Banat. He served with Kossuth in the Hungarian war of 1848-’9, and participated in the battles of Tomasovacz, Kapolna, and Nagy Sarlo. He followed Kossuth to Turkey, shared his confinement at Kutaieh, and on his release came with him to the United States in 1851, where he soon became a citizen. He pursued various occupations, and on the outbreak of the Civil War in 861 offered his services to the government. In July he was sent to Missouri as chief of staff to General Frémont, and on 26 September was appointed brigadier-general and commanded the 4th division in Frémont's western campaign. He was next assigned to the command of a division in General Curtis's army, and during the Arkansas Campaign occupied Bentonville and Fayetteville. He participated in the battles of Pea Ridge, and was severely wounded. In 1863 he was placed in command of Columbus, Kentucky, and in August of the same year was assigned to the District of West Florida, with head-quarters at Fort Pickens. He was badly wounded in the battle of Marianna, 27 September, 1864, his left cheek-bone being broken and his left arm fractured in two places. For his services in Florida he was brevetted major-general 13 March, 1865, and resigned in the following August. In 1866 he was sent as U.S. minister to the Argentine Republic and Uruguay, where he died in consequence of the wounds in his face. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 108.

ASHBY, Turner
, soldier, born at Rose Hill, Fauquier County, Virginia, in 1824; killed in action near Harrisonburg, 6 June, 1862. He was a grandson of Captain Jack Ashby, who commanded a company in the 3d Virginia Regiment in the Revolutionary War. During early life he was a grain-dealer in Markham, Virginia, and afterward a planter and local politician. On the breaking out of the Civil War he raised a regiment of cavalry, and, being a fine horse-man, a soldier by nature, and possessed of remarkable personal daring, he soon distinguished himself. He was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate Provisional Army in 1862, but met his death shortly afterward in a skirmish preceding the battle of Cross Keys, Virginia. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 110.

ASHBURN, George W., soldier, born in Georgia; died 1 April, 1868. During the Civil War he was a strong opponent of secession, and raised a company of southern loyalists, subsequently enlarged to a regiment, of which he was colonel. On his return home after the war he boldly advocated the Congressional plan of reconstruction. He was chosen a delegate to the Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1867, and did much toward perfecting the constitution of his state. His political enemies, unsuccessful in provoking him to violence, caused his death. This crime was investigated by General Meade, and it was shown conclusively by whom the murder was committed.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 109.

ASPER, Joel F., born in Adams County, Pennsylvania, 20 April, 1822; died in Chillicothe, Mo., 1 October, 1872. He was admitted to the bar in 1844, elected a justice of the peace in 1846, and prosecuting attorney of the county in 1847. In 1849 he edited the “Western Reserve Chronicle,” and in 1850 became editor of the “Chardon Democrat.” In 1861 he raised a company and was commissioned a captain. He was wounded in the battle of Winchester, and, after being promoted lieutenant- colonel in 1862, was mustered out in 1863 on account of wounds. In 1864 he moved to Missouri and founded the Chillicothe “Spectator.” He was elected to Congress in 1868, and served on the committee on military affairs.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 111.

ASPINWALL, Lloyd, born in New York city in 1830, died in Bristol, R.I, 4 September, 1880, commanded the 22d New York Militia in its three months' service before Gettysburg, had charge of the purchase of vessels for the Newbern Expedition, was president of a board to revise army regulations, was General Burnside's aide at Fredericksburg, and after the war was a brigadier-general in the national guard.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 112.

AUDENRIED, Joseph Crain, soldier, born in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 6 November, 1839; died in Washington, 3 June, 1880. He was graduated at West Point in 1861, was brevetted second lieutenant, 4th U.S. Cavalry, and assisted in organizing and drilling the troops then assembled in Washington. He took part in the first campaign as aide-de-camp to General Tyler, and served with the 2d Artillery till March, 1862. During the Peninsular Campaign he was acting assistant adjutant-general to General Emory's cavalry command. In July, 1862, he became aide-de-camp to General Sumner, commanding the 2d Army Corps, and acted in this capacity until the death of General Sumner in March, 1863. He was wounded at Antietam, and brevetted captain. He reported as aide-de-camp to General Grant in June, 1863, and witnessed the surrender of Vicksburg. He joined the staff of General Sherman at Memphis on 1 October, 1863, and shared in the Chattanooga and Knoxville Campaign, that to Meridian, the Atlanta Campaign, the march to the sea, and that through the Carolinas. He accompanied General Sherman during his several tours through the great west, among the Indians, and through Europe, and continued to discharge the duties of aide-de-camp to the general of the army until his death. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I,  p.117.

AUGUR, Christopher Colon, soldier, born in New York in 1821. He was graduated at West Point in 1843, having been appointed to the academy from Michigan. During the Mexican War he served as aide-de-camp to General Hopping and, after his death, He was promoted captain 1 August, 1852, and served with distinction in a campaign against the Indians in Oregon in 1856. On 14 May, 1861, he was appointed major in the 13th Infantry, and was for a time Commandant of Cadets at West Point. In November of that year he was commissioned a brigadier-general of volunteers, and joined McDowell's corps. In July, 1862, he was assigned to a division under General Banks, and in the battle of Cedar Mountain, 9 August, was severely wounded. He sat on the military court that investigated the surrender of Harper's Ferry. He was promoted major- general 9 August, 1862, and in November joined his corps and took part in the Louisiana Campaign. At the siege of Port Hudson he commanded the left wing of the army, and for meritorious services on that occasion he was brevetted brigadier-general in the U.S. army, 13 March, 1865, receiving on the same date the brevet of major-general for services in the field during the rebellion. From 13 October, 1863, to 13 August, 1866, he was commandant of the Department of Washington; from 15 January, 1867, to 13 November, 1871, of the Department of the Platte; then of the Department of Texas until March, 1875; of the Department of the Gulf until 1 July, 1878, and to General Caleb Cushing. subsequently of the Department of the South and the Department of the Missouri, and in 1885 was retired. On 15 August, 1886, he was shot and dangerously wounded by a Negro whom he attempted to chastise for using coarse language in front of his house in Washington.—His son, Jacob Arnold, is a captain in the 5th U.S. cavalry.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 119.

AULICK, John H., naval officer, born in Winchester, Virginia, in 1789; died at Washington, D.C., 27 April, 1873. He entered the U. S. Navy  as midshipman in 1809, and in 1812 served on the “Enterprise” in all the engagements of that vessel, carrying into port the British ship. “Boxer” and the privateers “Fly” and “Mars,” which the “Enterprise.” captured. He afterward served on the “Saranac,” “Ontario,” “Constitution,” and “Brandywine,” and was in command of the Washington U. S. Navy -yard from 1843 to 1846. He commanded the “Vincennes” in 1847, and the East India Squadron, making his last cruise in 1853. In 1861 he retired with the rank of captain, and in July, 1862, was made a commodore on the retired list.
Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 119.

AVERELL, William Woods, soldier, born in Cameron, Steuben County, New York, 5 November, 1832. His grandfather, Ebenezer Averell, was a captain in the U.S. army under Sullivan. Young Averell was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy in June, 1855, and assigned to the mounted riflemen. He served in garrison and at the school for practice at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, until 1857, when he was ordered to frontier duty, and saw a great deal of Indian fighting, mainly against the Kiowas and Navajos. He was severely wounded in a night attack by the Navajos in 1859, and was on sick-leave until the outbreak of the civil War in 1861. He was promoted to be first lieutenant of the mounted riflemen 14 May, 1861, and was on staff duty in the neighborhood of Washington, participating in the battle of Bull Run and other engagements until 23 August, 1861, when he was appointed colonel of the 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry, and commanded the cavalry defences in front of Washington. He was engaged with the army of the Potomac in its most important campaigns. In March, 1863, he began the series of cavalry raids in western Virginia that made his name famous. The first notable one was on the 16th, 17th, and 18th of March, and included the battle of Kelly's Ford, on the upper Rappahannock. In August he drove a Confederate force over the Warm Spring mountains, passed through several southern counties, and near White Sulphur Springs attacked a force posted in Rocky Gap, for the possession of which a fight ensued, lasting two days (26 and 27 August). Averell was repulsed with heavy loss, but made his way back to the union lines with 150 prisoners. n 5 November he started with a force of 5,000 men and drove the Confederates out of Greenbrier County, capturing three guns and about 100 prisoners. In December he was again in motion, advancing with a strong force into southwestern Virginia. On 16 December he struck the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad at Salem, General Longstreet's base of supplies. He destroyed the railroad, severing an important line of communication between the Confederate generals Lee and Bragg, and burned a large quantity of provisions, clothing, and military equipments. When he began his retreat the alarm had been given, and all the mountain passes were held by the Confederates. He captured a bearer of despatches, learned the enemy's plans, and forced the position defended by General W, S. Jackson (" Mudwall," as he was called, to distinguish him from his more famous name-sake). A second line concentrated to cut off his retreat, but he led his command over a road supposed to be impassable, and reached the federal lines with 200 prisoners and 150 horses, having lost 11 men killed or drowned and 90 missing. "My command," he said in his report (21 Dec, 1863), "has marched, climbed, slid, and swum three hundred and forty miles since the 8th inst," After the exposure and hardships of this raid he was obliged to ask for sick-leave, extending to February. On his return to duty he was placed in command of the 2d Cavalry Division, and from that time until September, 1864, the fighting was almost continuous. He was wounded in a skirmish near Wytheville, but was in the saddle and under tire again two days afterward, destroying a section of the Tennessee Railroad. In June he crossed the Alleghany Mountains, in July he was fighting in the Shenandoah Valley and at Winchester. In August he was in fights at Moorfield, Bunker Hill, Martinsburg, and elsewhere, and ended the campaign with the battles of Opequan (19 September), Fisher's Hill (22 September), and Mount Jackson (23 Sept). In the meantime he had been brevetted through the different grades of his regular army rank until he was brevet major-general. On 18 May, 1865, he resigned. He was consul-general of the United States in the British provinces of North America from 1866 till 1869, when he became president of a large manufacturing company. He discovered a process for the manufacture of cast-steel directly from the ore in one operation (1869-'70), invented the American asphalt pavement (January, 1879), and the Averell insulating conduits for wires and conductors (1884-'5), and also a machine for laying electric conductors underground (1885). Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p. 121-123.

AVERILL, John T., soldier, born in Alna, Maine, 1 March, 1825. He was educated at Maine Wesleyan University, settled in St. Paul, Minnesota, and engaged in manufacturing, but laid aside his business in August, 1862, and entered the army as lieutenant-colonel of the 6th Minnesota Infantry. The brevet of brigadier-general was conferred on him when he was mustered out of service. He was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1871, by a close vote, and reelected by a large majority. Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, 1887, Vol. I, p.122.